Glossary of Mining Terminology

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Indian and Northern Affairs Canada has a broad mandate in Nunavut. This includes resource management on Crown land, economic development and obligations under the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement.

Resource development is an emerging industry in Nunavut and improving communications between government, the mining industry and the residents of Nunavut is paramount. Not only is it important for the mining industry to communicate with government, but there also needs to be clear communication with communities.

The majority of Nunavummiut are Inuit, and Inuktitut is the primary language in the territory. Although some Inuktitut terms are available, there is a general understanding that Inuktitut terminology pertaining to resource development is limited. Improving and developing terms in Inuktitut will go a long way to strengthening communication between Inuktitut speakers, governments and the resource development industry.

The Glossary of Mining Terminology is a first attempt to improve Inuktitut terminology in the resource development field. In March 2005, Inuit elders from across Nunavut, Inuktitut language specialists and a subject specialist gathered for a three-day workshop to develop the terms in this glossary. The workshop was funded by Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.

The aim of the glossary is to clarify some technical words associated with resource development using everyday language. The Glossary of Mining Terminology is a living document that will continue to be improved as the industry develops and Inuktitut speakers become more accustomed to the language used by the industry.

For more information, contact:

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
Box 2200
Iqaluit, Nunavut X0A 0H0
tel: (867) 975-4500
fax: (867) 975-4560

a measure of land, 43,556 square feet, or 0.405 hectares

a horizontal opening to an underground mine from the surface
(ᑐᑭᒧᑦ ᐅᔭᕋᖕᓂᐊᕐᕕᓕᐊᕆᐊᖅ)

Advanced Exploration
excavating an exploration shaft, adit or decline; construction of an all-weather access road to the site; diversion, alteration or damming of a natural watercourse for purposes of bulk sampling,  mine development or mining; or other similar activities that may be associated with an advanced exploration project. This type of work is usually done once significant mineralization is discovered

a tool resembling a large corkscrew, for boring holes in wood, the ground, ice, etc.

Base Metal
a general term applied to relatively inexpensive metals, such as copper, zinc, lead
(ᐊᑭᑭᑦᑐᒃᓴᔭᒃ ᓴᕕᕋᔭᒃᓴᖅ)

solid rock underlying soil, gravel or loose boulders

a large stone, especially one worn smooth by erosion

a unit of weight for precious stones, equivalent to 200 mg

a naturally occurring non-metallic element forming diamond or graphite

a chemically precipitated mineral material occurring in spaces between individual grains of a consolidated sedimentary rock binding the material

precipitation or growth of a binding material around grains or fragments of rocks

a metric unit of length, equal to one-hundredth of a metre

a mining right that grants a holder the exclusive right to search and develop any mineral substance within a given area

the splitting of rocks, crystals, etc., that results in a smooth, even surface

chop or break apart, split, especially along the grain or the line of cleavage

1. a close group or bunch of similar things growing together; 2. a close arrangement or group of people, animals, faint stars, gems, etc.
(1. ᑲᑎᓯᒪᔪᑦ; 2. ᖃᑎᖅᓱᖅᓯᒪᔪᑦ)

a standard term applied to rocks composed of large grains with an average size greater than 5 mm in diameter
(ᐊᖏᔫᑕᐅᓂᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᑕᑯᒃᓴᐅᓂᓕᒃ)

a product containing a valuable mineral or metal and from which most of the waste material has been removed

the process of separating a mineral from valueless host rock in preparation for further processing

the degree of solidity or liquidity of a material
(ᑭᓂᕐᓂᖓ; ᐃᒥᕐᐸᓚᓂᐊ)

introduced species, substance or material which was either not previously present or was present in a lesser amount, and that may have a harmful effect on air, water or soil

Continental Crust
the two-layered, hard portion of the Earth's surface which underlies and forms the continents and continental shelves

a malleable red-brown metallic element used as an electrical conductor and in alloys

