2010-2011 Nunavut Implementation Panel: Annual Report
Table of contents
- Kananginak Pootoogook
- 1. Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated
- Appendix I: A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Resource Development Principles in Inuit Nunaat
- Appendix II: A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Sovereignty in the Arctic
- 2. Government of Nunavut
- 3. Government of Canada
- 4. Implementing Bodies
- Appendix 1: Membership of Implementing Bodies
- Appendix 2: Schedule of Payments
Kananginak Pootoogook (1 January 1935 – 23 November 2010), was an Inuk sculptor and printmaker who lived in Cape Dorset, Nunavut. He died as a result of complications related to surgery for lung cancer.
Pootoogook was born at a traditional Inuit camp called Ikerrasak or Ikirasak, near Cape Dorset, Nunavut (then in the Northwest Territories) to Josephie Pootoogook, leader of the camp, and Sarah Ninegeokuluk. The family lived a traditional lifestyle hunting and trapping while living in an iglu in the winter and a sod house in the summer and did not move into their first southern style house until 1942. In 1957 Pootoogook married Shooyoo, moved to Cape Dorset and began work for James Houston.
Originally, Pootoogook did some carving, made prints and lithographs for other artists. At the same time he was a leader in setting up the West Baffin Eskimo Co-operative, the first Inuit owned co-op, now part of the Arctic Co-operatives Limited and served from 1959 until 1964 as the president. Although Kananginak had worked with his father, Josephie, in 1959, it was not until the 1970s that Kananginak began work as a full time artist producing drawings, carvings and prints. According to Terry Ryan, former Co-op manager, Pootoogook was both influenced by and an admirer of the works of his uncle, photographer and historian Peter Pitseolak.
The World Wildlife Commission released a limited edition set in 1977 that included four of Pootoogook's images and in 1980 he was elected to the Royal Canadian Academy of Arts. In 1997 Pootoogook built a 6 ft (1.8 m) inukshuk in Cape Dorset for former Governor General of Canada, Roméo LeBlanc. The inukshuk was dismantled and shipped to Ottawa and with the assistance of his son, Johnny, it was rebuilt at Rideau Hall and unveiled on 21 June, National Aboriginal Day.
While working on his final, and unfinished, drawing of a Peterhead owned by his father, he was struck by coughing spells, which he declared was cancer. Along with his wife, Shooyoo, he flew to Ottawa, staying at the Larga Baffin home, and was diagnosed with lung cancer. In October 2010, he underwent surgery and did not recover. He died 23 November 2010 in Ottawa. He is survived by his wife, seven children and several grandchildren and great-grandchildren, and is buried in Cape Dorset.
- Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada
- Area Co-management Committees
- Community and Government Services
- Canada Land Surveyor
- Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada
- Canadian Wildlife Service
- Distant Early Warning
- Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada
- Designated Inuit Organization
- Department of National Defence
- Department of the Environment (Nunavut)
- Environment Canada
- Department of Economic Development and Transportation (Nunavut)
- Executive and Intergovernmental Affairs
- Environmental Impact Statement
- Government of Nunavut
- Hunters and Trappers Organization
- Inuit Employment Plan
- Inuit Heritage Trust
- Inuit Impact and Benefit Agreement
- Inuit Owned Land
- Institution of Public Government
- Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit (Traditional Knowledge)
- Kivalliq Inuit Association
- Land Titles Office
- Memorandum of Understanding
- National Economic Development Committee in Inuit Nunangat
- Nunavut Fisheries Training Consortium
- Nunavut General Monitoring Plan
- Nunavut Impact Review Board
- Nunavut Implementation Training Committee
- Nunavut Land Claims Agreement
- Nunavut Land Use Plan
- Nunavummi Nangminiqaqtunik Ikajuuti
- Nunavut Planning Commission
- Nunavut Regional Office (INAC)
- Nunavut Settlement Area
- Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated
- Nunavut Planning and Project Assessment Act
- Nunavut Water Board
- Nunavut Wildlife Management Board
- Portable Document File
- Public Works and Government Services Canada
- Qulliq Energy Corporation
- Qikiqtani Inuit Association
- Regional Inuit Association
- Regional Wildlife Organization
- Species at Risk Act
The Nunavut Implementation Panel presents its Annual Report on the Implementation of the Nunavut Land Claims Agreement (NLCA) pursuant to Sub-Section 37.3.3(h) of the Agreement. This Annual Report covers the period April 1, 2010 to March 31, 2011.
To prepare the report, information was obtained from Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated, the federal and territorial governments, and the various implementing bodies established under the Agreement, including the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board, Nunavut Water Board, Nunavut Impact Review Board, and the Nunavut Planning Commission. Accordingly, the statements and viewpoints offered by contributors to this report are not necessarily shared by all members of the Panel or by the Parties appointing them.
This report highlights the complexity, the achievements, and the challenges associated with implementing the NLCA.
1. Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated
In its contributions to successive Nunavut Implementation Panel Annual Reports for periods beginning in 2006, Nunavut Tunngavik Incorporated (NTI) has emphasized the central and critical importance of its far-reaching implementation lawsuit brought against the Crown at the end of 2006. The NTI contribution to the 2008-2010 Nunavut Implementation Panel Annual Report summarized the matter this way:
...the number, breadth, and severity of implementation breaches of the NLCA by the Crown resulted in NTI bringing, at the end of 2006, a multi-faceted lawsuit against the Attorney General of Canada as the Crown's representative. NTI had no practical alternative to commencing the lawsuit as the federal government:
- Had withdrawn from negotiations to update the implementation contract in 2004 and refused to return to negotiations;
- Rejected 17 offers by NTI to refer specific issues to arbitration; and,
- Would not accept the key recommendations of Conciliator Tom Berger's final conciliation report.
In the two-year period covered by the 2008-2010 NIP Report, the federal government remained inflexible in relation to these three possibilities. Accordingly, the critical NLCA implementation activities in the 2008-2010 period revolved around the early stages of the prosecution of the NTI lawsuit.
April 1, 2010, to March 31, 2011 – the period covered by this Annual Report – did not witness any greater receptiveness by the federal government to these three possibilities, or any other concerted effort to resolve the underlying issues that brought about the lawsuit. Accordingly, the lawsuit remains the "elephant in the NLCA implementation room" – that is, it remains the main determinant of whether, when, and how key parts of the NLCA will be implemented, and what broader policy and legal consequences will ensue.
Readers of this Annual Report are invited to acquaint themselves with the set of Questions and Answers about the lawsuit set out in the NTI contribution to the 2008-2010 Annual Report.
NTI was happy with the procedural and logistical progress made in the lawsuit in the 2010-2011 time frame.
Without diminishing the central importance of the lawsuit, the balance of this NTI contribution to this Annual Report provides information about activities carried out by NTI in relation to implementation of the NLCA, and some wider Inuit issues and priorities. It should be pointed out that many of these activities were accompanied by parallel and complementary activities on the part of the three regional Inuit associations within Nunavut.
1.2 Specific Implementation Related Activities
Building Understanding of the NLCA
In the course of the year, a number of presentations were made on the negotiation and implementation of the NLCA. These included a speech by NTI Acting President James Eetoolook on the topic of improving intergovernmental relationships. The speech was given at the Yukon Assembly of First Nations' Conference in Whitehorse in September 2010. Acting President Eetoolook also made a presentation during that conference about relations with industry. As well, NTI staff delivered a joint workshop presentation on Aboriginal public government.
Acting President Eetoolook and other Coalition representatives took part in an Environment Canada (EC) treaty awareness session in Ottawa, February 2011.
NTI staff delivered a presentation about meeting the objectives of modern treaties at the 17th Inuit Studies Conference that took place in Val d'Or, Québec in November 2010.
Land Claims Agreements Coalition
The Land Claims Agreements Coalition leadership met in Ottawa in February 2011. Discussions covered a range of issues, including federal fiscal financing arrangements and the requirement for more advocacy work. Assembly of First Nations Grand Chief Sean Atleo attended the meeting and indicated his interest in working with the coalition. NTI's president was re-appointed to the position of co-chair. Coalition leaders and staff took part in a series of advocacy meetings with a number of Members of Parliament and Senators to build broader political support for full implementation of land claims agreements.
The possibility of a review of the implementation of land claims agreements by the House of Commons Standing Committee on Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development was discussed. A letter to Bruce Stanton, Chair of that Committee, was sent by the Coalition advocating for the review.
Circumpolar Inuit Dimensions
NTI's president and vice-president and the Qikiqtani Inuit Association's (QIA's) president attended the Inuit Leaders' Summit on Resource Development, hosted by Inuit Circumpolar Council in Ottawa in February 2011. On the first day of the summit, presentations were delivered in the following areas: government perspectives; offshore drilling and exploration; mining; and environmental and social impact assessments. On the second day, Inuit leaders discussed the issues and agreed to finalize A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Resource Development Principles in Inuit Nunaat, the intentbeing to release this document in conjunction with the 2011 Arctic Council Ministerial meeting in Nuuk, Greenland.
The Declaration is attached to this chapter as Appendix I.
Sovereignty and Security
The House of Commons National Defence Committee tabled its report on Canada's Arctic Sovereignty in June 2010. The committee's recommendations included:
- That a Cabinet committee be established on Arctic affairs.
- That the Cabinet committee engage Indigenous Peoples in developing future Arctic policies.
- That Indigenous Peoples be included in scientific research programs relating to the Northern environment.
- That the federal government do more to recognize the historic contributions of Indigenous peoples to Canadian Arctic sovereignty.
- That the federal government ensure the development of viable Indigenous communities in the Arctic.
Inuit from around the circumpolar world had, in 2009, adopted A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Sovereignty in the Arctic. That Declaration isattached to this chapter as Appendix II.
Off-Shore Oil Drilling
The April, 2010 oil drilling rig explosion and discharge in the Gulf of Mexico raised concerns about the risks of future drilling in Nunavut's offshore and in such adjacent areas as the Greenlandic side of Davis Strait. Raymond Ningeocheak, NTI's former Vice-President of Finance, gave a presentation to the House of Commons Standing Committee on Natural Resources advising that NTI's position is that offshore oil and gas drilling should not proceed without assured environmental protection. The National Energy Board also announced a public review of offshore Arctic drilling requirements. NTI forwarded comments to the Board's secretary regarding the scope of this review, indicating the need for the review to examine infrastructure and training requirements, response time in relation to possible oil spills and discharges, and protection of the Arctic marine habitat and species.
Nunavut Marine Council
NTI hosted a Nunavut Marine Council workshop in Iqaluit, in May 2010. The workshop was attended by representatives from Nunavut Planning Commission (NPC), Nunavut Impact Review Board (NIRB), Nunavut Water Board (NWB), the Nunavut Wildlife Management Board (NWMB), Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada (AANDC), the Government of Nunavut (GN) and experts in the fields of shipping, Inuit marine rights, and fisheries conservation. The two-day meeting resulted in an agreement to move forward with a business plan to identify the resource requirements of the Council. NTI continued the provision of in-kind staff support.
A meeting of the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line Steering Committee attended by the Department of National Defence (DND) and NTI was held in Edmonton in February 2011. Kitikmeot Inuit Association (KitIA) and QIA also were involved. The Steering Committee was advised that NTI's restructuring would not change its representation on the Committee. NTI provided the Committee with a copy of the Report on the Clean-Up of the DND DEW-Line Sites in Nunavut which first was made availableto NTI's Annual General Meeting in December 2010.
The DEW-Line Clean Up Contracting Working Group met on February 28, 2011, to determine the recommended value for minimum Inuit employment contracting and minimum Inuit content for contracting for FOX-4 and Fox-5 maintenance repairs. The working group recommended the following levels: 66 per cent minimum Inuit employment content and 67.5 per cent minimum Inuit contracting content.
- Implementation Lawsuit: In November 2010, NTI completed the oral examination of the Crown's witness with the exception of clean-up items and questions arising out of the production of remaining documents. NTI continued other preparatory work in anticipation of trial.
- Manitoba/Saskatchewan Dene Overlaps: The federal negotiation team finally received its mandate in June 2010, and met with the Aboriginal parties in November 2010, indicating plans to re-open formal negotiation sessions with Aboriginal groups in 2011. NTI and Kivalliq Inuit Association (KivIA) representatives began negotiations with the province of Manitoba to settle Inuit claims in Northern Manitoba.
- Firearms Lawsuit: NTI sent a letter to the Prime Minister inviting further negotiation. NTI did not receive a response.
- Residential Schools: Work continued on implementing the Residential School Settlement Agreement, including assisting generally withthe public on Common Experience Payment and Independent Assessment Payment related issues.
- Narwhal: In January 2011, NTI filed an application for judicial review challenging the Department of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (DFO) decision to issue a negative Non-Detriment Finding with respect to the export of narwhal tusks from 17 Nunavut communities. The DFO decision essentially attempted to ban the export of narwhal tusks and related products from those communities.
- Court Interventions: NTI filed an intervener factum and appeared before the Supreme Court of Canada in May 2010, in the case of Rio Tinto v. Carrier Sekani Tribal Council. NTI also filed anintervener factum and appeared before the Supreme Court of Canada in Little Salmon/Carmacks First Nation v. Yukon in 2009. The Supreme Court released its decision in 2010, holding that the Crown may have a duty to consult and accommodate beyond what is expressly stated in a land claims agreement.
Negotiation/Consultation on Legislation
Nunavut Planning and Project Assessment Act
NTI worked with federal government and GN representatives, and NPC and NIRB, in the development of this legislation. The resulting Bill C-25 did not proceed after Parliament was dissolved as a result of the March 2011 non-confidence vote. NTI and Regional Inuit Associations (RIAs) have coordinated efforts on this file.
Child and Family Services Act
NTI worked with the GN on education and language regulations, including the Child and Family Services Act review, and the proposed Family Support Enforcement Orders Act.
Wildlife Act Regulations
NTI participated in NWMB hearings in relation to the draft regulations, and worked with the GN and NWMB to seek to reconcile different views.
Policy and Planning Division
In September 2010, NTI underwent a reorganization which created the Policy and Planning division within the Department of Executive Services. The division has the responsibility for leading NTI's overarching policy requirements, as well as responsibility for specific policy areas including economic development, commercial fisheries, and environmental policy development.
Through ArcticNet, NTI participated in two integrated research impact studies, the goal of which is to utilize all available science or data and to develop an assessment of the Canadian Arctic with respect to climate change. The resulting document will be useful for scientists and policy makers.
Following the Copenhagen climate change conference, NTI began work on developing a Nunavut climate change strategy.
There was little progress on devolution in 2010-2011, due to the absence of a federal negotiator or a federal Cabinet negotiating mandate.
NTI President Cathy Towtongie met with Nunavut Premier Eva Aariak in January 2011, to discuss devolution and subsequently sent a joint letter to AANDC Minister John Duncan. The letter stated that, despite the signing of the Lands and Resources Devolution Negotiation Protocol in 2008, the federal government had not appointed a chief negotiator as required by the Protocol. The letter requested a meeting with Minister Duncan to discuss the issue further. Premier Aariak subsequently met with Minister Duncan.
Nunavut Fisheries Training Consortium was expected to finish its current funding arrangements in 2012. There were hopes for a new round of federal funding from Human Resources and Skills Development Canada to focus on Inuit recruitment and retention in the commercial fishing industry.
NTI took part in consultations to amend the NWMB's Nunavut Allocation Policy on commercial marine fisheries. The Nunavut Fisheries Allocation Committee met to review four applications for northern shrimp and forwarded the recommendations to the NWMB. NTI has two representatives on the Committee.
Inuit Firm Registry
There are now 243 firms on the registry. In 2010, NTI registered 36 more Inuit firms.
NTI advocated for an increase to investment in marine infrastructure and hydrographic mapping for Nunavut. Three ships ran aground in separate areas of Nunavut's waters in the reporting period, illustrating the pronounced need for extensive hydrographic mapping.
Nunavummi Nangminiqaqtunik Ikajuuti Policy
NTI and the GN completed the five-year comprehensive review of the Nunavummi Nangminiqaqtunik Ikajuuti (NNI) Policy. FromNTI's perspective, the review highlighted the data issues facing GN contracting. However, NTI was unable to analyze the bid adjustment components with the available data. This critical component is the backbone of the NNI Policy and has arguably the most impact on Inuit firms. For any future comprehensive review to be successful, the data deficiency problem requires a solution. It was impossible to substantiate any possible positive or negative impacts to Inuit or Nunavut firms if changes were made to the current bid adjustment breakdown of 21 per cent – or more specifically, 7 per cent for Inuit firms, 7 per cent for Nunavut businesses, and the additional 7 per cent for local businesses.
