Fact Sheet: Implementation of Final Agreements
Once a comprehensive land claim or self-government agreement is signed and ratified, the parties move to the implementation of the agreement and the associated implementation plan that was negotiated in conjunction with the agreement. The implementation plan is a roadmap for the signatories to the agreement, laying out specific activities, resources and timeframes required to fulfill agreement provisions and delegating responsibility for these decisions.
In addition to building strong partnerships between Aboriginal people and governments, successful implementation of final agreements creates a positive and stable climate for investment and economic growth on Aboriginal lands and in surrounding communities. That is why Canada is committed to improving the implementation of these agreements via its Whole-of-Government Approach.
Since 1973, 24 comprehensive land claims agreements covering over 40 percent of Canada's land mass have been ratified and brought into effect, 18 of which include self-government provisions. An additional three stand-alone self-government agreements are also in effect. Canada recently signed agreements with Deline, Yale First Nation and Tla'amin Nation which have been ratified and will be brought into effect in the near future. For more information, consult the Aboriginal and Treaty Rights Information System.
Comprehensive land claim and self-government agreements that have been concluded are:
- James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (1975)
- Northeastern Quebec Agreement (1978)
- Inuvialuit Final Agreement (1984)
- Sechelt Indian Band Self-Government Agreement (1986)
- Gwich'in Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement (1992)
- Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (1993)
- Champagne and Aishihik First Nation Final Agreements (1995)
- First Nation of Nacho Nyak Dun Final Agreements (1995)
- Teslin Tlingit Council Final Agreements (1995)
- Vuntut Gwitchin First Nation Final Agreements (1995)
- Sahtu Dene and Metis Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement (1994)
- Selkirk First Nation Final Agreements (1997)
- Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation Final Agreements (1997)
- Tr'ondëk Hwëch'in Final Agreements (1998)
- Nisga'a Final Agreement (2000)
- Ta'an Kwach'an First Nation Final Agreements (2002)
- Kluane First Nation Final Agreements (2004)
- Kwanlin Dun First Nation Final Agreements (2005)
- Labrador Inuit Land Claim Agreement (2005)
- Westbank First Nation Self-Government Agreement (2005)
- Tlicho Agreement (2005)
- Carcross/Tagish First Nation Final Agreements (2006)
- Nunavik Inuit Land Claims Agreement (2008)
- Tsawwassen First Nation Final Agreement (2009)
- Maa-nulth First Nations Final Agreement (2011)
- Eeyou Marine Region Land Claims Agreement (2012)
- Sioux Valley Dakota Nation Self-Government Agreement (2014)
- Yale First Nation Final Agreement (2013)
- Tla'amin Final Agreement (2014)
- Déline Final Self-Government Agreement (2015)
There is also a sectoral self-government agreement on education jurisdiction in Nova Scotia. Learn more about this agreement and tripartite education agreements signed in other provinces to improve education outcomes for First Nation students.
Fulfilling Canada's responsibilities under modern treaties and self-government agreements requires the sustained commitment of the federal government as a whole. Over 30 departments and agencies have responsibility for fulfilling Crown's obligations under the agreements, and the entire federal system needs to be aware of the broader implications of the agreements on their day-to-day business lines.
As announced on July 13, 2015, a Whole-of-Government Approach to the implementation of modern treaties and self-government agreements is being put in place to improve departments' and agencies' awareness of and accountability for their responsibilities under these important agreements. It is also to establish ongoing oversight for the full scope of Canada's responsibilities.
Initiatives under the Whole-of-Government Approach include:
- Release of the Statement of Principles on the Federal Approach to Modern Treaty Implementation to provide policy guidance to federal departments and agencies on the implementation of modern treaties and self-government agreements;
- Release of the Cabinet Directive on the Federal Approach to Modern Treaty Implementation to define the roles and responsibilities of federal departments, and to require departments to assess program, policy, regulatory and legislative proposals to ensure that the treaties are respected.
- Establishment of a Deputy Ministers' Oversight Committee to provide ongoing, executive level oversight of Canada's modern treaty obligations.
- Creation of a Modern Treaty Implementation Office within AANDC to strengthen coordination and oversight across the federal system.
- The development of new tools, training and guidance for federal officials to better equip them to fulfill their responsibilities under the agreements.