Core Sample
cylindrical sample of rock taken from the ground by diamond drilling for research and exploration purposes
(ᐅᓚᒥᖅᑐᖅ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᒐᒃᓴᖅ)

deterioration in metals when exposed to oxygen or chemical action

an extremely hard crystal used especially as an abrasive; rubies and sapphires are a form of corundum

a passageway that extends between horizontal workings within an underground mine

the upper portion or the top of a diamond
(ᑕᐃᒪᓐ ᓂᐊᖂᑖ)

Crown Land
one of the four types of land ownership in Nunavut. Crown land refers to land owned by the Government of Canada. Inuit owned lands are lands owned by Inuit under the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement. Commissioner's land is land owned by the territorial government. Municipal land is land owned, leased or otherwise held by the city or hamlet
(ᒐᕙᒪᑐᖃᒃᑯᑦ ᓄᓇᖓ)

a machine for crushing rock or other materials

the outer portion of the Earth

the form a mineral takes in nature, for example a rock crystal
(ᐊᓕᒍᖅ; ᐃᕐᕆᖕᓇᖅᑐᖅ ᐊᓕᒍᖅ)

to form crystals

1. cube-shaped; 2. of three dimensions, length, width, height; 3. involving the cube of a number; 4. having three equal axes at right angles
(1. ᐃᔾᔪᑦᑑᙵᖅ; 2. ᑐᑭᒧᑦ, ᓴᓂᒧᑦ ᐊᒻᒧᓪᓗ; 3. ᐱᖓᓱᐃᓕᖓᔪᖅ; 4. ᐃᔾᔪᑦᑑᙵᖅᑎᑐᑦ ᑕᐅᑦᑐᓕᒃ)

highly poisonous substance used in the extraction of gold and silver
(ᓴᓗᒻᒪᖅᓴᐅᑦ ᐊᑦᑕᕐᓇᖅᑐᖅ)

a general term for the process of folding, faulting, shearing, compression, or extension of the rocks as a result of various Earth forces

1. reduce in numbers or quantity; 2. empty out; exhaust
(1. ᓄᖑᑉᐸᓪᓕᐊᔪᖅ; 2. ᓄᖑᑦᑐᖅ)

a natural layer or accumulation of sand, rock, minerals, etc.

1. an activity ranging from confirmation of a mineral deposit to the decision to build a mine; 2. all geological, engineering and economic work necessary to ensure profitable mining and compliance with applicable laws
(1. ᐸᕐᓇᒃᑕᐅᔪᖅ; 2. ᐱᕙᒌᔭᐃᓂᖅ)

a natural forming crystal of pure carbon

Diamond Bit
a rotary drilling bit that uses diamonds as the cutting edge
(ᑕᐃᒪᓐᓕᒃ ᐳᑦᑐᑎ)

Diamond Cleavage
the plane along which a diamond crystal splits easily
(ᑕᐃᒪᓐ ᓄᑦᑕᖓ)

Diamond Cutter
1. an individual skilled in the art of shaping diamonds as gems; 2. a tool in which a single diamond, shaped as a cutting point, is inset
(1. ᑕᐃᒪᓐᓂᒃ ᐃᓗᑦᑎᔨ; 2. ᑕᐃᒪᓐᓕᕆᔾᔪᑦ)

Diamond Drill
a drill used to collect core samples from rock
(ᑕᐃᒪᓐᓕᒃ ᐃᑰᑕᖅ)

yielding diamonds

1. break up and remove soil, ground, etc., with a tool; 2. break up the soil of (a piece of land); 3. make a hole or a tunnel by digging; 4. obtain or remove by digging; find or discover after searching
(1. ᖃᓗᕋᕐᓂᖅ; 2. ᐳᐊᕐᕆᔭᕐᓂᖅ; 3. ᓴᒡᒐᖕᓂᖅ; 4. ᐊᒡᒐᖕᓂᖅ)

an intrusion of igneous rock across other rocks

1. reduce the strength of (a fluid) by adding water or another solvent; 2. weaken or reduce the strength or forcefulness of, especially by adding something
(1. ᐃᒥᖓᓕᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᖅ; 2. ᓴᙲᒡᓕᑎᑦᑎᓂᖅ)

the knowledge of the presence of valuable minerals within or close enough to a location to justify a reasonable belief in their existence

ore deposits consisting of fine grains of ore mineral dispersed through the host rock