The report had four key recommendations:
- That the review committee identifies and review specific areas of data deficiencies and produce recommendations to address the difficulties that currently exist in collecting and utilizing GN contracting information.
- That the review committee conducts an audit on the implementation of the NNI Policy with regard to GN contracting.
- That the terms of reference for the review committee reflect changes to the reporting requirements and committee composition. The reporting requirements would be changed from annual to biannual production. The annual reports were non-existent due to GN staff turnover and the backlog of requirements. The composition of the review committee would change from a potentially 12 person committee with six each from NTI and GN, to a six-person committee with three representatives each.
- That research be conducted into existing national standards or best practices for the NNI appeals process, specifically focusing on the timelines used for identifying and conducting appeals.
The report contained recommendations and revisions to NNI definitions. Most of the changes were made for greater clarity, including changes to definitions of Local Business, Nunavut Business, Local Supplier, Nunavut Resident, Resident Manager, and Qualification Committee.
National Economic Development Committee for Inuit Nunangat
With NTI's participation, the National Economic Development Committee in Inuit Nunangat developed research papers that led to an Inuit implementation plan for AANDC's Aboriginal Economic Development Programs. The implementation plan sought approximately $79 million over five years, divided between the four Inuit regions in Canada. This represented an increase of approximately $13 million over current allocations.
North Warning System
NTI participated in industry and government meetings with DND and Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) to advocate for the continuation of the procurement provisions and to ensure that direct benefits from the North Warning System contract continue to flow to Nunavut's Inuit.
Questions surrounded renewal of the North Warning System contracts. The System is a vital contract that provides an opportunity for collaboration between Inuit and the federal government. The contract is large (approximately $600 million or $20 million annually) and is currently held by Nasittuq, through Pan-Arctic Inuit Logistics, a partnership between the four Inuit treaty groups.
The federal government conducted regional meetings with Inuit groups and provided an opportunity to make presentations. NTI highlighted Nunavut Inuit concerns and offered to continue to participate in developing a procurement design that is consistent with past practices and ensures that the continuation of benefits flow directly to Nunavut Inuit.
NTI attended a meeting of the Northern Contaminants Program Management Committee in April 2010. Final approval of $4.4 million in funding was confirmed for all contaminant research projects in the three territories and Nunatsiavut for 2010-2011.
Nunavut Economic Forum
NTI participated in the Nunavut Economic Forum's Board of Directors and provided in-kind and financial support for 2010-2011. The Forum published the 2010 Nunavut Economic Outlook. The document highlighted the economic status for Nunavut and provided useful data for analysis.
Utility Rates Review Council
In January 2011, NTI made a submission to the Utility Rates Review Council concerning the Qulliq Energy Corporation's (QEC's) General Rate Application that proposed an increase to the territorial power rates. NTI's submission noted the rate application covered losses already incurred. NTI recommended that procedures be established before QEC brings forward another General Rate Application prior to operating at a loss. NTI also raised questions regarding the funding of QEC's apprenticeship program, which covers 17 apprentices. NTI argued that apprenticeship training should be directly funded by government, not through a rate increase paid by the users. In March 2011, URRC recommended a rate increase of 18.8 per cent, with removal of a fuel rider, resulting in a net increase of 12.8 per cent. This was approved by the GN.
- NTI implemented IT hardware upgrades in its offices. Upgrades were completed in the Ottawa and Iqaluit offices and upgrades in the Rankin Inlet office were in progress.
- NTI designed, purchased, and implemented a new records and information management system for users in the Iqaluit office.
- NTI began planning for NLCA 20-year anniversary work, including a NLCA monument, writing contest, and promotional items.
- NTI completed a third phase of the NLCA oral history project: making it available on the website and preparing for the 2013 launch.
- NTI began digitally archiving Tungavik Federation of Nunavut recordings.
After an Inuit restructuring process in the fall of 2010, there were 75 full-time established positions in NTI. There continued to be an average 80 per cent Inuit employment rate in the year of 2010.
The human resources assistant was granted a seat in the career development practitioner program being delivered by Nunavut Arctic College and the Canadian Career Development Foundation based in Ottawa. The program is aligned with core competencies in Canadian Standards and Guidelines for Career Development. It allows for the certification of a career development practitioner that is consistent with provincial voluntary certifications and the International Association for Educational and Vocational Guidance's International certification.
The professional development and training of NTI employees was coordinated through the director and human resources assistant. Responsibilities include coordination of general and specialized training, arranging for funding requests and reports, the summer student employment program, employee orientation, the employee recognition program, employee wellness, and exit interviews.
In 2010, discussions began with the Nunavut Literacy Council to involve NTI in the Embedding Literacy in Workplace Training in Northern Canada. NTI was the second organization within Nunavut to participate in the program.
Implementation of the National Wildlife Area/Migratory Bird Sanctuaries Inuit Impact and Benefit Agreement
The Inuit Impact and Benefit Agreement (IIBA) for the National Wildlife Area/Migratory Bird Sanctuaries was negotiated over several years between NTI, the RIAs, and the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS). The IIBA created an Inuit tourism fund of $4 million, and a $1 million fund for cultural and interpretive material. NTI and the RIAs agreed there should be three major projects and money set aside for secondary projects.
After an initial study, NTI and the RIAs selected Gjoa Haven, Cape Dorset, and Arviat as the most feasible communities to provide tourism because of their diverse community backgrounds.
In the previous three years, Arviat undertook different types of training to start fully engaging and taking advantage of tourism. Arviat is a ready market because of the polar bears, caribou, geese, and the rich cultural heritage in the community. It is also in close proximity to Churchill, which already has an established tourism market.
The National Wildlife Area/Migratory Bird Sanctuaries IIBA provided Arviat with, among other things, training for hospitality, an eco-guide course, small craft safety, cooking for visitors, and bookkeeping for small businesses.
Inuit Lands and Resources
NTI was involved in the following activities in relation to Inuit lands and resources:
- Promoted NTI mineral properties at the Canadian Aboriginal Mining Association Annual Conference, the Yellowknife Geoscience Forum, the Vancouver Exploration Roundup, the Prospectors and Developers Association of Canada in Toronto, and at the Nunavut Mining Symposium.
- Made presentations regarding the NTI uranium policy at GN's uranium forums in Iqaluit, Baker Lake, and Cambridge Bay.
- Entered into two new mineral exploration agreements, an expansion of an existing mineral exploration agreement, and two Memorandums of Understanding (MOUs) for new mineral exploration agreements.
- Made significant progress in amending Agnico-Eagle Mines Ltd.'s mineral exploration agreements and production lease for the Vault deposit at the Meadowbank Gold Mine.
- Participated in the development of NTI's resource revenue policy.
- Updated all mineral exploration agreement mapping.
- Reviewed and analyzed NPC's draft Nunavut Land Use Plan (NLUP).
- Updated and expanded the online mapping service to include leases and geo-friendly mineral applications.
- Rebuilt the Inuit-owned land subsurface agreement management system to accommodate quarter cell production leases.
- Created production quality Subsurface Agreement Portable Document Files (PDFs) and production quality Subsurface Application GeoPDFs (geo-registered PDF format).
- Consulted with KivIA and QIA regarding collaborative web services.
- Deployed ArcGIS version 10 software.
- Deployed Deepfreeze operating system integrity solution.
- Updated Blue Marble satellite imagery has been processed, and it is now part of our data repository.
Nunavut Social Development Council Annual Report
NTI participated in the development of the 2009-2010 Annual Report on the State of Inuit Culture and Society. Focusing on Inuit language, the reportgave an overview of the history and current status of Inuit language needs and advocacy, and discussed ways to improve and enhance the status of Inuit language in Nunavut.
In October 2010, NTI partnered with the GN, RCMP, and the Embrace Life Council to create the Nunavut Suicide Prevention Strategy. A three-year action planwas developed by the partners to aid implementation.
NTI continued work on the regulatory process to guide implementation of the Education Act. NTI also participated in the development of the National Inuit Education Strategy.
NTI co-chaired with the GN the steering committee responsible for the creation of the Piqqusilirivvik Cultural School. Major milestones included completion of construction of the main campus in Clyde River and the finalization of policies and procedures for the learning institution. The grand opening of the facility was scheduled for May 2011, in Clyde River.
NTI continued to work with the GN to implement the Official Languages Act and the Inuit Language Protection Act. NTI worked with the Inuit Uqausingiit Taigusiliuqtiit to develop the Language Award Policy, which will give an award annually during Language Week. NTI also continued to engage the Inuit Uqausingiit Taigusiliuqtiit through various sub-committees and working groups. NTI helped convene the Nunavut Language Conference held in Iqaluit in January 2011, which was dedicated to the late Jose Kusugak and which focused on the standardization of Inuktitut.
NTI, in partnership with the GN and the federal government, concluded the three-year Nunavut Community Wellness Project pilot project. Igloolik, Arviat, Clyde River, Kugluktuk, Kugaaruk, and Coral Harbour participated in the initiative.
Social and Cultural Research
NTI participated in many research projects in 2010-2011, including the TAIMA TB Project, the Inuit Health Survey, the Nunavut Child Health Surveillance Project, the Nutuqqavut Surveillance System, and Gathering Community Perspectives on Infant Sleeping Practices in Nunavut. The Naasautit: Inuit Health Statistics project, which collected and made public all available Inuit health data, was launched in March 2011. NTI participated in the web-based tool that allows greater access to Inuit health statistical information. NTI partnered with the University of Prince Edward Island to undertake a bio-prospecting project in Frobisher Bay. NTI also worked toward the creation of the Inuit Knowledge Centre National Committee.
NTI participated in meetings to discuss the review of the current Child and Family Services Act. Facilitated by consultants, community meetings took place to develop recommendations for the review. NTI was in contact with the GN Department of Justice to track the number of Family Abuse Intervention Act applications made, and gathered information on integration and release plans for inmates from the territory.
Nunavut Poverty Reduction Strategy
As a co-sponsor, NTI participated in the Nunavut Poverty Reduction Strategy. Community dialogues were undertaken in each community across Nunavut during the reporting period. The Strategy is scheduled to be completed in November 2011.
Arnait Nipingiit Women's Summit
NTI participated in the planning committee that brought together women from all over Nunavut to participate in the Arnait Nipingiit Women's Summit. This gathering was led by QIA with the participation of the Qulliit Nunavut Status of Women Council and the GN, and was held in Iqaluit, in September 2010.
Support of Hunters and Trappers
Organizations and Regional
- Research priorities workshops were held for the Kitikmeot, Kivalliq, and Qikiqtaaluk regions. Wildlife staff provided feedback and support for community representatives in an effort to establish research priorities for the next four years.
- Representatives at the Davis Strait Polar Bear User to User Meeting in Kuujjuaq in July 2010 discussed recent scientific information and management of polar bears in Davis Strait. Representatives from Nunavut, Nunavik, Nunatsiavut, Newfoundland and Labrador, and the Government of Canada attended the meeting.
- In Davis Strait, the polar bear population has increased to approximately 2,150 bears. The GN supports an increase in the harvest. NWMB will hold a public hearing in May 2011.
- A workshop to plan and design the polar bear aerial survey in western Hudson Bay was held in Churchill in July 2010. The pilot survey took place in late summer with Inuit participation.
- NTI wildlife staff attended the GN's regional workshops on the Nunavut Caribou Conservation Strategy Consultations. The GN also consulted residents and Hunters and Trappers Organizations (HTOs) in each Nunavut community.
- The Kitikmeot Hunters and Trappers Association and Kivalliq Wildlife Board made further progress with management of muskoxen in their regions. Changes to boundaries and an increase in the Total Allowable Harvest were implemented.
The restructuring of NTI created the new Department of Wildlife and Environment. The department now has two staff based out of the NTI office in Cambridge Bay.
NTI addressed the environmental review of the Kiggavik Project with KivIA and the Baffinland Iron Mines – Mary River Project, and took part in uranium public forums in Iqaluit, Baker Lake, and Cambridge Bay.
Inuit Representation on National and International Wildlife Issues
- NTI staff made a presentation on wildlife management in Nunavut at the 24th International Congress for Conservation Biology that took place in Edmonton, Alberta.
- The 13th North American Caribou workshop was held in Winnipeg, Manitoba in October 2010. Inuit delegates made presentations on Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit (IQ) and wildlife management of caribou in Nunavut.
- Participants at the CircumArctic Rangifer Monitoring and Assessment Network meeting discussed ongoing research projects and results such as the Caribou Anatomy Project. The status and management of declining herds were also discussed in a special one-day workshop.
- DFO issued a negative Non-Detriment Finding report for narwhal, which restricted the export of narwhal parts from Canada. NTI wrote to the DFO Minister highlighting the concerns with the lack of consultation with Inuit and subsequently filed for Judicial Review of the Minister's decision in the Federal Court.
Pond Inlet and Repulse Bay each harvested bowhead whales. The hunts were well planned and carried out by the HTOs and communities. Kugaaruk also planned a hunt, but the community was not able to land a whale before ice conditions became too heavy to hunt safely.
The allocations for the 2011 bowhead whale hunts were made to HTOs in Iqaluit and Coral Harbour.
A Kivalliq muskoxen survey was conducted. All HTOs in the region were involved in the design of the survey.
The National Marine Fisheries Service of the United States National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration proposed the listing of four subspecies of ringed seal and two distinct population segments of bearded seal as threatened under the US Endangered Species Act. The organization had notpresented any evidence suggesting that ringed seal populations are in decline. Rather, the proposal was based on trying to predict what the future will look like because of climate change.
The GN's Department of Environment and the Government of Canada negotiated a trade agreement with China to open new markets for Canadian seal products.
Celebration of the Seal took place during Toonik Tyme in Iqaluit. Visitors had a chance to see the importance of seal for Inuit and Inuit had a chance to enjoy seal meat.
NTI, DFO, and HTO representatives met in Iqaluit to finalize terms of reference for a working group on walrus. DFO reported on the science on each population. There is not enough scientific information to determine the exact population, but the population is considered healthy. The working group also discussed walrus habitat.
Inuit Heritage Trust
Inuit Heritage Trust (IHT) held it fourth Nunavut Heritage Training Institute for heritage workers across Nunavut in Winnipeg in March 2011. The Institute is a professional development project that provides training for Inuit and non-Inuit heritage workers in Nunavut so they may ensure – through their achievement of professional standards and practices – the adequate preservation and presentation of cultural materials in their care for public access and enjoyment. The Project involves the planning and delivery of a training program that provides introductory museum/heritage skills geared toward the needs of the Nunavut heritage community. To increase capacity in Nunavut, IHT introduced a train-the-trainer session for graduates so they can take on the role of delivering training sessions. All participants receive a Basic Heritage Workers' Certificate of Completion as a non-credit program through Nunavut Arctic College. Seven people completed the training institute for 2011.
Conservator Fly-In Project
The purpose of this project is to provide fly-in conservation visits to up to three facilities that have collections. The conservator assesses the collection, identifies areas where object conservation is at risk, and then prepares an in-depth report outlining different options (based on costs) for the collection most at risk. In 2010, IHT partnered with the Canadian Conservation Institute in Ottawa and visited the Kitikmeot Heritage Society in Cambridge Bay, the Pond Inlet Archives and Nattinak Center in Pond Inlet, and the Nunatta Sunakkutaangit Museum and the Unikaarvik Visitors Center in Iqaluit.
Alain Muktar Heritage Scholarship
The Alain Muktar Heritage Scholarship, valued at $5,000, is available for students taking at least 60 per cent of their courses in heritage and heritage-related fields. Courses include archaeology, museum studies, object conservation, anthropology, and Inuit or Aboriginal studies. The 2010 recipient was Siku Allooloo who was finishing her undergraduate degree in Anthropology and Indigenous Studies at the University of Victoria.
One of IHT's responsibilities is to review applications for archaeology permits in Nunavut. Class 1 permits allow sites to be surveyed but not disturbed. Class 2 permits may be given to individuals with demonstrated expertise in archaeology. Applications for permits are submitted first to the GN, then to IHT for consultation with the nearest communities. More than 30 applications for archaeology were reviewed in 2010 for projects, including seven from cruise ships visiting archaeology sites with passengers. Reports detailing the results of the permitted archaeological activities were sent to the GN, the closest communities, as well as to IHT. The IHT requires Inuit to be present for all visits to archaeology sites.
Archaeological Mentorship Program
IHT provides funding for Nunavut Inuit attending high school in the Territory to obtain training by assisting archaeologists conducting research at sites in Nunavut. IHT's mentorship program can support up to six participants per year by providing up to $4,000 per student for the summer. Archaeologists apply for the mentorship program on behalf of the student they intend to hire. This pilot project was initiated to run in the period 2010-2013.
