Final Agreements and Related Implementation Matters

These pages contain information about Final Agreements relating to Comprehensive Land Claims and Self-Government.

Framework Agreement
At this first stage of negotiation, the groups involved agree on issues to be discussed, how they will be discussed, and on deadlines for reaching an Agreement-in-Principle.

The Agreement-in-Principle (AIP) is the second stage in the negotiation process. This is the stage during which the parties negotiate the issues set out in the Framework Agreement. Reaching an Agreement-in-Principle, commonly called an AIP, often takes longer than any other stage in the negotiation process as parties address and attempt to resolve the broad range of subject matters set out in the Framework Agreement. The AIP generally contains all of the major elements of the Final Agreement. The AIP is not legally enforceable.

Final Agreement
A Final Agreement is the outcome of successful negotiations. It details agreements reached between the Aboriginal group, the province or territory, and Canada on all issues at hand, including resources, financial benefits, self-government, and land ownership. The Final Agreement must be ratified by the parties, and signed by the principals. Canada then passes settlement legislation that gives effect to the Final Agreement and renders it valid. The Final Agreement is based on the AIP. It must be ratified and signed by all parties, before being made effective through federal, and in some cases, provincial legislation. It is accompanied by an implementation plan.

Final Agreement Implementation Plan
An implementation plan is a document that is negotiated and re-negotiated by the parties to a land claims and/or self-government agreement during the negotiations of a Final Agreement. It is an integral appendix to a Final Agreement because it identifies what must be done to put the agreement into effect, who will be responsible for which implementation activity, as well as when and how these activities will be undertaken.

Annual Report / Reviews
Annual reports summarize the activities of the past year for all parties involved in the implementation process.

 Five Year Review
Five year reviews include a detailed analysis of obligations, an assessment of the impact of the Land Claims Agreement, an examination of implementation issues, and recommendations on how to improve the implementation process in the future.

Memorandum of Understanding
A Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) is a formal document that affirms the commitment of the parties to an undertaking. While an MOU sets out the general principles of the undertaking, it is not a detailed agreement.

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