1. a tool or machine with a detachable end that is pointed and revolves rapidly; 2. to make a hole with a drill
(1. ᐃᑰᑕᖅ; ᐃᑰᑕᐅᑦ; ᑲᐃᕘᑦ; 2. ᐃᑰᑕᖅᑐᖅ; ᑲᐃᕗᖅᑐᖅ)

Drill Bit
one of a number of different types of detachable cutting tools used to cut circular holes; the cutting end of a drill

Drill Core
a solid, cylindrical sample of rock extracted from beneath the Earth's surface by drilling
(ᖃᐅᔨᓴᒐᒃᓴᖅ ᐅᓚᒥᖅᑐᖅ)

Drill Hole
a hole in rock made with an auger or a drill; a circular hole drilled in any manner
(1. ᐃᑰᑦᑕᑯ; 2. ᑲᐃᕗᕐᓂᑯ)

the act or process of making a circular hole with a drill; the operation of making deep holes with a drill for prospecting, exploration, or valuation
(ᐃᑰᑕᕐᓂᖅ; ᑲᐃᕗᕐᓂᖅ)

Drill Rig
a drill machine complete with all tools and accessory equipment needed to drill boreholes or drill holes
(ᐃᑰᑕᐅᑦ; ᑲᐃᕘᑦ)

1. the planet on which we live; 2. dry land; the ground; the material that makes up the Earth's surface; dirt, soil, etc.
(1. ᓄᓇᕐᔪᐊᖅ; 2. ᓄᓇ)

an abrasive used for polishing metal or other hard materials; sandpaper

1. the physical surroundings, conditions, circumstances, etc., in which a person lives, works, etc.; 2. the area surrounding a place; 3. external conditions as affecting plant and animal life; the physical conditions on the Earth or part of it, especially as affected by human activity
(1. ᓇᔪᖅᑕᐅᔪᖅ; 2. ᐊᕙᑎᒋᔭᐅᔪᖅ; 3. ᓯᓚᑎᕗᑦ)

Environmental Assessment
an assessment of the impacts caused by a development activity such as mining
(ᐊᕙᑎᒥᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᖅ)

Environmental Impact Statement
a document outlining the environmental effects of the project on the environment, prepared by the proponent of a project and presented to decision makers and the public
(ᐊᕙᑎᒥᒃ ᐊᒃᑐᐃᓂᐊᕐᓂᕐᒥᒃ ᐅᓂᒃᑳᖅ)

the wearing away of the Earth's surface by wind, water, or glacial action

fixing the value, worth or impact of something

the whole range of activity from searching for and developing mineral deposits
(ᓄᓇᒥᙶᖅᑐᓂᒃ ᕿᓂᕐᓂᖅ)

Exploration Cost
an expense incurred for the purpose of determining the existence, location, extent, quality or economic potential of a mineral deposit but does not include an expense incurred for the purpose of bringing a mine into production
(ᕿᓂᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᐊᑮᑦ)

Exploratory Drilling
the drilling of boreholes from the surface or from underground workings to seek and locate mineral deposits, oil and gas reserves and to establish geological structure
(ᕿᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᓂᖅ ᐃᑰᑕᕐᒧᑦ; ᕿᓂᒃᑲᓐᓂᕐᓂᖅ ᑲᐃᕘᒻᒧᑦ)

Exploratory Work
any work done for the purpose of determining the economic potential of a permitted area
(ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᖅ ᖃᓄᖅ ᑮᓇᐅᔭᓕᐅᕐᓇᖅᑎᒋᖕᒪᖔᑦ)

Fee Simple
private ownership of land in which the owner has the right to control, use, and transfer the land at will
(ᓄᓇᖁᑎᒥᓂᒃ ᐃᓱᒪᖅᓲᑎᖃᕈᓐᓇᕐᓂᖅ)

1. somewhere where work is done or data is collected; 2. an area where something is located
(1. ᕿᓂᕐᕕᒃ; 2. ᓄᓇ ᑭᓱᒃᓴᓕᒃ)

consisting of very small particles each with an average size smaller than 1 mm in diameter
(ᑖᓂᑭᑦᑐᓂᒃ ᑕᑯᒃᓴᐅᓂᓕᒃ)