Traditional Place Names
IHT has two major goals regarding place names in Nunavut:
- To support the production of an IHT Nunavut Map Series in which all traditional place names known to Inuit Elders appear on topographic maps and are shared in communities so that all people may benefit from the Elders' place names knowledge.
- To work toward making traditional place names official.
In 2010, IHT continued to work on the production of maps for areas around Rankin Inlet, Whale Cove, Arviat, and Iqaluit.
Place Names on the Internet
After many years of recording place names information from Elders in communities across Nunavut, IHT has developed a substantial database. Thousands of names are accessible to the public through the website, www.ihti.ca.
Heritage Leadership Program
Nunavut has a lack of professionally qualified heritage workers in the territory, resulting in heavy reliance on outside consultants. IHT continued to assist Inuit in gaining professional qualifications through established post-secondary heritage programs. The Heritage Leadership Program is a highly individualized effort that creates a relationship of trust between IHT and the participant. A learning plan was created that enables the student to be highly motivated to overcome barriers and to complete successfully a post-secondary program that earns a heritage qualification. Help is offered by:
- Identifying post-secondary education programs.
- Helping with applications and funding sources.
- Supporting students by problem-solving non-academic challenges.
- Providing support through email, telephone and where possible, face-to-face visits.
- Arranging meaningful and relevant employment opportunities throughout the summer.
- Giving students up to $3,000 per year for costs not covered by other funding programs.
- Continuing to advocate for a Nunavut heritage center.
Nunavut Implementation Training Committee
Nunavut Implementation Training Committee (NITC) provided $540,000 in total training funds to NTI, RIAs, Institutions of Public Government (IPGs), and the Nunavut Inuit Wildlife Secretariat. One of the most successful programs over the previous four years provided funding from NITC for training for the Nunavut Inuit Wildlife Secretariat and all HTO boards and staff. In cooperation with NTI, NITC also funded a trainee position for a Nunavut Sivuniksavut instructor.
- NITC awarded 84 scholarships to post-secondary NLCA Beneficiaries in the amount of $143,000.
- NITC continued to seek additional funds to carry out programs as the initial grant of $13 million would be spent by April, 2012.
- Over the past 17 years, NITC provided over $9 million in training funds to stakeholder organizations and $2 million in scholarship funds to Nunavut Inuit.
Appendix I: A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Resource Development Principles in Inuit Nunaat
Recognizing the Arctic's great resource wealth, the increasing global demand for the Arctic's minerals and hydrocarbons, the scope and depth of climate change and other environmental pressures and challenges facing the Arctic; Mindful of the core rights of Inuit as recognized in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, as provided for ina variety of other legal and political instruments and mechanisms, including land rights settlement legislation, land claims agreements (treaties), and self-government, intergovernmental and constitutional arrangements, and as asserted in A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Sovereignty in the Arctic; and
Respectful of the ingenuity, resilience and wisdom of previous generations of Inuit, confident of the ability of every generation of Inuit to adapt to change, and determined to provide for the material and cultural well-being of Inuit into the future;
WE, THE INUIT OF Inuit Nunaat, DECLARE :
- Healthy communities and households require both a healthy environment and a healthy economy.
- Economic development and social and cultural development must go hand in hand.
- Greater Inuit economic, social and cultural self-sufficiency is an essential part of greater Inuit political self-determination.
- Renewable resources have sustained Inuit from the time preceding recorded history to the present. Future generations of Inuit will continue to rely on Arctic foods for nutritional, social, cultural and economic purposes.
- Responsible non-renewable resource development can also make an important and durable contribution to the well-being of current and future generations of Inuit. Managed under Inuit Nunaat governance structures, non-renewable resource development can contribute to Inuit economic and social development through both private sector channels (employment, incomes, businesses) and public sector channels (revenues from publicly owned lands, tax revenues, infrastructure).
- The pace of resource development has profound implications for Inuit. A proper balance must be struck. Inuit desire resource development at a rate sufficient to provide durable and diversified economic growth, but constrained enough to forestall environmental degradation and an overwhelming influx of outside labour.
- Resource development results in environmental and social impacts as well as opportunities for economic benefits. In the weighing of impacts and benefits, those who face the greatest and longest-lasting impacts must have the greatest opportunities, and a primary place in the decision-making. This principle applies between Inuit Nunaat and the rest of the world, and within Inuit Nunaat.
- All resource development must contribute actively and significantly to improving Inuit living standards and social conditions, and non-renewable resource development, in particular, must promote economic diversification through contributions to education and other forms of social development, physical infrastructure, and non-extractive industries.
- Inuit welcome the opportunity to work in full partnership with resource developers, governments and local communities in the sustainable development of resources of Inuit Nunaat, including related policy-making, tothe long-lasting benefit of Inuit and with respect for baseline environmental and social responsibilities.
IN FURTHER DETAIL, WE DECLARE :
1. Candour, Clarity and Transparency
1.1 The world's peoples and their social, cultural and economic systems are becoming more interconnected, the pace of change is accelerating, the challenges faced by the world are escalating in complexity, and the risks associated with human activities are of increasing significance.
1.2 To prosper under these circumstances, the peoples and states of the world must conduct their relations cooperatively with candour, clarity and transparency – an approach in keeping with Inuit culture and custom.
1.3 It is our desire to declare our key understandings, positions and intentions in relation to resource development, recognizing that doing so will benefit Inuit and the global community.
1.4 While the focus of this Declaration is on the development of non-renewable resources, it must be understood that (a) issues surrounding the appropriate use of non-renewable and renewable resources are inextricably linked, and (b) the principles set out in this Declaration are, in many ways, applicable to the use of renewable resources.
2. United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
2.1 Resource development in Inuit Nunaat must be grounded in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples.
2.2 The UN Declaration recognizes the right of indigenous peoples to self-determination. Under that right, Inuit have the right to freely determine collectively our political, social, economic, and cultural development. Resource development in Inuit Nunaat directly engages our right to self-determination, and many other provisions of the UN Declaration.
2.3 Our rights as an indigenous people, including our right to self-determination, may be exercised in a practical way through governance structures that combine both Inuit and non-Inuit constituents. No matter what level or form of self-determination the Inuit of any particular region have achieved, resource development in Inuit Nunaat must proceed only with the free, prior, and informed consent of the Inuit of that region.
2.4 Private sector resource developers, and governments and public bodies charged with the public management of resource development, must all conduct themselves in concert with the UN Declaration. Respect for the UN Declaration should be open and transparent, andbe subject to independent and impartial review.
3. A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Sovereignty in the Arctic
3.1 Resource development in Inuit Nunaat must be grounded in A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Sovereignty in the Arctic, adopted bythe Inuit Circumpolar Council in April 2009.
3.2 A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Sovereignty in the Arctic identifiedmany principles that arerelevant to the governance and carrying out of resource development in Inuit Nunaat, including the importance of the rule of law and recognition of the rights of Inuit as an Arctic indigenous people under both international and domestic law.
4. Inuit as Partners in Policy Making and Decision Making
4.1 Central to A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Sovereignty in the Arctic is the requirement thatInuit must be active and equal partners in policy-making and decision-making affecting Inuit Nunaat.
4.2 Partnerships with Inuit in relation to resource development will have different characteristics depending on the circumstances, but the spirit and substance of partnership must extend to both public sector governance and private sector enterprise.
4.3 Partnerships must include the meaningful engagement and active participation of Inuit in local communities who are most directly affected by resource development in Inuit Nunaat.
4.4 Partnerships must draw upon the growing capacity and aspirations of Inuit businesses and enterprises through use of vehicles such as joint ventures, commercial mechanisms for facilitating equity participation, and the issuance of land and resource rights through licences, leases and similar instruments.
4.5 Inuit recognize the need within Inuit Nunaat to create and implement inter-Inuitconsultation mechanisms to ensure that approval of major resource development projects in one Inuit region, with major environmental and other implications for one or more adjacent Inuit regions, is accompanied by sufficient opportunity for an informed exchange of information and opinion between or among the Inuit regions.
5. Global Environmental Security
5.1 Inuit and others – through their institutions and international instruments – have a shared responsibility to evaluate the risks and benefits of their actions through the prism of global environmental security.
5.2 Resource development in Inuit Nunaat must contribute to, and not detract from, global, national and regional efforts to curb greenhouse emissions and should always be seen through the reality of climate change.
5.3 In their implementation of mechanisms for adaptation to climate change, states and the international community as a whole must commit to paying the cost of climate change adaptation measures and the upgrading of fuel-related infrastructure in Inuit Nunaat regions and communities.
5.4 Resource development projects must not exacerbate the climate change-related stresses on the survival of Arctic wildlife.
5.5 To minimize risk to global environmental security, the pace of resource development in the Arctic must be carefully considered.
6. Healthy Communities in a Healthy Environment
6.1 The physical and mental health of human communities and individuals cannot be separated from the health of the natural environment.
6.2 Resource development proposals for Inuit Nunaat must be assessed holistically, placinghuman needs at the centre.
6.3 Resource development in Inuit Nunaat must promote the physical and mental health of communities and individuals within Inuit Nunaat.
6.4 Resource development must enhance, not detract from, Inuit food security.
6.5 In a contemporary context, healthy communities in the Arctic require the establishment, maintenance and improvement of core infrastructure needs, including housing, education, health care and social service delivery infrastructure, and core transportation and communications networks that facilitate both public sector activities and private sector entrepreneurship.
7. Economic Self-Sufficiency and the Sustainable Development of Resources in Inuit Nunaat
7.1 Inuit seek to make use of the economic opportunities available through long-term development of the resources of Inuit Nunaat.
7.2 Resource development in Inuit Nunaat must be sustainable. It must serve the needs of Inuit today without compromising the ability of Inuit meet their needs of tomorrow.
7.3 The proponent of a resource development project bears the burden of demonstrating that the proposed development is sustainable.
7.4 In determining the sustainability of a resource development initiative, the best available scientific and Inuit knowledge and standards must be determined and employed.
7.5 International standard-setting bodies must seek and secure direct and meaningful input from Inuit. National, regional and local bodies, such as offshore and land management regimes, must be designed and operated to be effective, transparent and accountable, thereby gaining and sustaining the confidence of the Inuit public at all times.
7.6 Sustainability standards must emphasize the need for the demonstrated support of those communities directly affected by a resource development proposal.
8. Impact Assessment, Prevention and Mitigation
8.1 Notwithstanding property rights or government rights-granting regimes, there is no free-standing or unqualified "right" to proceed with non-renewable resource development in Inuit Nunaat. Projects must be scrutinized byInuit and proved to be in the best interests of Inuit and the wider public.
8.2 Land and offshore management regimes must include (a) long-term land use plans that set out ground rules for development applicable to specific projects, and (b) robust impact assessment processes to gauge the likely impacts of specific projects.
8.3 Management, land use planning and impact assessment regimes must address the cumulative impacts of existing and potential projects and, where prudent, limit the number and scope of projects permitted.
8.4 Impact assessments covering broad geographic areas are important and necessary management tools, and their completion in advance of specific project proposals should be encouraged.
8.5 Impact assessments should examine all potential environmental, socio-economic and cultural impacts anticipated both during the project and after the project is completed or abandoned.
8.6 In accordance with relevant provisions of the Rio Declaration on Environment and Development, the precautionary principle and thepolluter pays principle must be applied in all stages of project planning, assessment, implementation and reclamation.
8.7 Reclamation and recovery of habitat and affected lands and waters must be thoroughly planned and fully funded in advance of and throughout project implementation.
8.8 All development in Inuit Nunaat must adhere to the most developed and demanding environmental standards ta king Arctic conditions fully into account. (For example, mining operations and offshore hydro-carbon development should entail zero-volume discharge onto land and into Arctic waters.)
8.9 Preventing spills offshore and eliminating release of toxic substances to land and waters are paramount. Prevention efforts should be viewed as investments that pay dividends in cost avoidance.
8.10 Response to spills, contamination of lands or waters, and mining emergencies must meet the highest technological standards and be anchored in proven cleanup technologies with full Inuit participation.
8.11 Proposals for spill response in Arctic waters must include a proven demonstration of the industry's ability to retrieve spilled oil in frozen, broken and refreezing ice conditions. Allowing resource development without such a demonstration would be fundamentally irresponsible.
8.12 Effective oil spill prevention and response in Arctic waters requires active monitoring of vessel traffic and swift and effective emergency response in the event of mishap. Public authorities and developers with relevant responsibilities must commit to increased investment in navigation aids, vessel traffic management, ship compliance inspections, security considerations, emergency response capability, and overall port and harbour infrastructure.
8.13 Standards and requirements for Arctic marine pilots must be carefully conceived and strictly applied.
8.14 An international liability and compensation regime for contamination of lands, waters and marine areas resulting from offshore oil exploration and exploitation must be established.
8.15 Respecting the Arctic Council's "Arctic Offshore Oil and Gas Guidelines" as minimum standards.
9. Improving Inuit Living Standards and Expanding Inuit Governance
9.1 Inuit expect that new resource development projects will contribute to an improvement in our material well-being. This expectation is well-rooted in the fundamental features of relevant international indigenous and human rights laws and standards, in the underlying constitutional constructs and political values of the four Arctic States in which Inuit live, and in the application of fairness and reason.
9.2 Through a variety of mechanisms – land rights settlement legislation, land claims agreements (treaties), self-government arrangements, and intergovernmental and Constitutional provisions – Inuit have acquired critical means and levels of control over the governance of Inuit Nunaat. Many of these mechanisms provide for direct Inuit participation in specialized resource management bodies, including planning, project review, and regulatory bodies.
9.3 While this trend is primarily a result of Inuit effort and determination, it has often been assisted and welcomed as healthy and normative by and within the four Arctic States.
9.4 Accordingly, resource development projects must take into account the trend toward greater Inuit self-governance and, to the extent possible, advance it.
9.5 Public sector revenues derived from all phases of resource development should be distributed in a fair and visible way according to the following hierarchy of priorities: (1) providing security against unplanned or unintended environmental consequences, (2) compensating for negative community and regional impacts, (3) contributing to the improvement of community and regional living standards and overall well-being, and (4) contributing to the fiscal health and stability of institutions and mechanisms of Inuit governance. Only after the legitimate needs of the Inuit of Inuit Nunaat are met, should public sector revenues contribute to the coffers of central State treasuries.
9.6 Inuit employment at all levels must be maximized in resource development activities in Inuit Nunaat.
9.7 Independent of the rate of resource development, Inuit must derive direct and substantial employment income benefit from resource development projects. Accordingly, an Inuit education fund should be established in each of Canada, Greenland, Russia and the U.S.A. with public sector investments.
10. Promoting and Accommodating a Dynamic Inuit Culture
10.1 Many international law principles and standards in relation to indigenous peoples are rooted in the b conviction that the development and preservation of human cultural diversity is both a responsibility and a benefit for all humanity. The UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples acknowledges thatindigenous peoples have the right to maintain, control, protect and develop their language, traditional knowledge and cultural heritage and expressions.
10.2 Inuit culture is both well-rooted and dynamic. Inuit are committed to ensuring that resource development projects must be planned and implemented in such a way as to support and enhance Inuit culture, rather than subvert or overwhelm it.
10.3 Inuit are committed to safe-guarding Inuit culture against excess adverse pressures and impacts that could be brought on by an overly ambitious, ill timed, or poorly planned and implemented staging of major resource development projects, particularly insofar as such a scenario precipitated a major influx of non-Inuit while failing to impart the technologies, skills and training, and business opportunities needed by Inuit.
10.4 Governments, public bodies and private sector actors in Inuit Nunaat must share in these commitments.
We, the Inuit of Inuit Nunaat, are committed to the principles on resource development in Inuit Nunaat set out in this Declaration. Inuit invite – and are entitled to expect – all those who have or seek a role in the governance, management, development, or use of the resources of Inuit Nunaat to conduct themselves with inthe letter and spirit of this Declaration.
Aqqaluk Lynge - Chair, Inuit Circumpolar Council
Jim Stotts - Vice Chair, Alaska
Tatiana Achirgina - Vice Chair, Chukotka
Duane Smith - Vice Chair, Canada
Carl Christian Olsen - Vice Chair, Greenland
Appendix II: A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Sovereignty in the Arctic
We, the Inuit of Inuit Nunaat, declare as follows:
1. Inuit and the Arctic
1.1 Inuit live in the Arctic. Inuit live in the vast, circumpolar region of land, sea and ice known as the Arctic. We depend on the marine and terrestrial plants and animals supported by the coastal zones of the Arctic Ocean, the tundra and the sea ice. The Arctic is our home.
