Treaty 11 Centenary
Summer 2021 marks the 100th anniversary of the signing of Treaty 11 by the Crown and representatives of the Dehcho, Tłı̨chǫ, Sahtu and Gwich'in peoples, and covers 950,000 km2 of present-day Yukon, Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
About Treaty 11
Treaty 11 was signed in 1921 and 1922, and is the last of the numbered treaties signed between the Canadian government and First Nations.
Treaty 11 provided the government with land for development and in exchange promised signatory First Nations:
- reserve lands
- the continued right to hunt and fish on unoccupied Crown lands
The numbered treaties were negotiated between 1871 and 1921. The numbered treaties were largely based on the model of the 1850 Robinson Treaties. A total of 11 numbered treaties were negotiated during this period, culminating with Treaty 11 in 1921.
Though the general form and scope of the numbered treaties are similar, each agreement has unique clauses. At their core the treaties were large scale land surrenders, and from the federal government's perspective at the time brought Indigenous people under the jurisdiction of the Dominion of Canada and its laws.
There are a variety of perspectives about the legacy of treaties, including Treaty 11. Canada recognizes the centenary of Treaty 11's signing as an opportunity to reflect upon and acknowledge the impacts of the treaty. It is an opportunity to apply the lessons learned from these impacts in the signatory peoples' present and future as we progress with modern treaties. In addition, Canada continues to fulfill commitments made under the numbered treaties, which are symbolic of the special relationship between First Nations and the Crown.
For information on the different financial and compensation obligations treaties may include, please visit Treaty annuity payments.
Representatives of the Treaty 11 signatories have worked with their governments and communities to plan events to commemorate this milestone. They have organized various events and activities in recognition of the centennial.
For more information on these First Nations-led activities, please visit:
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