Fine-grained Rocks
rocks in which the crystals are fine-grained; the whole or part of the rock may be very fine-grained or glass
(ᐅᔭᖅᑲᑦ ᑖᓂᑭᒃᑐᓂᒃ ᑕᑯᒃᓴᐅᓂᓖᑦ)

First Class Ore
an ore of sufficiently high grade to be acceptable for shipment to market without preliminary treatment

the highest clarity grade for a diamond or gemstone

the remains or impression of a prehistoric plant or animal embedded in rock, amber, etc.

preserved by burial in rock or earthy deposits; turned into a fossil

Frost Action
the mechanical weathering process caused by repeated cycles of freezing and thawing of water in pores, cracks, and other openings, usually at the surface

material burned or used as a source of heat or power such as oil, gas, wood, coal, etc.
(ᐅᖅᑰᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᖅ; ᐊᐅᓚᔾᔪᑎᒃᓴᖅ)

a rock crystal that can be cut and polished for jewellery

a mineral, rock or petrified material that when cut or faceted and polished is collectible or can be used in jewellery
(ᐅᔭᕋᑦᑎᐊᕙᒃ ᑕᑯᒥᓴᐅᑎ; ᐊᓕᒍᑦᑎᐊᕙᒃ ᑕᑯᒥᓴᐅᑎ)

alterations in the Earth's crust as a result of chemical changes
(ᓄᓇᐅᑉ ᐃᓚᐅᕈᑎᒃᓴᖃᕐᓂᖓ)

Geochemical Exploration
the search for economic mineral deposits or petroleum by searching for abnormal concentrations of chemicals in the Earth's surface
(ᓄᓇᐅᑉ ᐃᓚᐅᕈᑎᒃᓴᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᕿᓂᕐᓂᖅ)

Geochemical Survey
analyzing the chemical composition of samples of rock, soil, stream sediments, plants, or water
(ᓄᓇᐅᑉ ᐃᓚᐅᕈᑎᒃᓴᖏᓐᓂᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᖅ)

the chemical properties of the Earth, its rocks, minerals, etc.
(ᓄᓇᐅᑉ ᐃᓚᐅᕈᑎᒃᓴᖃᕐᓂᖓ)

Geographic Information System (GIS)
a computer map linked to different types of information
(ᖃᕋᓴᐅᔭᖅ ᓄᓇᓕᕆᓂᕐᒨᖓᔪᓂᒃ ᐃᓗᓕᓕᒃ)

of, pertaining to, or derived from geology

Geological Survey
1. a detailed investigation of the geological features and resources of a region; 2. an official body responsible for such surveys
(1. ᓄᓇ ᑭᓱᖃᕐᒪᖔᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᕐᓂᖅ; 2. ᓄᓇ ᑭᓱᖃᕐᒪᖔᑦ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖅᑏᑦ)

one who is trained in and works in any of the geological sciences

1. the science of the Earth, including the composition, structure, and origin of its rocks; 2. the geological features of a district or area
(1. ᓄᓇᓕᕆᓂᖅ; 2. ᓄᓇᐅᑉ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᓂᖓ)

Geophysical Exploration
exploring for minerals or mineral fuels, or determining the nature of earth materials, by measuring a physical property of the rocks and interpreting the results in terms of geologic features or the economic deposits sought
(ᓄᓇᐅᑉ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᓂᐊ ᒪᓕᒃᖢᒍ ᑭᓱᒃᓴᖅᓯᐅᕐᓂᖅ)

Geophysical Prospecting
mapping rock structures by measuring magnetic fields, force of gravity, electrical properties, seismicwave paths and velocities, radioactivity, and heat flow
(ᓄᓇᐅᑉ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᓂᐊᓂᒃ ᐆᒃᑐᕋᕐᓂᖅ)

study of the various physical properties of the Earth and the composition and movement of its component layers of rock, applied to mining exploration to detect zones characterized by their physical properties such as magnetism, gravity or conductivity
(ᓄᓇᐅᑉ ᐋᖅᑭᒃᓯᒪᓂᖓᓂᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖅ)

earth sciences, e.g., geology, geophysics, geochemistry
(ᓄᓇᒥᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᖃᑦᑕᕐᓂᖅ)