1.2 Inuit have been living in the Arctic from time immemorial. From time immemorial, Inuit have been living in the Arctic. Our home in the circumpolar world, Inuit Nunaat, stretches from Greenland to Canada, Alaska and the coastal regions of Chukotka, Russia. Our use and occupation of Arctic lands and waters pre-dates recorded history. Our unique knowledge, experience of the Arctic, and language are the foundation of our way of life and culture.
1.3 Inuit are a people. Though Inuit live across a far-reaching circumpolar region, we are united as a single people. Our sense of unity is fostered and celebrated by the Inuit Circumpolar Council (ICC), which represents the Inuit of Denmark/Greenland, Canada, USA and Russia. As a people, we enjoy the rights of all peoples. These include the rights recognized in and by various international instruments and institutions, such as the Charter of the United Nations; the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights; the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights; the Vienna Declaration and Programme of Action; the Human Rights Council; the Arctic Council; and the Organization of American States.
1.4 Inuit are an indigenous people. Inuit are an indigenous people with the rights and responsibilities of all indigenous peoples. These include the rights recognized in and by international legal and political instruments and bodies, such as the recommendations of the UN Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, the UN Expert Mechanism on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples, the 2007 UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), and others.
Central to our rights as a people is the right to self-determination. It is our right to freely determine our political status, freely pursue our economic, social, cultural and linguistic development, and freely dispose of our natural wealth and resources. States are obligated to respect and promote the realization of our right to self-determination. (See, for example, the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights [ICCPR], Art. 1.)
Our rights as an indigenous people include the following rights recognized in the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples (UNDRIP), all of which are relevant to sovereignty and sovereign rights in the Arctic: the right to self-determination, to freely determine our politicalstatus and to freely pursue our economic, social and cultural, including linguistic, development (Art. 3); the right to internal autonomy or self-government (Art. 4); the right to recognition, observance and enforcement of treaties, agreements and other constructive arrangements concluded with states (Art. 37); the right to maintain and strengthen our distinct political, legal, economic, social and cultural institutions, while retaining the right to participate fully in the political, economic, social and cultural life of states (Art. 5); the right to participate in decision-making in matters which would affect our rights and to maintain and develop our own indigenous decision-making institutions (Art. 18); the right to own, use, develop and control our lands, territories and resources and the right to ensure that no project affecting our lands, territories or resources will proceed without our free and informed consent (Art. 25-32); the right to peace and security (Art. 7); and the right to conservation and protection of our environment (Art. 29).
1.5 Inuit are an indigenous people of the Arctic. Our status, rights and responsibilities as a people among the peoples of the world, and as an indigenous people, are exercised within the unique geographic, environmental, cultural and political context of the Arctic. This has been acknowledged in the eight-nation Arctic Council, which provides a direct, participatory role for Inuit through the permanent participant status accorded the Inuit Circumpolar Council (Art. 2).
1.6 Inuit are citizens of Arctic states. As citizens of Arctic states (Denmark, Canada, USA and Russia), we have the rights and responsibilities afforded all citizens under the constitutions, laws, policies and public sector programs of these states. These rights and responsibilities do not diminish the rights and responsibilities of Inuit as a people under international law.
1.7 Inuit are indigenous citizens of Arctic states. As an indigenous people within Arctic states, we have the rights and responsibilities afforded all indigenous peoples under the constitutions, laws, policies and public sector programs of these states. These rights and responsibilities do not diminish the rights and responsibilities of Inuit as a people under international law.
1.8 Inuit are indigenous citizens of each of the major political subunits of Arctic states (states, provinces, territories and regions). As an indigenous people within Arctic states, provinces, territories, regions or other political subunits, we have the rights and responsibilities afforded all indigenous peoples under the constitutions, laws, policies and public sector programs of these subunits. These rights and responsibilities do not diminish the rights and responsibilities of Inuit as a people under international law.
2. The Evolving Nature of Sovereignty in the Arctic
2.1 "Sovereignty" is a term that has often been used to refer to the absolute and independent authority of a community or nation both internally and externally. Sovereignty is a contested concept, however, and does not have a fixed meaning. Old ideas of sovereignty are breaking down as different governance models, such as the European Union, evolve. Sovereignties overlap and are frequently divided within federations in creative ways to recognize the right of peoples. For Inuit living within the states of Russia, Canada, the USA and Denmark/Greenland, issues of sovereignty and sovereign rights must be examined and assessed in the context of our long history of struggle to gain recognition and respect as an Arctic indigenous people having the right to exercise self-determination over our lives, territories, cultures and languages.
2.2 Recognition and respect for our right to self-determination is developing at varying paces and in various forms in the Arctic states in which we live. Following a referendum in November 2008, the areas of self-government in Greenland will expand greatly and, among other things, Greenlandic (Kalaallisut) will become Greenland's sole official language. In Canada, four land claims agreements are some of the key building blocks of Inuit rights; while there are conflicts over the implementation of these agreements, they remain of vital relevance to matters of self-determination and of sovereignty and sovereign rights. In Alaska, much work is needed to clarify and implement the rights recognized in the Alaska Native Claims Settlement Act (ANCSA) and the Alaska National Interest Lands Conservation Act (ANILCA). In particular, subsistence hunting and self-government rightsneed to be fully respected and accommodated, and issues impeding their enjoyment and implementation need to be addressed and resolved. And in Chukotka, Russia, a very limited number of administrative processes have begun to secure recognition of Inuit rights. These developments will provide a foundation on which to construct future, creative governance arrangements tailored to diverse circumstances in states, regions and communities.
2.3 In exercising our right to self-determination in the circumpolar Arctic, we continue to develop innovative and creative jurisdictional arrangements that will appropriately balance our rights and responsibilities as an indigenous people, the rights and responsibilities we share with other peoples who live among us, and the rights and responsibilities of states. In seeking to exercise our rights in the Arctic, we continue to promote compromise and harmony with and among our neighbours.
2.4 International and other instruments increasingly recognize the rights of indigenous peoples to self-determination and representation in intergovernmental matters, and are evolving beyond issues of internal governance to external relations. (See, for example: ICCPR, Art. 1; UNDRIP, Art. 3; Draft Nordic Saami Convention, Art. 17, 19; Nunavut Land Claims Agreement, Art. 5.9).
2.5 Inuit are permanent participants at the Arctic Council with a direct and meaningful seat at discussion and negotiating tables (See 1997 Ottawa Declaration on the Establishment of the Arctic Council).
2.6 In spite of a recognition by the five coastal Arctic states (Norway, Denmark, Canada, USA and Russia) of the need to use international mechanisms and international law to resolve sovereignty disputes (see 2008 Ilulissat Declaration), these states, in their discussions of Arctic sovereignty, have not referenced existing international instruments that promote and protect the rights of indigenous peoples. They have also neglected to include Inuit in Arctic sovereignty discussions in a manner comparable to Arctic Council deliberations.
3. Inuit, the Arctic and Sovereignty: Looking Forward
The foundations of action
3.1 The actions of Arctic peoples and states, the interactions between them, and the conduct of international relations must be anchored in the rule of law.
3.2 The actions of Arctic peoples and states, the interactions between them, and the conduct of international relations must give primary respect to the need for global environmental security, the need for peaceful resolution of disputes, and the inextricable linkages between issues of sovereignty and sovereign rights in the Arctic and issues of self-determination.
Inuit as active partners
3.3 The inextricable linkages between issues of sovereignty and sovereign rights in the Arctic and Inuit self-determination and other rights require states to accept the presence and role of Inuit as partners in the conduct of international relations in the Arctic.
3.4 A variety of other factors, ranging from unique Inuit knowledge of Arctic ecosystems to the need for appropriate emphasis on sustainability in the weighing of resource development proposals, provide practical advantages to conducting international relations in the Arctic in partnership with Inuit.
3.5 Inuit consent, expertise and perspectives are critical to progress on international issues involving the Arctic, such as global environmental security, sustainable development, militarization, commercial fishing, shipping, human health, and economic and social development.
3.6 As states increasingly focus on the Arctic and its resources, and as climate change continues to create easier access to the Arctic, Inuit inclusion as active partners is central to all national and international deliberations on Arctic sovereignty and related questions, such as who owns the Arctic, who has the right to traverse the Arctic, who has the right to develop the Arctic, and who will be responsible for the social and environmental impacts increasingly facing the Arctic. We have unique knowledge and experience to bring to these deliberations. The inclusion of Inuit as active partners in all future deliberations on Arctic sovereignty will benefit both the Inuit community and the international community.
3.7 The extensive involvement of Inuit in global, trans-national and indigenous politics requires the building of new partnerships with states for the protection and promotion of indigenous economies, cultures and traditions. Partnerships must acknowledge that industrial development of the natural resource wealth of the Arctic can proceed only insofar as it enhances the economic and social well-being of Inuit and safeguards our environmental security.
The need for global cooperation
3.8 There is a pressing need for enhanced international exchange and cooperation in relation to the Arctic, particularly in relation to the dynamics and impacts of climate change and sustainable economic and social development. Regional institutions that draw together Arctic states, states from outside the Arctic, and representatives of Arctic indigenous peoples can provide useful mechanisms for international exchange and cooperation.
3.9 The pursuit of global environmental security requires a coordinated global approach to the challenges of climate change, a rigorous plan to arrest the growth in human-generated carbon emissions, and a far-reaching program of adaptation to climate change in Arctic regions and communities.
3.10 The magnitude of the climate change problem dictates that Arctic states and their peoples fully participate in international efforts aimed at arresting and reversing levels of greenhouse gas emissions and enter into international protocols and treaties. These international efforts, protocols and treaties cannot be successful without the full participation and cooperation of indigenous peoples.
Healthy Arctic communities
3.11 In the pursuit of economic opportunities in a warming Arctic, states must act so as to: (1) put economic activity on a sustainable footing; (2) avoid harmful resource exploitation; (3) achieve standards of living for Inuit that meet national and international norms and minimums; and (4) deflect sudden and far-reaching demographic shifts that would overwhelm and marginalize indigenous peoples where we are rooted and have endured.
3.12 The foundation, projection and enjoyment of Arctic sovereignty and sovereign rights all require healthy and sustainable communities in the Arctic. In this sense, "sovereignty begins at home."
Building on today's mechanisms for the future
3.13 We will exercise our rights of self-determination in the Arctic by building on institutions such as the Inuit Circumpolar Council and the Arctic Council, the Arctic-specific features of international instruments, such as the ice-covered-waters provision of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, andthe Arctic-related work of international mechanisms, such as the United Nations Permanent Forum on Indigenous Issues, the office of the United Nations Special Rapporteur on the Rights and Fundamental Freedoms of Indigenous Peoples, and the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples
4. A Circumpolar Inuit Declaration on Sovereignty in the Arctic
4.1 At the first Inuit Leaders' Summit, 6-7 November 2008, in Kuujjuaq, Nunavik, Canada, Inuit leaders from Greenland, Canada and Alaska gathered to address Arctic sovereignty. On 7 November, International Inuit Day, we expressed unity in our concerns over Arctic sovereignty deliberations, examined the options for addressing these concerns, and bly committed to developing a formal declaration on Arctic sovereignty. We also noted that the 2008 Ilulissat Declaration on Arctic sovereignty by ministers representing the five coastal Arctic states did not go far enough in affirming the rights Inuit have gained through international law, land claims and self-government processes.
4.2 The conduct of international relations in the Arctic and the resolution of international disputes in the Arctic are not the sole preserve of Arctic states or other states; they are also within the purview of the Arctic's indigenous peoples. The development of international institutions in the Arctic, such as multi-level governance systems and indigenous peoples' organizations, must transcend Arctic states' agendas on sovereignty and sovereign rights and the traditional monopoly claimed by states in the area of foreign affairs.
4.3 Issues of sovereignty and sovereign rights in the Arctic have become inextricably linked to issues of self-determination in the Arctic. Inuit and Arctic states must, therefore, work together closely and constructively to chart the future of the Arctic.
We, the Inuit of Inuit Nunaat, are committed to this Declaration and to working with Arctic states and others to build partnerships in which the rights, roles and responsibilities of Inuit are fully recognized and accommodated.
On behalf of Inuit in Greenland, Canada, Alaska, and Chukotka
Adopted by the Inuit Circumpolar Council, April 2009
Patricia A.L. Cochran,
Edward S. Itta
ICC Vice-Chair, Alaska
ICC Vice-Chair, Chukotka
Duane R. Smith
ICC Vice-Chair, Canada
ICC Vice-Chair, Greenland
2. Government of Nunavut
2.1 Department of Executive and Intergovernmental Affairs
During the reporting period, Executive and Intergovernmental Affairs (EIA) provided support to all GN departments implementing elements of the NLCA. The GN continues to participate in the Nunavut General Monitoring Program established under the NLCA. The Secretariat has been established with the GN as a member along with AANDC, NTI, and NPC.
Through Articles 10, 11, and 12 of the NLCA, the co-management boards provided the GN with project proposals and the EIA continued to coordinate project assessments with other departments using consensus based decisions. The GN supports the adoption of the Nunavut Planning and Project Assessment Act (NUPPAA) submitted to the House of Commons.
The GN worked with AANDC, and the NWB to provide a final draft Water Regulations for Nunavut.
Nominations to Nunavik co-management boards and other IPGs continued on an as and when needed basis by the GN.
The GN continues to participate with its partners in Implementation Panel meetings covering various topics under the NLCA.
2.2 Department of Environment
The Department of the Environment (DOE) is responsible for the implementation of some of the most significant obligations established by the NLCA. These obligations transect almost all sections of the claim.
Wildlife Research and Management
DOE Wildlife Management Section has a legislated mandate for managing terrestrial wildlife species in Nunavut. In addition to the Wildlife Act, the Wildlife Management Section is responsible forfulfilling GN responsibilities under a wide range of federal legislation and both national and international agreements and conventions. This includes ongoing responsibility for the co-management of wildlife as obligated under the NLCA.
The DOE Wildlife Management Section issues permits for wildlife research under the Wildlife License and Permits Regulations, section 16(3). In 2010-2011, the section issued over 30 permits for studies related to terrestrial animals and plants. These permits were issued following consultation with HTOs and the NWMB. Permitees are required to provide any reports or publications resulting from their research to DOE and the NWMB. They were also encouraged to employ individuals from the communities and to make information acquired during the research available to the communities.
Wildlife research includes scientific research, wildlife monitoring and the collection, analysis, dissemination, and archiving of IQ. Development of management plans, regulations, and conservation recommendations for consideration by the NWMB are achieved through extensive community and stakeholder consultations. Wildlife Research works with HTOs, Regional Wildlife Organizations (RWOs), the NWMB, parks, co-management committees, as well as national and international management bodies. This section also reviews land-use applications, monitors land use impacts, provides expert scientific and IQ advice related to project environmental assessments, and develops recommendations with respect to wildlife and wildlife habitat.
Use of Inuit Qaujimajatuqangit in Wildlife Research and Species Management
The Wildlife Management Section uses both IQ and science in research and management of the wildlife species under its jurisdiction. IQ includes Inuit Traditional Ecological Knowledge, Inuit Ecological Knowledge, Inuit public opinion, and Inuit values.
The use of IQ is mandated through Tamapta, the mandate of Nunavut's Third Legislative Assembly. Tamapta requires that the government adheres to Inuit Societal Values and the NLCA. The NLCA creates a wildlife management system that invites public participation and promotes public confidence, particularly amongst Inuit, and serves and promotes the long-term economic, social, and cultural interests of Inuit harvesters. Incorporation of science and IQ is a major challenge that DOE is working to resolve collaboratively with all of its co-management partners.
DOE Wildlife Management Section released two papers in 2010-2011 which documented Inuit elder, hunter, and public knowledge of Davis Strait Polar Bears and climate change. This work was conducted to support decisions on the total allowable harvest for this sub-population by the NWMB.
In the 2010-2011, some 445 polar bears were harvested across the territory, an increase from a total of 418 bears in 2009-2010. Approximately 2250 samples were collected from harvested bears, including 884 teeth, 475 tissue, 292 baculum, 475 fat, and 30 liver samples. The samples also include ear tags and lip tattoos that were retrieved from previously captured bears. Hunters were compensated financially for providing the samples. The tissue, liver, and fat samples were collected as part of long-term EC - GN Contaminants Study and a body condition monitoring study between Dr. Greg Thiemann of York University and the DOE.
The DOE Wildlife Management Section, together with EC and others, completed an analysis of 35 years of capture and harvest data for polar bears in Davis Strait to quantify its current demography. This major undertaking concluded that the population size had likely increased to approximately 2158 bears by 2007 but that this is no longer occurring. It also concluded that current harvest levels are sustainable.
The development of an alternative less invasive method than the capture, collar, and release approach used to estimate polar bear populations was a priority due to Inuit concerns with the handling and drugging of the bears. The second of two comprehensive aerial surveys of the Foxe Basin polar bear population was completed during August and September with assistance from HTOs. This was the first time such methods have been used for polar bear assessment in Nunavut. The results from the survey will be carried forward in 2011 to serve as the basis for community consultations on the development of a revised management scheme for the population. Test aerial surveys also were conducted to assess the feasibility of this method in Baffin Bay as well as the Nunavut portion of the Western Hudson Bay population. Before the test aerial survey was conducted for the Western Hudson Bay, a consultation took place in Churchill, Manitoba with members from Nunavut communities on the range, Manitoba Conservation, EC, and NTI.
Several populations of polar bears are shared with other Canadian or foreign jurisdictions hence the need for coordinated research and management. The GN, represented by DOE and the NWMB, has been, and continues to be, involved with international and domestic inter-jurisdictional agreements (as per Article 9 of the NLCA). Nunavut and Greenland share the Baffin Bay and Kane Basin polar bear populations. In 2009, an agreement established the Greenland-Canada Joint Commission to make coordinated recommendations on the sustainable harvest of these two populations. The commission met twice to discuss management objectives, harvest levels, and research plans for the two populations. This led to commitments by the parties to undertake new, collaborative research to assess the size and status of these populations. Fieldwork is scheduled to commence in 2011. In Hudson Bay, DOE has been working with Manitoba, Ontario, and Quebec to design and undertake joint research programs to document the bear populations and current harvest levels. The aim is to reach agreements on sustainable harvest levels and an equitable sharing amongst the hunting communities. Inuit participation in inter-jurisdictional discussions continued during 2010-2011. This included the attendance of two representatives from Designated Inuit Organizations (DIOs) as members of the Canada-Greenland Joint Commission, the attendance of HTO board members at a Western Hudson Bay workshop in Churchill in July 2010, inter-jurisdictional meetings on the Davis Strait Polar Bear sub-population, and a recent meeting about Southern Hudson Bay held in Quebec City.
Wolverine carcasses were collected to study feeding habits, reproduction, and natality of the animals in Nunavut. The carcasses enable the Wildlife Management Section to obtain information on geographic distribution, age and sex composition, feeding habits, health, and reproductive characteristics. In each community, conservation officers collect the carcasses from hunters and paid a $50 subsidy per carcass. DOE also initiated a hair snagging study in order to estimate the size of the wolverine population in the vicinity of Baker Lake. Wooden posts wrapped with barbed wire collect hair samples suitable for DNA analysis.
A hair snagging study to obtain DNA samples was initiated to assess the distribution and abundance of grizzly bears. This work was co-funded by the NWMB and undertaken by DOE and the Kugluktuk HTO. Grizzly Bear Management Plan consultations were started in February 2011 with communities in the Kivalliq as well at the Kivalliq Wildlife Board spring meeting.
The goal of the multi-year Raptor Project is to collect demographic and ecological data on raptors – primarily peregrine falcons and rough-legged hawks. The research results will be used to provide recommendations to the NWMB regarding a total allowable harvest of peregrine falcons. During the summer of 2010, a crew consisting of DOE staff, a locally hired guide, and a graduate student from the University of Alberta conducted fieldwork northwest of Igloolik. All work was done after consulting with, and receiving approval from, the HTO in the community.
In 2007, Cabinet directed DOE to develop a comprehensive caribou management strategy with input and collaboration from other GN departments and in consultation with relevant external stakeholders. The Wildlife Management Section drafted a Caribou Strategy designed to ensure consistent, comprehensive, and sustainable co-management of all caribou herds in Nunavut and undertook regional consultations in the three Nunavut regions in fall, 2010. A second round of consultations was conducted in early 2011. The Strategy is being finalized and will go to Cabinet in 2011-2012.
Three caribou herds in the Kitikmeot Region (Cape Bathurst, Bluenose-West, and Bluenose-East) also occupy the northern portion of the Northwest Territories. Given the drastic declines in populations in the early 2000s and recognition that the caribou are an essential resource and central to the social, economic, cultural, and spiritual well-being of the local people, an inter-jurisdictional Advisory Committee for Cooperation on Wildlife Management was established in 2008. It charged a working group with the development of a plan for the management of the three caribou herds. Development of the plan involved 15 communities in six land claim areas that harvest these caribou. Further consultations are planned with the Kugluktuk HTO in summer 2011 prior to the NWMB and the Minister of Environment's consideration of the plan.
Effects of predation on Mainland Migratory Barren-Ground Caribou
The effects of predation on a declining population of caribou in the vicinity of Qamanirjuaq Lake, Nunavut were investigated in 2010 on the Qamanirjuaq Caribou herd calving ground. Meetings were held with Kivalliq Wildlife Board and Kivalliq HTOs to explain the timing of the survey, its methodology, and the use of both airplanes and helicopters. Community members were hired for the surveys.
Caribou Disease Monitoring and Health
Southampton Island Caribou
The Coral Harbour HTO and the Wildlife Management Section conducted aerial surveys on Southampton Island in June 2005, 2007, and in 2009 to determine the number and distribution of caribou. The results revealed an ongoing population decline. It also suggested that the harvest rate has been above the maximum sustained yield for the population, despite significant reductions in commercial harvesting.
In March 2010, DOE examined the condition of the caribou herd and concluded that the main factor causing the population decline is the reproductive disease Brucellosis suis. It causes infertility in both male and female caribou and may be temporary or, in extreme cases, long term. Meetings were held in Coral Harbour in the fall 2010 and 2011 to discuss the population decline and its possible link to high rates of Brucella suis. An agreement was reached between DOE and the Coral Harbour HTO that the annual commercial harvest would be cancelled pending new survey results scheduled for June 2011.
Caribou Research and Management
Research on Peary caribou in Qikiqtaaluk focused on aerial and ground surveys of the species' abundance, composition, and distribution across the Arctic Archipelago. This followed concerns of another population crash caused by severe icing in 1997. Research has been completed in partnership with the HTOs of Resolute Bay and Grise Fiord, and with Parks Canada. Support was provided by Polar Continental Project, the NWMB, and DOE's Habitat Stewardship Program.
The results of this multi-year study (2001-2008) suggest Peary caribou currently exist at low densities and in small numbers across much of their high arctic range. Results of this research were presented to Resolute Bay and Grise Fiord communities in September 2010 and have since been posted on the internet.
Peary caribou were identified as an endangered species by the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada, and were listed under the Federal Species at Risk Act (SARA) in February 2011. This, incombination with research results from DOE's Peary caribou distribution and abundance study, has led to renewed collaborative efforts to develop management and monitoring plans for Peary caribou across the Arctic Archipelago. Workshops with the communities of Resolute Bay and Grise Fiord are planned for 2011 in order to initiate plan development.
A satellite telemetry program for Peary caribou was initiated in 2003 to collect animal location data over a three-year period. These data reveal movement patterns and space use, and assist in the delineation of populations and evaluation of habitat selection. Analysis and reporting is ongoing and will be completed in 2011. As well, a comprehensive genetic study of Peary caribou across the entire Arctic Archipelago to evaluate the population's structure is ongoing.
The North Baffin Space Use and Movement study (2007-2013) is a satellite-based collaring program to track animal movements and provide valuable spatial data. A total of 30 Global Positioning System collars, deployed in spring 2008 and 2009 are providing a cost-effective means of remotely monitoring caribou activity. This study has been complemented with studies of body condition, mortality, herd composition, and calf recruitment of the collared animals in 2010 and 2011. The collars will detach from the caribou during summer 2011 and an analysis of the Global Positioning System data will follow. This will include analysis of movement, space use, and resource selection patterns of north Baffin caribou.
The Wildlife Management Section's collaring program is being supported by Baffinland Iron Ore Mines, Polar Continental Shelf, the NWMB, and local HTOs. The study includes the collection of local knowledge and community consultation in advance of, and during the study. Consultations have occurred annually since 2007 and interim reports have documented each year's results and progress. This multi-year project will inform future research with respect to population surveys, genetic analysis, and simulation modeling.
An ongoing Caribou Health Monitoring Program was initiated in North Baffin in 2008. This study is founded on a community-based monitoring framework that engages hunters to collect samples and information from the caribou they harvest. Consultation and training occurs annually and efforts to engage and train hunters are a major initiative.
Baffin Island Caribou Survey
The status of Baffin Island populations is unknown since no reliable estimates of population size exist. To address knowledge gaps and concerns regarding the distribution and abundance of the barrenground caribou, a full island aerial survey is in the planning phase. This research will provide baseline population and distribution information to direct wildlife management initiatives and support the assessment and mitigation of potential impacts associated with various land use activities and climate change. The data will also provide a benchmark against which future change can be measured. Local knowledge will be collected from Elders and hunters to provide IQ on past distribution and abundance of caribou. Preliminary design work supported the estimation, purchase, and delivery of Jet B fuel to numerous communities across Baffin Island in 2010. Additional survey design work and community consultations will continue in 2011, while the aerial surveys will commence in 2012-2013.
Muskoxen Research and Management
Nunavut's current muskoxen management system was adopted from the NWT. It is very successful in supporting the recovery of muskoxen, particularly in the Kivalliq Region. To improve the current system the RWOs, HTOs, NTI, and the Wildlife Management Section have worked cooperatively to draft a new Muskoxen Management Plan for the Kivalliq Region. The draft plan will be finalized following completion of a GN survey and IQ study. The plan has been presented to the NWMB for information and will require the Board's approval prior to implementation. To support communities, DOE has been issuing exemption permits that increase harvester opportunities by removing the season and increasing the Total Allowable Harvest.
DOE research on High Arctic Muskoxen has been partnered with the Resolute and Grise Fiord HTOs, and Parks Canada. This multi-year program to survey and estimate muskoxen across their Arctic Archipelago range was carried out in conjunction with research on Peary caribou. Since 2001, DOE and the HTOs from Resolute Bay and Grise Fiord have completed joint ground/aerial surveys on the Bathurst Island Group, Cornwallis Island, western Devon Island, the islands of Prince of Wales, Somerset, Ellesmere, Graham, Axel Heiberg, Ellef Ringnes, Amund Ringnes, Lougheed, Cornwall, King Christian, and Meighen, and on the entire non-glaciated portions of Devon Island. Many of these islands had not been surveyed since 1961. The survey results are published in a comprehensive report that has been distributed to each of the communities and is available on the GN web site.
A satellite telemetry program for High Arctic Muskoxen was initiated in 2003 to collect animal location data over a three-year period. These data reveal movement patterns and space use and assist in the delineation of populations and evaluation of habitat selection. Analysis and reporting is ongoing.
IQ on population changes and ecology of Peary caribou and muskoxen has been collected for the high arctic islands. This work documents changes in the distribution and abundance of muskoxen over approximately 50 years and provides background and local information for interpretation of scientific data.
A comprehensive genetic study of muskoxen across the entire Arctic Archipelago to evaluate population structure is under way.
Work is ongoing to update management units and harvest regulations that are currently applied to muskoxen populations in the Baffin Region. Workshops have occurred in Resolute Bay and Grise Fiord to detail research findings and to work collaboratively towards management and monitoring plans for each of the populations within the Baffin Region.
Parks and Conservation
Articles 8 and Article 9 of the NLCA (Parks and Conservation Areas, respectively) establish DOE's responsibility for the implementation of an IIBA for all territorial parks, and for negotiating and implementing of IIBAs for conservation areas that are under either shared or sole jurisdiction of the territorial government. Co-management is a cornerstone of both the NLCA and IIBAs as it relates to territorial parks and conservation areas.
The DOE's Research Section supports initiatives for parks and conservation areas through research, reporting, and review efforts. In 2010, staff participated in the Bathurst Island Park Negotiating Team to provide both background and current information on wildlife and its habitat. Research initiatives included the analysis of existing data to evaluate space use and movement of Peary caribou and muskoxen within the Bathurst Island Complex. In 2010 and 2011, the Section provided review comments and research information on territorial park initiatives across the territory.
Land Use and Environmental Assessment
Under NLCA Articles related to Land and Resource Management Institutions (Article 10), Land Use Planning (Article 11), Development Impact (Article 12), and Water Management (Article 13), DOE is mandated to work with IPGs to ensure that Nunavut's natural resources are protected and enhanced. This involves effective co-management of land use planning, development impact reviews, water management, and other forms of support to land and resource management institutions. DOE also has ancillary or secondary responsibilities for obligations under Articles 15, 16, 20, 21, 40, and 42 of the NLCA, which are part of the day-to-day operational mandate of the Department.
Energy and mineral exploration and development proposals increased significantly in 2010 and as a result, the Wildlife Management Section reviewed and provided comments on numerous applications to the NIRB through the Environmental Protection Division. These included initial NIRB screenings, Part 4 Reviews, and multiple stage review of Baffinland Iron Mines through a Part 5 Environmental Impact Assessment. The Section also was involved in the NIRB review for the proposed Areva Resources Kiggavik uranium mine proposal near Baker Lake.
Nunavut Land Use
The Wildlife Management Section provides significant input and information into Land Use Planning Initiatives. In 2010, efforts to provide current information on wildlife species and habitat sensitivity were extensive and driven by tight deadlines imposed by the NPC and DOE commitments to the process. In the Qikiqtaaluk Region, considerable time and effort went into addressing data requirements, including the compilation of historical information. Data sets from 1980-2010 were compiled, cleaned and analysed to support mapping initiatives and the delineation of sensitive habitat for land use planning purposes.
DOE has the lead responsibility in the GN for ensuring the protection, promotion, and sustainable use of natural resources in the territory. DOE has legislated mandates for the protection and management of wildlife, environment, and parks. The Environmental Protection Division of the department reviews and coordinates the GN's response to land use plans and development proposals on Federal, territorial, and Inuit-owned lands; highlighting the environmental and social impacts a proposal might present.
Land use planning under Article 11 of the NLCA, ensures the DOE continues a dialogue with the NPC regarding the products coming from the current land use-planning model and the appropriateness of the land use-planning model in relation to the Act. DOE supports the GN's active engagement in land use planning in order to strengthen Nunavut's claim based land and resource management system.
In terms of development impact, Article 12 requires the NIRB to seek advice from the DOE in determining if a project "may have significant adverse effects on the ecosystem, wildlife habitat, or Inuit harvesting activities." This relates to project and general monitoring, the screening of project proposals, the review of project proposals, and to hearings.
The DOE provides leadership in the conduct and structure of environmental assessments in the GN. The DOE has established a comprehensive, cohesive, and functioning Environmental Assessment Review Team to assist the department of EIA to coordinate NIRB's review of major development projects. DOE delivered environmental assessment training workshops for various GN departments. As well, the DOE is developing Environmental Assessment Guides for GN Departments.
The DOE participated in implementing NLCA iterative and time sensitive responsibilities. These included:
- Impact and baseline project monitoring.
- Impact reviews and screenings.
- Data collection and dissemination for Land Use Plan.
- Contributing to Nunavut General Monitoring Plan (NGMP) data collection.
Parks and Special Places
NTI and the Government of Canada requested that the GN be made a party to the umbrella IIBA for Heritage Rivers under section 8.4.3 of the NLCA. The GN agreed to be a Party to the IIBA on the condition that Canada would fund any additional obligations. Formal negotiations began in November 2004 with the exchange of a framework and an outline for the IIBA. The negotiation sessions held in April 2005 were the first that included the GN as part of the Canada caucus. Negotiations continued throughout the 2008-2010 reporting period.
Since the formal approval of the Territorial Parks IIBA on May 13, 2002, the then Department of Sustainable Development (now DOE), along with NTI and the three RIAs, have been working towards implementing the agreement. Efforts have been hampered due to a lack of funding. Nevertheless, the parties to the IIBA moved the process forward during the 2008-2010 reporting period. Progress includes:
- Parks Contracts have been written in keeping with Article 5 of the IIBA.
- The GN invited NTI participation in the screening and interviewing of potential new hires of GN Park full-time employees.
- GN Parks summer and casual employment policies give preferential treatment to NLCA Beneficiaries.
- Interpretative and signage programs are consistent with language requirements in the IIBA.
- Two staff were hired to assist in implementing NLCA and IIBA requirements including management plans, a communications strategy, school visits, trade shows, Parks Day, etc.
- DOE began negotiations with QIA and NTI on IIBA Article 8.3.11 respecting Katannilik Territorial Park boundaries.