1. marked or polished by the action of ice; 2. covered or having been covered by glaciers or ice sheets
(1. ᓯᕐᒥᕐᒨᖅᑕᐅᓂᑯ; 2. ᓯᕐᒥᓕᒃ; ᓯᕐᒥᖃᕐᓂᑯ)

Global Positioning System (GPS)
a portable receiver able to pinpoint the receiver's location anywhere on the Earth's surface utilizing a system of satellites to navigate and for surveying
(ᖃᖓᑦᑕᖅᑎᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᑎᒍᑦ ᑕᒻᒪᕇᒃᑯᑦ)

a yellow malleable ductile high density metallic element resistant to chemical reaction, occurring naturally in quartz veins and gravel

Gold Mine
a mine containing or yielding gold

Grab Sample
a sample taken at random generally containing a mineral of interest; it is assayed to determine if valuable elements are contained in the rock

Grab Sampling
a collection of specimens of ore taken more or less at random to examine the mineral quality but not the monetary value of the ore

a hard igneous rock comprised mainly of quartz and feldspar used in building construction, as steps, kitchen countertops, etc.

Gravel Pit
a pit from which gravel is obtained

a material's (rock or mineral) capacity to scratch another or be itself scratched

Hardness Scale
the scale by which the hardness of a mineral is determined as compared with a standard
(ᑎᓯᓂᖓᓂᒃ ᖃᐅᔨᓴᐅᑦ)

Hazardous Waste
material that, given its quantity, concentration and composition or its corrosive, inflammable, reactive, toxic, infectious or radioactive characteristics, presents a real or potential danger to human health, safety and public well-being or poses a danger to the environment if it is not stored, treated, transported, eliminated, used or otherwise managed
(ᓴᓃᑦ ᐅᓗᕆᐊᓇᖅᑐᑦ)

a metric unit of land measure, equal to 2.471 acres or 10,000 square metres

1. frozen water; 2. a sheet of ice on the surface of water
(1. ᓂᓚᒃ; 2. ᓯᑯ)

a mineral deposit in which the minerals fill the pores of the host rock

a geologic or other feature that suggests the presence of a mineral deposit

physical improvements to support mining, such as buildings, gas pipes, water lines, sewage and water systems, telephone cables and reservoirs. It may also include roads, railways, airports, bridges and electrical cables

a bar of cast metal, especially of gold, silver or steel

a heavy ductile magnetic metallic mineral that is silver-white in pure form but rusts easily

a measurement of weight equal to 2.2 pounds

a metric unit of measuring distance equal to 1,000 metres (approx. 0.62 miles)

the type of igneous rock that sometimes contains diamonds
(ᑕᐃᒪᓐ ᐃᓂᒋᒐᔪᒃᑖ)

Lapis Lazuli
a blue mineral sometimes used as a gemstone or carving stone found near Kimmirut
(ᓛᐱᔅ ᓚᓲᓕ)

imaginary lines that cross the surface of the Earth parallel to the equator used to determine location with longitude
(ᓄᓇᙳᐊᕐᒥ ᓴᓂᒧᐊᖓᓂᖓ)

a soft heavy toxic malleable metallic element; bluish white when freshly cut but tarnishes readily to dull grey

the act of securing or obtaining authority to conduct an activity
(ᐱᔪᓐᓇᐅᑎᑖᕐᓂᖅ; ᐱᔪᓐᓇᐅᑎᑖᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᖅ)

having a specified or appropriate license

the holder of a license

Life of Mine
the length of time a mine is or could be in production
(ᐅᔭᕋᖕᓂᐊᕐᕕᐅᑉ ᐊᑯᓂᐅᓂᖓ)

a piece of land in which the boundary has been established and identified by having a notice of location posted upon the land, and further proclaimed to the public by having such notice of location recorded under the rules for recording mining claims