- Work significantly advanced on the Nunavut Parks Program and Heritage Appreciation Strategy (IIBA Article 14.2.1) as well as on the Inventory Framework (IIBA Article 14.4) and Master Planning Framework (IIBA Article 14.3).
- DOE commenced communications with the Department of Economic Development and Transportation (ED&T) to satisfy requirements of IIBA Article 10 and 14.4.2(e) on Mineral Assessment of Park Proposals.
Co-management is a cornerstone of both the NLCA and IIBAs as they relate to territorial parks. The Territorial Parks IIBA provides for territory-wide and local involvement in the development and management of territorial parks. Under the terms of the IIBA, the GN, along with NTI and the three RIAs, appoints representatives to co-management committees. Appointments to the territory-wide committee have been completed. However, these appointments presume federal support by way of Implementation Contract funding. Implementation of the IIBA, and the co-management of the territorial parks, is now at a critical juncture. However, if adequate funding is not received through implementation contracts, it will not be possible for DOE to implement components of the IIBA.
The federal government has an underlying and ongoing responsibility to provide adequate incremental funding to the GN to meet its obligations under the NLCA, yet, to date, the federal government response in negotiations to update the Implementation Contract for the second planning period has been less than adequate. In the last response from AANDC to the GN funding proposal for the new planning period, Canada stated that:
The GN and NTI have indicated that IIBA implementation funding must be based on identified amounts and appropriate to the developmental nature of the territorial park system. Taking this into consideration and in further review of the information provided previously, Canada is prepared to provide a contribution of $230,000 annually to the GN to help provide opportunities for Inuit to see real benefits from Nunavut's park system now and over the coming years.
The funding amount identified by AADNC is insufficient and falls far short of those identified in the GN proposal, leaving the parties to the IIBA unable to implement successfully the IIBA fully.
The NLCA requires the federal government to make certain that adequate funding is available to ensure all government obligations under the NLCA are properly carried out and not just to "help" or "contribute to" the obligations as stated in AANDC's May 4th, 2004 response the GN's proposal.
DOE continues to ensure that all publications, signs, kiosks, and interpretation material related to parks are produced in Inuktitut and one or both of Canada's official languages. DOE worked closely with Parks Canada, the CWS, and other federal and territorial partners to promote and communicate the roles for parks and conservation areas in Nunavut.
2.3 Department of Justice Land Titles Office
The Land Titles Office (LTO) administers the Land Titles Act (Nunavut) and provides guaranteed titlesunder a modern legal regime. The LTO is responsible for registering municipal and Inuit-owned lands under Article 14 (Municipal Lands) and Article 19 (Title to Inuit-Owned Lands) of the NLCA.
Under Article 14.3, the LTO issues fee simple titles for all municipal land parcels, records encumbrances, and issues separate leasehold titles when needed. This may be preceded by registering survey plans to reflect new land development and remediating existing surveys when lot lines must be varied for existing structures or roadways. When surveys are completed for remote municipal infrastructure sites, the LTO registers them and issues titles. The NLCA requires issuance of two separate titles for each parcel for both the fee simple and leasehold estates, due to limits on alienation contemplated in Article 14.8. Under Article 19.8.12, the LTO reviews survey plans for Inuit-owned lands relative to existing descriptive map plans, registers them, and issues titles for the resulting fee simple and mines and minerals estates.
With regard to the administration of land titles within the claim, a considerable amount of highly skilled qualitative analysis is required on an ongoing basis. One notable aspect of the Torrens system being used to assess the land titles is that all parcels of land must be based on existing survey tracts. This means that the system must be based on the best science available. In this regard, the LTO has invested in staff development and has succeeded in qualifying our Survey Review Officer who has received his Canada Land Surveyor (CLS) certification last year. This additional capacity will greatly assist in a fundamental modernization and improvement of our Torrens system. The service quality approach has been, and will continue to be refined in response to stakeholder needs, advances in technology, and increased resources.
The complexity of administering land titles in Nunavut means that there are extraordinary staffing needs compared to the operational demands of a more mature jurisdiction. Following a need analysis, the LTO acquired the services of a Senior Counsel with extensive Torrens land administration experience, and, as indicated above, qualified a staff as CLS. Full qualification for a CLS commission for the staff concerned was obtained in 2010; the balance of the required practicum will be completed by December this year.
To understand the scope of this project, it is useful to realize that the anticipated 3,000 additional registrations, dealing with approximately 1,700 parcels, represent approximately two years worth of work at the LTO. These registration estimates are likely to be exceeded as in the last two fiscal years alone fee simple titles were issued for 2,246 parcels.
The following table shows actual registrations effected under these articles in the last two fiscal years, including plans. The table illustrates the different rates of registration for Article 14 and Article 19 over the two-year period and provides accumulative totals. The LTO applied for, and obtained, funding to improve its database and to permit electronic submissions and this has helped process registrations within national standards (48 hours). An additional pressure for improving the database was imposed by the ratification on July 10, 2008 of the Nunavik Inuit Land Claims Agreement which necessitated changes to the database. The next challenge within the present or the next fiscal year will be the ratification of the Cree Eeyou Istchee Agreement, which also falls within the jurisdiction of the LTO with regard to offshore islands.
Based on the projected improvements to the system, the present staffing levels, and agreements with Community and Government Services (CGS) for transfer of records, the LTO is confident that the bulk of the requests for Article 14 transfers will be completed in this fiscal year. Staffing level issues at both CGS and the LTO may affect this projection, as the LTO can only process what is submitted to it.
CGS has been approached to allow for the transfer of all Article 14 records to the LTO. The LTO would digitize these records and enter the data in a separate system, which is ready to receive the documentation. With proper delegation of authority, LTO would then have the ability to affect the proper transfers into the Torrens system on an accelerated basis. While this arrangement seems to have gained favour in principle, there has not been ratification of the process nor a firm commitment for a definite start date.
|April 1, 2010 –
March 31, 2011
|Article 19||IOL Plans *||6||6|
|IOL Titles - Mines and Minerals||1|
|April 1, 2009 –
March 31, 2010
|Article 19||IOL Plans *||156||156|
|IOL Titles - Mines and Minerals||15||15|
|April 1, 2009 –
March 31, 2011
(Two Year Total)
|Article 19||IOL Plans *||162||162|
|IOL Titles - Mines and Minerals||16||16|
|* IOL refers to Inuit Owned Lands.
Note: Previously encumbered parcels provided for registration under Article 14, being 86 separate parcels for which a leasehold title also had to be issued.
2.4 Department of Community and Government Services
CGS has responsibilities relating to Article 11 (Land Use Planning), Article 14 (Municipal Lands), Article 23 (Inuit Employment and Training), Article 22 (Real Property Taxation), and Article 24 (Government Contracts) of the NLCA. Implementation of these obligations continued in 2010-2011.
Implementation funding provided CGS with $1,125,114, allowing municipalities to employ Land Administrators to manage and enforce planning and lands by-laws, and other related by-laws and regulations within their municipal boundaries.
According to Article 14, all land within the municipal boundaries is Municipal Lands with the following exceptions: Inuit-owned lands, Crown Lands, and lands owned in fee simple title other than the municipality. That leaves a large percentage of the land to be managed by the municipal corporation even though they may not have title to all the land.
The management and enforcement of by-laws contributes to safe, legal, and orderly development (Article 11.2.1.). The land responsibilities include issuing, transferring, amending, and cancelling leases on titled and untitled municipal lands. The Land Administrators are also responsible for the management of quarries within the municipal boundaries where a Quarry Administration agreement is in place or where the municipality has fee simple title to the land. The planning responsibilities include accepting development applications, issuing permits, and enforcement. Managing land and enforcing zoning regulations is a challenging job in Nunavut and requires motivated and skilled people. Adequate funding ensures that the positions for land administrators are filled with qualified workers. If adequate funding is not provided, skilled workers will leave and find employment with other governments or organizations, such as, AANDC, DIOs, and the GN. The funding must be competitive so that the Municipality can retain the workers which they have spent resources to train.
Proper land administration reduces planning and land issues which, in turn, reduce delays in obtaining leases and mortgages for individuals seeking to purchase a home. It also ensures that land issues will not impede economic development (Article 11.2.3).
The number of titled lands, as reported previously, within municipalities continued to grow as an increasing number of lots were surveyed each year. The transfer of lands is an ongoing function of the CGS (Article 14.3.1). As new lots are surveyed, the CGS prepares the required documents in order to transfer land to the municipalities. As previously reported, the Land Titles Fee which was preventing registration of land documents at the LTO was reduced by 90% and now the CGS has identified funding to cover the remaining 10%. This is deposited in the LTO Assurance Fund. As well, in 2008, CGS acquired Strategic Investment Northern Economic Development funding from AANDC which enabled CGS to survey 1,700 lots in 2008 and this year CGS received funding from CanNor to survey another 555 lots. Overcoming the Land Title Fees and obtaining funding to produce a large inventory of lots will significantly increase volume of work for the municipal Land Administrators.
CGS assists all municipalities in developing and creating community plans that embrace the principles outlined in Parts 2 and 3 of Article 11. Community Plans and Zoning By-laws have been developed for all communities in Nunavut. The by-laws that have been adopted recently by the communities are more comprehensive than previous plans, due to the communities becoming more mature. In order to deal with community growth, more stringent development regulations have been adopted, placing more responsibilities on the Land Administrators and requiring them to obtain more skills and knowledge.
Departments such as the Nunavut Housing Corporation, Education, and ED&T are dependent upon the municipalities to provide developable land and land management so that they can proceed with projects. As well, CGS and Finance are dependent on the municipalities to provide information regarding leases in their community in order for the GN to calculate property values and collect taxes (Article 22).
CGS continues to administer and control the 100-foot reserve on behalf of the Commissioner, as well as untitled lands within municipal boundaries (for the benefit of the municipalities and in accordance with Parts 4 and 5 of Article 14).
The Planning and Lands Section of CGS provides ongoing training to the Land Administrators in support of Article 23 (Inuit Employment and Training) by assisting with daily transactions and enforcement issues. As well, CGS through the Municipal Training Organization provides five different Planning and Lands courses which are designed to train the Land Administrators. The Municipal Training Organization is a non-profit organization that provides a wide range of planning and lands courses. The Municipal Government Program gives community employees a broad spectrum of knowledge and resources related to the administration of a municipal government and specific tools to administer their own land programs. CGS continues to provide daily assistance and training to all community planning and lands administrators.
3. Government of Canada
3.1 Aboriginal Affairs and Northern Development Canada
The Implementation Branch
The Implementation Branch at AANDC is responsible for implementing numerous obligations specific to the department, and also for overseeing and coordinating the implementation of all federal obligations under the NLCA. The Implementation Branch works regularly with other AANDC officials and other federal government departments and agencies, as well as with representatives from the GN and NTI on policy, legal, and administrative matters pertaining to the implementation of the NLCA.
Despite obstacles and different perspectives of the Parties, Canada remains fully committed to continuing work with all parties towards the successful implementation of the NLCA. The following section provides key highlights of activities undertaken during this reporting period.
- Article 24: Work continued with NTI on the proposed amendment to the definition of "Inuit owned firm" under section 24.1.1 of the NLCA.
- Training sessions for federal employees on procurement obligations continued. As of March 31, 2011, over 1,200 federal employees, representing over 20 departments and agencies, received customized training.
- Continued the collection of quarterly data on federal procurement activities in the Nunavut Settlement Area (NSA) using CLCA.net.
- Article 23: Federal departments with offices in the NSA, along with the Nunavut Federal Council and the Implementation Branch, collaborated to support the development of an Umbrella Inuit Employment Plan.
- Article 21: The Nunavut Surface Rights Tribunal was re-established with five members and was funded in March 2011.
- Articles 13 & 21: Drafting the renewal of the Nunavut Waters and Surface Rights Tribunal Act legislation continued.
- Article 11: Drafting of the NUPPAA continued, with $100,000 provided to IPGs to support their involvement in the development of the planning and project assessment legislation.
- Work continued on the development of various guides and a federal management framework designed to provide practical advice and direction to those federal officials with implementation responsibilities and to strengthen the management of modern treaty implementation across the federal government.
- Internal work continued on an electronic system to track, monitor, and report on federal obligations under modern treaties.
- The Nunavut Implementation Panel met in Gatineau, Québec on November 10, 2010.
- Work began to update the Inuit Labour Force Analysis, as per Article 23.
- Article 7: Crown lands were made available to clients without fees for outpost camps that were approved by the local HTOs and screened by the Land Advisory Committee.
- Article 12: Forwarded applications to the NIRB for 5 Crown land dispositions, 19 land use permits, and 67 quarry permits for review and screening.
- Participated in NIRB's processes for Part 5 reviews of Baffinland's Mary River Project and AREVA's Kiggavik Project. Also active in two land exchanges identified in Article 8.2.5 and 8.3.11 of the NLCA where Agreements were reached between the parties involved.
- Worked with NWB in reviewing and approving the closure and reclamation plan for Polaris Mine, Nanisivik Mine, and the Cullaton Lake Mine.
- Article 14: Worked with the GN's CGS and Natural Resources Canada to assist with the administration of Municipal Lands, involving transfers of beds and bodies of water for community development purposes as well as updating of the Inventory of Government and Crown Agency Lands in Municipalities (known as the GEL list).
- Article 19: Continued to review legal survey plans of selected parcels of Inuit Owned Land. While a few plans have yet to be received, to date, there have been no disputes.
- Article 21.7.2: approximately 60 leases were administered by the Mining Recorder's Office.
- Field Operations conducted a total of 243 inspections to ensure compliance of activities that have been authorized under Federal/ Territorial Legislation.
AANDC has coordinated input on behalf of Canada to work with the NPC, and the other NLCA planning partners, to promote effective drafting and implementation of Article 11 of the NLCA.
- Continued to hold meetings between NTI, the GN, the NPC, and federal government departments with the goal of building a NLUP. Building from Article 11.4.1(a), all Parties have agreed to the broad planning policies, objectives, and goals that will guide the development of the land use plans.
- Coordinated comments from other divisions for submission to the NIRB for the following projects: the Baffinland Mary River Iron Ore Project (several), the AREVA Kiggavik Uranium Project (several), the Agnico-Eagle Meadowbank Gold Project, and the Hope Bay Minerals Ltd. Doris North Project.
- Participated in a guidelines development workshop for the Kiggavik project and participated in public consultation sessions for both the Kiggavik and Baffinland projects.
- Administered the selection panel and contribution agreements for participant funding for the environmental review of the Kiggavik Uranium Project.
Water Resources Division
The Water Resources Division provides comments, recommendations, and support to the NWB by reviewing and providing interventions to water licensing and implementation processes for any activity, including municipal, mineral exploration, and mining activities, which involves the use of water or the disposal of wastes into water.
As part of the interventions to the water licensing process, AANDC provides a cost estimate for the abandonment and reclamation of each project so the NWB can set the amount of water-related financial security to be held by the Government of Canada. A b working relationship has been developed and maintained with the NWB.
- Provided comments on 120 submissions for Type B water licences and 14 for Type A water licences. Public hearings were held in Rankin Inlet and Arviat for the renewal of each community's municipal water license, and a site visit was conducted at Cullaton Lake. A visit to the Polaris site was unsuccessful due to bad weather.
- Funded (along with AANDC NWT Region) EC – Water Survey Canada to monitor water quantity through Hydrometric Monitoring in Nunavut.
- Saw the draft Nunavut Water Regulations under Section 82 of the Nunavut Waters and Nunavut Surface Rights Tribunal Act completed and havecompleted the community consultation phase.
Nunavut General Monitoring Plan
Significant progress was made during the reporting period to lay the foundation for NGMP. The accomplishments of NGMP can be credited to the NGMP Steering Committee and the expanding partnerships that have provided ongoing support, dedication, and ownership over Nunavut general monitoring.
- Article 12.7.6: The NGMP was developed and has four key activity areas: facilitating governance and partnerships; collect, analyse, and synthesize data; develop and maintain an information management system; and report and communicate. All contribute toward an accessible knowledge base of ecosystemic and socio-economic monitoring information which is central to supporting sustainable development decision-making in Nunavut.
- NTI, the NPC, the GN, and AANDC held the inaugural meeting of the NGMP Steering Committee on July 20-21, 2010, in Iqaluit. The meeting reaffirmed the partnerships that remain at the heart of NGMP. Its next planning session will be held in early April 2011.
Facilitating Governance and Partnerships
The development of the NGMP Secretariat also began to take shape, and included implementing an interim work plan focused on developing its broader human resource and administrative capacities; working with the NGMP Steering Committee and communications staff to develop the overall look and feel for NGMP; participating in various outreach and engagement activities; and developing foundational components of an eventual Information Management System and Internet information site.
Collect, Analyze, and Synthesize Data
Foundational work was initiated during the reporting period to support the development of NGMP Secretariat operations, and this work will result in the production of various deliverables to support the NGMP Secretariat including:
- Analysis and compilation of Nunavut Valued Ecosystemic and Socio-Economic Components;
- Inventory of Nunavut Monitoring Data/Research Sources;
- Nunavut Monitoring Data/Capacity Gaps Analysis;
- NGMP Interim Guidelines for Proposal Submissions;
- NGMP Interim Proposal Evaluation Criteria and Forms; and
- An Interim Framework for Collecting and Managing Nunavut General Monitoring Data.
Develop and Maintain Information Management System
The development of NGMP's Information Management System is in its early stages, and will be monitored by an NGMP Information Management/Information Technology working group.
Report and Communicate
The NGMP was pleased to participate and/or present its work at various outreach and engagement events, including:
- Nunavut Mining Symposium (Iqaluit, April 2010);
- International Polar Year Day (Ottawa, December 2010);
- Qikiqtani Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee;
- Kivalliq Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee;
- Kitikmeot Socio-Economic Monitoring Committee;
- Mineral Exploration Round up Conference – Hemmera Northern Canada Symposium (Vancouver, January 2011); and
- Northern Contaminants Program Management Workshop (Yellowknife, November 2010).
The work of the NGMP Steering Committee was further reinforced by an elevated profile and announcement of ongoing support in the Federal Budget 2010. The Grant and Contribution budget administered by the NGMP Secretariat was set at $200,000 for 2010-2011. This funding targeted foundational investments which support key activities of the NGMP.
With respect to Article 19.9.1 of the NLCA, the Minerals Division is responsible for notifying the DIOs of the discovery of any deposits of carving stone on Crown lands. Discoveries of carving stone could be reported to the Minerals Division either verbally or through annual assessment reports submitted to AANDC by exploration companies working on Crown land. During the period under review, no new discoveries or occurrences of carving stone were reported.
For the purpose of maximizing opportunities for Inuit and Northern firms in Nunavut, the Contaminated Sites Program undertook the following project specific activities:
- The contractor, Kudlik Construction Limited mobilized the site in March 2010.
- Remediation works were completed.
- Overall employment statistics to the end of reporting period was approximately 53% Aboriginal, and the percentage of Aboriginal suppliers engaged in the project was 85%. Community meetings to report on the project's progress were conducted at Kugaaruk, Taloyoak, and Gjoa Haven, with completion planned for early 2012.
Roberts Bay Mine Site
- Roberts Bay and Ida Bay remediation was completed. All equipment, materials, and hazardous wastes generated on the site were transported to southern locations. The wastes were taken to licensed facilities in the south where they are being destroyed.
- Final employment statistics for this project was approximately 63% Aboriginal employees, and the percentage of Aboriginal suppliers engaged in the project was 68%.
- Inuit Capacity Building Training was completed as part of the project. It was conducted in Cambridge Bay and served to build community capacity for this and future projects that are similar in nature.
- Cape Christian remediation was completed. A resident engineer was not able to inspect the locations of decommissioned camp and sewage lagoon due to snow cover. Final inspection is scheduled for July 2011.
- The final percentage of Aboriginal suppliers engaged in this project was approximately 84%, and the overall percentage of Inuit employed was approximately 74%.
- Community consultations took place throughout the tenure of the project including the final public meeting and feast on September 15, 2010 in Clyde River. The gathering and feast was attended by over 300 community members to commemorate the removal of contaminates from the Cape Christian site which is located 16 kilometres from the hamlet.
- Environmental screening was completed through the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.
- Nunavik Marine Region Impact Review Board screening requirements delayed the project a year.
- The contract for remediation was awarded to Biogenie, a division of Englobe Corporation, in May 2010.
- Site remediation work was completed in October 2010 but the equipment and camp were not demobilized. Demobilization is scheduled to be completed in July 2011.
- A final community consultation was held in Chisasibi on November 24, 2010.
- Mobilization and the start of site work were scheduled for August 2011.
- A community meeting will be held in Cambridge Bay prior to mobilization.
- It is anticipated that the project will be completed in the fall of 2012.
- The contract for remediation was awarded and the company committed to an Inuit Employment Level of 75% and an Inuit-Owned subcontracting level of 80%.
- Mobilization and the start of site work are scheduled for August 2011.
- A community meeting will be held in Kugluktuk prior to mobilization, and it is anticipated that the project will be completed in the fall of 2012.
- Phase III Site Assessment was completed in August 2010.
- On February 22, 2011, a community meeting was held in Kugluktuk to discuss the draft Remedial Action Plan.
- A Request for Proposal will be posted in fall 2011 for the remedial works.
- It is anticipated the project will start in 2012 and will finish in 2014.
Padloping & Durban (Fox-E) Island
- Contracting and Permitting was underway in 2010-2011.
- An anticipated Request for Proposal for construction will be posted in fall 2011.
- Work is anticipated to start late in the 2012 field season.
North Rankin Inlet Nickel Mine
- A community consultation is planned for May 2011.
- The remediation work, expected to be completed in August 2011, is funded by AANDC. A contract was issued through the Hamlet of Rankin Inlet to Inukshuk Construction, based in Rankin Inlet.
Long Term Monitoring
Long term monitoring was conducted at the following sites:
- CAM-F Sarcpa Lake (year 3); and
- Roberts Bay Mine Site (year 1).
The Nunavut Regional Office's (NRO) Inuit Employment Plan (IEP) highlights the current state of Inuit employment in the regional office and guides the obligations and commitment to Article 23 of the NLCA. A major challenge is to increase Inuit representation in the scientific, professional, and technical employment categories. The NRO's Inuit representation rate continues to fluctuate, as staff turnover in the region is high. By March 31, 2011, the Inuit employment rate was at 27%. In efforts to increase the Inuit employment rate, the NRO focused on:
- Implementing various initiatives in the areas of recruitment, retention, and improved cultural sensitivity of the workplace, which are detailed in the NRO's IEP.
- Continuing recruitment efforts by ensuring that all job postings include provisions in the Statement of Merit Criteria that support Article 23 objectives, such as giving staffing preference to qualified NLCA beneficiaries as well as seeking candidates who have knowledge of Inuit culture and society and/or can communicate in Inuktitut.
- During the summer of 2010, through the Inuit Summer Student InitiativeFootnote 1 , four Inuit students were hired to take on exciting and challenging jobs in the main office in Iqaluit. Steps will be taken in the coming year to recognize formally the program with the Public Service Commission in order to create bridging opportunities for full-time employment once students complete their studies.
- The NRO is looking to pilot an internship program with the Nunavut Arctic College which will allow students in the environmental technology, office administration, and management studies programs to gain job experience.
- The region has a 'continuous job posting' open to beneficiaries of the NLCA, which seeks to build an inventory of qualified Inuit to fill current and future vacancies in entry-level positions such as Administrative Assistants and Land Administration Clerks. Steps will be taken to include a greater range of positions in this inventory.
- Language training (beginner, intermediate, and advanced) continued to be offered to all NRO employees on an ongoing basis to allow staff to gain knowledge of a new language (Inuktitut or French) or further develop their language skills.
- Renewal of the IEP to guide activities over the next five years. Emphasis shifted from multiple discrete activities to focused efforts in key areas in order to better achieve a representative workforce. An IEP Committee has been established to lead the region in implementing the key activities detailed in section 6.0 of the renewed plan. Notably, an Inuit Employment coordinator position will be established in the regional office.
3.2 Environment Canada
EC's main implementation responsibilities fall under four articles of the NLCA – Article 5 (Wildlife), Article 9 (Conservation Areas), Article 23 (Inuit Employment), and Article 24 (Government Contracts). In 2010-2011, EC spent considerable effort undertaking government-wide obligations under Article 11 (Land Use Planning).
EC is a major contributor of science and policy information with relation to migratory birds; species at risk; habitat identification, conservation and protection; watershed conservation; and climate impacts on land use and zoning. All of these contributions extend to the marine zone.
Article 5: Wildlife
- The CWS continues to work on nominations for appointment of the CWS member to the NWMB, which expired in 2009.
- CWS staff members often attend NWMB meetings to provide briefings, information, and requests for decision on topics related to migratory birds and recovery and/or listing of species under SARA.
Article 9: Conservation Areas
Large parts of EC's current implementation efforts involve the Inuit Impact and Benefit Agreement (IIBA) for National Wildlife Areas and Migratory Bird Sanctuaries in the Nunavut Settlement Area. IIBA-related implementation activities include:
- In June 2010, an Order-in-Council created the Ninginganiq, Akpait, and Qaqulluit National Wildlife Areas off the eastern coast of Baffin Island. The areas protect bowhead whale summering habitats and internationally important seabird colonies.
- Two Area Co-management Committees (ACMC) – the Nivvilaik [McConnell River Bird Sanctuary] ACMC and the Ahiak [Queen Maud Gulf Bird Sanctuary] ACMC – underwent training in 2010. Four ACMCs have been established to date under the IIBA, and five more will be established by 2014.
- The IIBA's Inuit Field Research Assistant Program received 56 applications, and a total of 20 placements were made for research assistants into EC-CWS field camps.
- Two students were hired under the IIBA's Inuit Student Mentor Program. One student worked in EC's Yellowknife office for four months, and the other worked in the Iqaluit office for seven months.
- The Parties to the IIBA (EC-CWS, the three RIAs, and NTI) met three times and developed an annual reporting template to track the Parties' implementation of obligations.
Article 11: Land Use Planning
- EC continued its active participation in the development of the NLUP through a federal working group led by AANDC.
Article 23: Inuit Employment within Government
- EC has permanent staff in Iqaluit and Resolute Bay, and itinerant staff in Eureka and Alert. Of the staff at the main EC office in Iqaluit, 30% are NLCA beneficiaries.
Article 24: Government Contracts
- A total of 60% of EC contracts for services within, or materials delivered to, Nunavut engaged Inuit firms.
- EC continued to send comprehensive land claim agreement notifications for all contracts in affected areas (within the NSA) and utilized the Inuit Firms Registry database, maintained by NTI.
3.3 Department of Canadian Heritage
Article 32: Nunavut Social Development Council
- The Aboriginal Affairs Branch consulted with Inuit organizations in Nunavut on the renewal of the Aboriginal Languages Initiative and on changes to Northern Aboriginal Broadcasting (both of which are part of the Aboriginal Peoples Program). The feedback received was taken into consideration in the further development of these cultural programs, including their method of delivery.
- An intergovernmental and interdepartmental working group was created to address cultural infrastructure development in Nunavut. In addition to bi-annual meetings which focus on information sharing and coordination, the group hosted a two-day meeting with stakeholders in March 2011, supported by the Canada Council for the Arts and the Inuit Relations Secretariat of AANDC, to encourage collaboration among funders and to promote a vision at the community level for shared, multi-use cultural spaces.
Canada Council for the Arts (Portfolio Agency)
In 2010, the Council identified Nunavut as a priority and developed a Nunavut Arts Strategy, which focuses on increasing access by Nunavut artists to the Council's programs and services. Three objectives for the Nunavut Arts Strategy were identified, as follows:
- Offer more accessible and relevant services to all artists living and working in Nunavut with a focus on serving Inuit artists;
- Participate as an active and vital part of the arts funding infrastructure in Nunavut, and, by its presence, strengthening that infrastructure; and
- Act, across the organization, with sensitivity to and knowledge of the culture, languages, peoples, and artistic practices in offering services to artists in Nunavut.
Key activities undertaken in 2010-2011 include:
- Collaboration on cultural infrastructure issues;
- Production of a roundtable – Kattutiniq Nunavut – in Iqaluit involving Canada Council employees, artists, and arts support representatives to exchange ideas on increased collaboration in Nunavut;
- Support of the Iqaluit-based Qaggiavuut Society to develop a database of performing artists in Nunavut; and
- Signature of a three-year agreement with the GN's Culture, Language, Elders and Youth Department to share an Inuktitut-speaking liaison officer based in Iqaluit to deliver services and programs for both agencies.
Funding to Third Party Organizations
A range of third-party organizations successfully applied for grants and contributions to deliver various services in Nunavut, such as human resource development, arts presentation, heritage preservation, Aboriginal culture and language programming, and Canada Day and National Aboriginal Day celebratory events in communities across the Territory, among others.
Arts and Heritage
- The Museums Assistance Program funded IHT's 2011 training institute, in which seven participants from communities across Nunavut participated in hands-on learning events designed to improve their skills in collections care and interpretation. The Program also funded Kitikmeot Heritage Society to begin development of an ambitious exhibition about the hunting heritage of the Kitikmeot Inuit.
- Rankin Inlet's Kangirqliniq Centre for Arts and Learning received support from the Canada Arts Training Fund for its artists training program which combines artistic development with other skills geared toward preparing artists for the business side of an arts career.
- The Canada Arts Presentation Fund continued to provide programming assistance to the Alianait Festival.
- The Building Communities Through Arts and Heritage program provided funding to the Nunavut Arts and Crafts Association to present the Nunavut Arts Festival.
- The GN received funding through the Canada-Nunavut General Agreement on the Promotion of French and Inuit Languages. A portion of the funding was directed to ensure the effective and efficient delivery of French language services, programs, and policies in accordance with Canada's Official Languages Act. The agreement also fundeda range of community-based initiatives designed to promote the preservation, use, and development of the Inuit language in support of Nunavut's new Official Languages Act and Inuit Language Protection Act.
- The Aboriginal Women's Program provided funding to the Arnait Ajunqininqit (Women's Strength) Ad hoc Committee for a three-day leadership summit in Iqaluit in September 2010. The gathering provided an opportunity for Inuit women from across Nunavut to enhance their leadership skills, share information, and build networks.
3.4 Fisheries and Oceans Canada
Since 1993, DFO has incorporated its obligations and responsibilities under the NLCA into its annual work plan. DFO meets its obligations through various cooperative initiatives and projects such as research, management, planning, fisheries development, monitoring, and enforcement.
- In October 2010, DFO Science began a Training Scholarship Program with Nunavut Arctic College's Environmental Technology Program to provide annual financial support and intern work placement opportunities for up to two students throughout the academic year. Two students were selected to participate in 2010-2011.
- In an effort to continue projects enabling employment and skills development opportunities for Nunavut residents, the Eastern Arctic Area launched an initiative to provide opportunities to NLCA beneficiaries to help build the skills necessary to meet essential qualifications for more senior government positions in the future. Two employees are participating in this initiative.
- DFO's Species at Risk Program continues to advise the NWMB and consult with HTOs on numerous species found in the territory that could be listed under SARA. In 2010-2011, there were several species under consideration which remain in the listing process, and progress was made on listing recommendations for two Beluga Whale populations (Cumberland Sound and Eastern High Arctic – Baffin Bay) under the MOU with the NWMB.
- DFO continues to partner with Parks Canada and EC to deliver a "SARA 101" course which explains the basics of the Species at Risk Act to Nunavut communities.
- In partnership with the GN's wildlife officers, DFO's Conservation and Protection Officers continue to monitor narwhal, beluga, walrus and arctic char harvests and sport hunts in communities under Community-Based Management.
- DFO worked with co-management partners such as the GN, the NWMB, and other federal departments on habitat protection issues.
- As part of the sustainability of fish stocks management plans, DFO staff worked with communities and local organizations to provide conservation education in schools and at public meetings in order to promote the sustainable and practical harvest and use of marine mammals and fish.
- DFO worked cooperatively with NTI, QIA, the GN, and the communities of Igloolik and Hall Beach to identify an Area of Interest for a Marine Protected Area in Foxe Basin. They also met with expert knowledge-holders and other community members in 23 Nunavut communities to discuss Canada's plans for developing a Marine Protected Area Network.
- As part of ongoing research on the population status of marine life harvested in Nunavut, DFO conducted surveys on the Admiralty Inlet Narwhal, Cumberland Sound Beluga, Walrus, and Western Hudson Bay Seals.
- The Science Sector, provided ongoing advice to the NWMB to assist in, and inform, the evaluation of management options with respect to wildlife issues in the NSA.
- The Canadian Hydrographic Service continued to conduct hydrographic surveys and to publish updated products in support of safe and efficient navigation in the waters in and around Nunavut. Survey projects, including 14 updated nautical chart products for the Region, were completed in 12 locations.
- The ongoing development of a harbour in Pangnirtung continued to be a significant priority. Phase 1 of the project is nearly complete. Phase 2, consisting of the construction of a large vessel basin, channel, and a fixed wharf, will begin in the summer of 2011.