the physical area where an activity is conducted
(ᐃᓂᒋᔭᐅᔪᖅ; ᖃᓄᐃᓕᐅᕐᕕᐅᔪᖅ)

a licensee who locates a claim or for whom a claim is located

imaginary lines that cross the surface of the Earth, running from north to south, used to determine location together with latitude
(ᓄᓇᙳᐊᕐᒥ ᑐᑭᒧᐊᖓᓂᖓ)

a flat representation of the Earth's surface, or part of it, showing physical features

a solid mineral element that is able to conduct heat and electricity and is pliable under heat or pressure. Common metals include bronze, copper and iron

a unit of length equal to 39.4 inches, 100 centimetres

Metric System
the decimal measuring system with the metre, litre, and gram (or kilogram) as units of length, volume and mass

the colorless to jet black mineral having flat, thin scales or sheets, found in some granites

excavation in the earth from which ores and minerals are extracted

Mine Development
the operations involved in preparing a mine for ore extraction
(ᐅᔭᕋᖕᓂᐊᕐᕕᖕᒥ ᐊᑐᐃᓐᓇᕈᖅᓱᐃᓂᖅ)

a person who works in a mine

a substance that occurs naturally in the Earth and is not formed from animal or vegetable matter; a substance obtained by mining

Mineral Assessment
estimating the number of deposits or the tonnage of metal within some specified region

Mineral Claim
a mining right that grants a holder the exclusive right to search and develop any mineral substance within a given area

Mineral Deposit
mineralized mass that may be economically valuable, but whose characteristics require more detailed information
(ᐅᔭᕋᖕᓂᐊᒐᒃᓴᒥᒃ ᓇᓂᓯᕝᕕᐅᓯᒪᔪᖅ)

the process by which a mineral is introduced into a rock, resulting in a valuable or potentially valuable deposit

Mineral Rights
ownership rights to the minerals located on or below a property
(ᐅᔭᕋᖕᓂᐊᒐᒃᓴᓂᒃ ᓇᖕᒥᓂᖃᕐᓂᖅ)

the extraction and concentration of minerals of economic value from a mineral deposit

Mining Property
a claim or lease within the boundaries of which a mine or part of a mine is situated
(ᐅᔭᕋᖕᓂᐊᕐᕕᐅᑉ ᓄᓇᖁᑎᖓ)

Mining Recorder
a government official in charge of a governmental registry office for the public registration of mining claims/interests and of leases and security interests therein
(ᐅᔭᕋᒃᓯᐅᕐᓂᕐᒧᑦ ᑎᑎᕋᖅᑎ)

1. any of various thick, viscous, usually inflammable liquids insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents, obtained from animal, plant or mineral sources 2. petroleum; 3. a petroleum derivative, such as a machine oil or lubricant; 4. a substance with an oily consistency
(1. ᐅᖅᓱᖅ; 2. ᐅᖅᓱᐊᓗᒃᓴᖅ; 3. ᐃᓚᒃᓴᐅᑦ; 4. ᑭᓂᖅᑐᖅ)

Open Pit Mine
a mine working or excavation open to the surface
(ᖄᖓᓂ ᐅᔭᕋᖕᓂᐊᕐᕕᒃ)

Open Pit Mining
a method of extracting rock or minerals from the earth by their removal from an open pit
(ᖄᖓᓂ ᐅᔭᕋᖕᓂᐊᕐᓂᖅ)

an exposure of rock or mineral deposit that can be seen on surface, that is, not covered by soil or water

a permanently frozen layer of soil or subsoil, or even bedrock
(ᓄᓇᐅᑉ ᖁᐊᖑᓂᖓ)

a document issued by a regulator authorizing an activity on or use of a specific site

Permitting Process
a process in which an applicant requests and acquires a permit from a regulatory agency

a deposit of sand or gravel that contains particles of gold, gemstones, or other heavy minerals of value
(ᐃᒪᕐᒧᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑕᐅᓂᑯ)

Placer Gold
gold that is obtainable by washing the sand, gravel, etc., in which it is found
(ᐃᒪᕐᒧᑦ ᓴᖅᑭᑕᐅᓂᑯ ᒎᓗ)