3.5 Human Resources and Social Development Canada
Service Canada has three offices located in Iqaluit, Rankin Inlet, and Cambridge Bay, providing services to 14 other communities across Nunavut on a quarterly basis through outreach visits. Both the Rankin Inlet and Cambridge Bay offices are fully staffed by NLCA beneficiaries who offer services in Inuktitut and Inuinnaqtun.
- The Federal IEP has been updated to reflect changes over the past five years. The department anticipates some growth over the coming years. Data collected in 2002 set the baseline for Inuit employment at 52%. Notably, the department's Inuit employment rate in Nunavut was 70% in 2011. A process is underway in accordance with the IEP and the Public Service Employment Act tostaff two positions.
- The General Equivalency Diploma program was created to allow the recruitment of Grade 9 and up students, who are no longer in school but have the potential to complete their Grade 12 equivalency exam. HRSDC worked with Nunavut high schools to identify potential candidates. One student has successfully completed this program and has continued on to further studies. Between 2009 and 2012, Service Canada has hired two additional term employees who are working to complete their Grade 12 education.
- Service Canada participates in the Federal Public Sector Youth Program, an internship program lasting approximately 9 months. It gives young beneficiaries opportunities to develop skills that improve their employability. Through a structured learning experience with a mentor three NLCA beneficiaries have successfully completed this program. One candidate has since found indeterminate employment with the GN and the other two candidates are in term positions with the Government of Canada.
- To help promote the Federal Student Work Experience Program, Service Canada ensured that students were aware of the registration requirements in an effort to provide an opportunity for students to participate in the program and to help bridge successful candidates for employment with other federal departments.
- Worked with the Nunavut Federal Council and the Public Service Commission to establish a program of career fairs, school visits, and processes designed to capture the interest of young people in the territory and help them make wise career decisions.
- Every effort continued to be made to ensure that position advertisements appear in appropriate languages in all Nunavut communities and that education requirements are appropriate. "Preparing for a Process" sessions were offered to help external candidates understand the assessment process and to increase the success of local candidates. In addition, candidates may respond in the language of their choice, including in Inuktitut.
Purchasing Goods and Services
- Service Canada also purchases most of its supplies and travel requirements from local service providers. This has been ongoing since 2009. Supplies that are not available in Nunavut are purchased in the south.
3.6 Public Works and Government Services Canada
As per Article 24, PWGSC continued to notify NTI and eight other Inuit organizations of bid opportunities involving the delivery of goods, services, and/or construction within the NSA that it handles on behalf of federal departments and agencies. Whenever practical and consistent with sound procurement management, PWGSC included evaluation criteria in its bid documents to maximize socio-economic opportunities for Inuit firms in the NSA. PWGSC also continued to provide information on government contracts awarded in the NSA.
PWGSC Participation in the Nunavut Trade Show and Conference
- The PWGSC Western Region Office of Small and Medium Enterprises participated in the annual Nunavut Trade Show and Conference in Iqaluit from September 22-23, 2010.
Northern Contaminated Sites
- The remediation of PIN-D (Ross Point) and PIN-E (Cape Peel) DEW lines sites was combined into a single contract awarded for $11.4 million. This contract has an Inuit employment target of 75% and Inuit sub-contractor/supplier target of 80%.
- The four remediation projects referenced in the 2008-2010 Annual Report are in the final stages of activity:
- The Cape Christian LORAN site is complete and the contract is in the closing stages.
- The Roberts Bay/Ida Bay Mine Sites is complete, and the Contractor achieved 63% Inuit employment.
- The PIN-B (Clifton Point) DEW Line site is complete, and the Contractor achieved 73% Inuit employment.
- On-site activities at the CAM-D (Simpson Lake) DEW Line site are complete, and the contractor will begin demobilization from the site in the summer of 2012.
- Two remediation projects within the NLCA are currently out for tender, and both tenders contain evaluation criteria intended to maximize socio-economic opportunities for NLCA beneficiaries. One is for the former mine exploration site at Hope Lake. The other is for the FOX-E (Durban Island) DEW Line site and a former weather station on Padloping Island.
Support Services for DND in Ellesmere Island
A meeting was held in October 2010 between NTI, PWGSC, DND, and AANDC. PWGSC and AANDC developed an Inuit benefits strategy that includes:
- Mandatory Inuit benefits of 7.5% of total dollar value and 7.5% of total resources.
- Rated Inuit benefits with a total score worth 10% of total points available for the evaluation of the quality of the benefits, stressing achievability, skills development, lasting benefits, etc.
In March 2011, a Letter of Interest was issued on MERX that included the final Inuit benefits strategy. An Industry Day was held in Winnipeg to inform industry of the overall requirements which saw the participation of a representative from Arctic College. A second Industry Day is planned for early April 2011 in Iqaluit.
4. Implementing Bodies
4.1 Nunavut Wildlife Management Board
The NWMB is the main instrument of wildlife management and the main regulator of access to wildlife in the NSA. The majority of the Board's responsibilities are outlined in Article 5 of the NLCA. The NWMB is empowered to make legally binding decisions concerning wildlife management in Nunavut. However, many of the Board's decisions are subject to ultimate review by the appropriate Minister.
Implementation ActivitiesFootnote 2
- Refocused the implementation of a second Nunavut Wildlife Harvest Study towards a Community-Based Monitoring Network Pilot Study by issuing a Request for Proposals and entering into negotiations with the top ranking contractor for the conduct of the pilot study.
- Continued towards the introduction of the Total Allowable Harvest-Basic Needs Level-Surplus management regime by working with co-management partners on the implementation of this regime for wildlife species.
- Continued to make appropriate decisions with respect to maintaining, establishing, modifying, or removing Total Allowable Harvests, other restrictions on wildlife harvesting, and the management and/or protection or particular wildlife or wildlife habitat in the NSA.
- Continued to equitably allocate Nunavut's share of commercial shrimp, turbot, and other marine resources through implementation of the Allocation Policy of the NWMB for Commercial Marine Fisheries.
- The successful development of a commercial marine fishery, with a modern world-class Allocation Policy, that is resulting in unprecedented growth in Nunavut.
- Continued to proactively work towards promoting the inclusion of both IQ and modern science in all aspects of wildlife management, including moving towards a workshop to discuss a proposed NWMB IQ program.
- The recognition of the importance of IQ and its inclusion in wildlife management, including specific NWMB initiatives.
- The NWMB constructed – along with its co-management partners – a modern, inclusive wildlife management system, that guarantees all participants fair and thoughtful consideration of all evidence and arguments in all wildlife management decisions.
- Continued to provide guidance and advice on wildlife management and research proposals and priorities, including the completion of three regional research and management priority setting workshops.
- Establishment the Nunavut Wildlife Research Trust and associated funding policies. These ensure a fair and organized research approval process that reflects and addresses NLCA priorities and the regional priorities established by HTOs and RWOs in the territory's three regions.
- Continued to evaluate Government and non-government Research Funding Proposals and provided funding to applicants from the Nunavut Wildlife Research Trust (17 applications totalling $757,070) and the Nunavut Wildlife Studies Fund (five applications totaling $129,125).
- Continued to provide funding to the RWOs and HTOs through the Nunavut Inuit Wildlife Secretariat.
- Continued to implement the DFO-EC-NWMB MOU to Harmonize the Designation of Rare Threatened and Endangered Species under the NLCA and the listing of wildlife under SARA.
- Continued a successful hearing program that guarantees all participants fair and thoughtful consideration of all evidence and arguments.
- The NWMB is committed to the continued implementation of the NLCA while ensuring a procedurally fair process. Preparation for the next planning period needs to start soon in order to address current and past difficulties. These include, but are not limited to, funding for HTOs and RWOs to implement their respective roles and responsibilities under the NLCA, incorporation of IQ into wildlife management, and advancement of the Nunavut Marine Council.
The long waiting period between federal government appointments to the NWMB Board has meant the Board has not operated with a full complement of members. For example, the CWS appointment as well as the Chairperson's position remained vacant.
An ongoing challenge is the different interpretations offered by relevant co-management partners regarding key sections in the NLCA pertaining to the Total Allowable Harvest-Basic Needs Level-Surplus management regime (e.g. what harvests are to be included in the Basic Needs Level). The NWMB remains committed to the implementation of the management regime across the territory but remains unable to fulfill this NLCA obligation without the commitment of all agencies involved.
4.2 Nunavut Water Board
The NWB is an IPG established pursuant to Article 13 of the NLCA for the regulation, use, and management of water in the NSA. One of the Board's key functions is to issue water licences for any use of water or deposit of waste in water in Nunavut. The Board is required, when exercising licensing power, to consider any detrimental effects of the potential use of waters or a deposit of waste on other water users and to hold, where appropriate, public hearings. The Board maintains a public registry of all reviews.
- Established five public hearings panels, as well as three panels to review applications and conduct finance and administrative reviews.
- Reviewed, issued, or assigned 7 Type A licences and 64 Type B licences.
- Established public hearing panels or the following projects:
- Arviat Type A Municipal Water License (approved by the Minister of AANDC on September 29, 2010).
- Rankin Inlet Type A Municipal Water License (approved by the Minister of AANDC on July 28, 2010).
- Mary River Type A Mining and Milling Water License.
- Water Regulations Project.
- Continued its work with the Nunavut Water Regulations Working Group whose main goal is to develop regulations that reflect the economic, operational, and administrative realities and recognize the unique challenges and opportunities for water management in Nunavut.
- Continued working closely with other IPGs, namely the NIRB and the NPC, and with other stakeholders including AANDC and the GN in the areas of land use planning, coordinated review and water licence review processes, enforcement of water licenses, and municipal water licensing.
4.3 Nunavut Impact Review Board
The NIRB was created with responsibilities for the environmental assessment of project proposals in the NSA as described in Article 12 of the NLCA. The primary functions of the Board pursuant to the NLCA are to screen project proposals in order to determine whether or not a review is required; to gauge and define the extent of the regional impact of a project; to review the ecosystemic and socio-economic impacts of proposals; to determine whether proposals should proceed; and if so, under what terms and conditions; and to monitor projects as they proceed.
- The NIRB processed a total of 168 project proposals for environmental impact assessment in accordance with Article 12 of the NLCA.
- A total of 69 new proposals required screening, six projects were undergoing review, and three projects consisted of active monitoring programs.
- An additional 84 proposals involved changes to previously screened projects for minor amendments, extensions, and renewals. Then re-issued its original Screening Decision Report with the terms and conditions to be incorporated into the applicable licences or permits in order to mitigate potential environmental impacts.
- An additional 15 proposals were assessed and it was determined that the applications did not fall under the purview of the NIRB screening process.
- The Board and staff continued to implement the NIRB's Five-Year Strategic Plan (2008-2013), with a focus, where funding allows, on such key areas as governance, legislation, policy development, and human resources.
- Updated its internal operational and board governance policies, and hired two new staff members to assist with fulfilling the NIRB's mandate.
- Completed additional initiatives and training related to several relevant topics, including IQ, uranium mining, marine issues, and board governance practices.
- The Board and staff have attended, presented, and participated in a number of conferences and workshops.
- The Board continues to collaborate with its partners in government and with Inuit organizations to ensure the most efficient regulatory system possible.
- Jointly awarded "Government/Organization of the Year" with the NWB at the 2010 Nunavut Mining Symposium.
- The Board held meetings in Igloolik (June 2010) and Yellowknife (November 2010 and February 2011). Additionally, the Board met via teleconference on a number of dates to facilitate its decision-making.
- The NIRB continues to update materials, which can be found on the online public registry at NIRB.
- Received a total of 168 project proposals pursuant to Part 4, Article 12 of the NLCA. These projects are categorized as follows:
- Development projects undergoing review by the NIRB:
- Bathurst Inlet Port and Road infrastructure project – suspended at technical review of Draft Environmental Impact Statement (EIS);
- MMG's High Lake mine development proposal – suspended at technical review of Draft EIS;
- Sabina Gold and Silver's Hackett River mine development proposal – awaiting submission of Draft EIS;
- Uravan Garry Lake mineral exploration project – awaiting submission of EIS;
- Baffinland Iron Mines Corp.'s Mary River mine development proposal – undergoing technical review of Draft EIS; and
- AREVA Resources Canada's Kiggavik mine development proposal – awaiting submission of Draft EIS.
- The NIRB employed full-time officers to continue the monitoring programs for the Jericho Diamond Mine, the Doris North Gold Mine, and the Meadowbank Gold Mine projects.
- Proposed major development projects which may be submitted to the NIRB for assessment in the upcoming fiscal year include: Agnico Eagle Mines Ltd's Meliadine Gold Mine Project, Hope Bay Mining Ltd's Phase II Gold Mine Project, Advanced Explorations' Roche Bay Iron Ore Mine Project, Sabina Gold and Silver's Back River Gold Mine Project, and Min Metals Group's Izok Lake Zinc Mine Project.
Challenges and Planned Initiatives
- The NIRB currently operates with a staff complement of 16, six of which are technical advisor positions funded through project-specific funding agreements. The Board does not have in-house technical expertise in all areas of its mandate, and must therefore regularly retain the services of external consultants for a variety of purposes,
- The increasing costs associated with renting office space, recruiting staff, and administering the computer network and online registry are not fully acknowledged within the current implementation contract. These will continue to be an issue for the NIRB.
4.4 The Nunavut Planning Commission
The NPC is an IPG established pursuant to Article 11 of the NLCA to establish broad planning policies, objectives, and goals for the NSA, as well as to develop land use plans that guide and direct resource use and development in Nunavut. The land use plans inform others how Inuit want the land and water used today and into the future. The NPC consults with government, Inuit organizations, and other organizations on how land use plans will be developed and how the plans will be used to manage the land in Nunavut.
- In accordance with Article 11, section 5.10 of the NLCA, the Commission conducted 53 conformity determinations in connection with project proposals.
- Hosted technical workshops for Government, Inuit Organizations, Denesuline, Industry, and other IPGs.
- Worked with AANDC, the GN, and NTI to formalize a Steering Committee for the NGMP.
- In connection with the Legislative Working Group partners, the NPC participated in the development and finalization of the Draft NUPPAA. Progress continues to be made on the formulation of the NLUP.
- Continued Results-Based Governance Model training and education for Commissioners and staff and participated in several meetings, workshops, and conferences, ranging from attending the Nunavut Mining Symposium, to meeting with technical experts from Government, industry, and other IPGs.
Appendix 1: Membership of Implementing Bodies
|Stephen Gagnon||Government of Canada|
|David Akoak||Government of Nunavut|
|Mikidjuk Akavak (Chair)||The Board|
|Robert Moshenko||Government of Canada|
|Peter Kusugak||Government of Canada|
|Willie Nakolak||Keewatin Inuit Association|
|Joannie Ikkidluak||Qikiqtani Inuit Association|
|Peter Awa||Government of Nunavut|
|Peter Qayutinuak||Kitikmeot Inuit Association|
|Lucassie Arragutainaq||The Board|
|Allen Maghahak||Government of Canada|
|Elizabeth Copland||Government of Canada|
|Marjorie Kaluraq||Government of Nunavut|
|Philip Kadlun||Government of Nunavut|
|Thomas Kabloona (Chair)||The Board|
|Ross Mrazek||Government of Canada|
|George Porter||Government of Nunavut|
|Darrell Ohokannoak||Government of Nunavut|
|Putulik Papigatuk (Alternate)||Makivik|
|Ron Roach (Chair)||The Board|
|Paul Quassa||Government of Nunavut|
|Louie Oklaga||Government of Nunavut|
|Leena Evic-Twerdin||Government of Canada|
|Okalik Eegeesiak||Government of Canada|
|Putulik Papigatuk (Alternate)||Makivik|
|Bert Rose (Interim Chair)||Government of Canada|
|Doris McCann||Government of Canada|
|John Maurice||Government of Nunavut|
|Mary Jane Adamson||Government of Canada|
|Paul Quassa||Qikitani Inuit Association|
|Peter Kritaqliluk||Kivalliq Inuit Association|
|David Evalik||Kitikmeot Inuit Association|
|Dorothy Gibbons||Nunavut Trust|
|Brenda Jancke||Government of Nunavut|
Appendix 2: Schedule of Payments
|Government of Nunavut||$2,917,987.65|
|Nunavut Impact Review Board||$4,017,328.81|
|Nunavut Planning Commission||$4,067,708.59|
|Nunavut Water Board||$3,265,930.00|
|Nunavut Wildlife Management Board||$7,804,056.00|
|Nunavut Surface Rights Tribunal||$55,000.00|