Precious Metal
any of several relatively scarce and valuable metals, such as gold, silver, platinum and palladium
(ᐊᑭᑐᔪᒃᓴᔭᒃ ᓴᕕᕋᔭᒃᓴᖅ)

Precious Stone
a term commonly used for diamonds, emeralds, rubies, and sapphires, especially expensive ones of gem quality
(ᐊᓕᒍᑦᑎᐊᕙᒃ ᐊᑭᑐᔪᖅ)

to search an area for valuable minerals and ores, such as gold, silver, or oil

Prospecting Licence
authorization granted by a government to an individual or company, granting permission to prospect for minerals and to register (stake) a claim

a person engaged in exploring for valuable minerals or in testing supposed discoveries of the same

a light-coloured volcanic rock containing abundant trapped gas bubbles formed by the explosive eruption of magma. Because of its numerous gas bubbles, pumice commonly floats on water

an open or surface mine site where stone, rock and construction materials are extracted

the extraction of stone, rock and construction materials from an open-pit or surface quarry

restoration of disturbed and/or mined land to its original contour, use, or condition
(ᐃᓂᑐᖃᖓᓄᑦ ᐅᑎᖅᑎᑦᑎᓂᖅ)

an estimate within specified accuracy limits of the valuable metal or mineral content of known deposits that may be produced under current economic conditions and with present technology; that part of the reserve base that could be economically extracted or produced at the time of determination

a concentration of naturally occurring solid, liquid, or gaseous material in or on the Earth's crust in such form and amount that economic extraction of a commodity from the concentration is currently or potentially feasible

1. the hard material of the Earth's crust, exposed on the surface or underlying the soil; 2. any natural material, hard or soft, e.g. clay, granite, consisting of one or more minerals; 3. a mass of rock projecting and forming a hill, cliff, reef, etc.; 4. a stone of any size; 5. a precious stone, especially a diamond
(1. ᖃᐃᖅᓱᒑᖅ; 2. ᓄᓇ; 3. ᖃᐃᖅᓱᖅ/ᖃᐃᖅᑐᖅ; 4. ᐅᔭᕋᖅ; ᐅᔭᕋᓱᒡᔪᒃ 5. ᐊᓕᒍᑦᑎᐊᕙᒃ)

Rock Type
a particular kind of rock having a specific set of characteristics, including composition, history and age
(ᐅᔭᕋᐅᑉ ᖃᓄᐃᑦᑑᓂᖓ)

formed from sediments laid down by water, wind or ice, then compacted and cemented

Sedimentary Rock
rock formed from the consolidation of sediments transported by water, wind or ice
(ᐅᔭᕋᖅ ᕿᖅᓱᕐᓂᑯ; ᐅᔭᕋᒍᕐᓂᑯ)

a soft metamorphic rock with a smooth greasy feel which could easily be carved; a generic term used to describe carving stone

an alloy of iron, which is mostly pure iron combined with some other elements, such as carbon
(ᑎᓯᔪᖅ ᓴᕕᕋᔭᒃ)

an accumulation of rock gathered or piled in one area

a layer or bed of rock

Surface Rights
the rights to use the surface of the land, excluding mineral rights; whereas, sub-surface rights are rights to the minerals under the surface of the land
(ᓄᓇᐅᑉ ᖄᖓᓂ ᐱᔪᓐᓇᐅᑏᑦ)

1. examining and outlining the physical or chemical characteristics of the Earth's surface, subsurface, or internal constitution by topographical, geological, geophysical, or geochemical measurements; 2. the associated data or results obtained in a survey; a map or description of an area obtained by surveying
(1. ᐆᒃᑐᕋᕐᓂᖅ; 2. ᐆᒃᑐᕋᖅᑕᐅᓯᒪᔪᖅ)

the flat surface on the top of the diamond
(ᑕᐃᒪᓐ ᖁᓛ)

to search for mineral deposits in an unproved area by means of boreholes; to obtain samples of soil or rock from which the physical characteristics of the soil or rock can be determined, such as in foundation testing

a shaped fine-grained stone used to sharpen tools and cutlery, etc. by grinding

a unit of length equal to 3 feet (0.9144 metres)

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