Inuvialuit Implementation of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement Coordinating Committee - Annual Report April 1, 2005 to March 31, 2007
- Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
- 1. Summary of Agreement Provisions
- 2. Specific Issues
- 3. Inuvialuit Regional Corporation
- 4. Arbitration Board
- 5. Inuvialuit Wildlife Management Structures
- 6. Joint Implementing Bodies
- 7. Government of the Northwest Territories
- 8. Government of Yukon
- 9. Government of Canada
- Appendix 1: Map of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region
- Appendix 2: Schedule of Capital Transfer Payments
- Appendix 3: Cumulative Costs of Implementation 1984-1985 to 2006-2007
- Appendix 4: Membership of Implementing Bodies as of March 31, 2007
The Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee is pleased to provide its annual report on the implementation of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (1984). This report covers the fiscal years from April 1, 2005 to March 31, 2007.
The Implementation Coordinating Committee was formally reconstituted on May 11, 1999, and comprises a senior representative from each of the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, the Inuvialuit Game Council, the Government of the Northwest Territories, the Government of Yukon and the Government of Canada. Additionally, each member of the Committee has an alternate who may participate on the Committee in the member's absence. The Committee has agreed to reach decisions unanimously among the relevant parties and serves as a forum where the parties can raise issues and voice their concerns regarding the implementation of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement.
The Implementation Committee monitors the ongoing obligations of the parties pursuant to the Agreement and resolves issues arising with respect to the implementation of the Agreement. This annual report describes achievements and developments during the two years. Information is contributed by various federal and territorial government departments, Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, the Inuvialuit Game Council and other stakeholders to the Agreement.
Progress is being achieved within a relationship defined by mutual respect and a commitment to fulfil the obligations set out in the Agreement.
Original signed by
Inuvialuit Regional Corporation
Original signed by
Inuvialuit Game Council
Original signed by
Government of Canada
Original signed by
Government of the Northwest Territories
Original signed by
Ed van Randen
Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
|AHRDA||Aboriginal Human Resources Development Agreement|
|APG||Aboriginal Pipeline Group|
|ASEP||Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership|
|BCF||Billion cubic feet|
|BSIMPI||Beaufort Sea Integrated Management Planning Initiative|
|BSSRPA||Beaufort Sea Strategic Regional Plan of Action|
|CEDO||Community Economic Development Organization|
|COSEWIC||Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada|
|CSU||Community Support Unit|
|CWS||Canadian Wildlife Service|
|DAAIR||Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Intergovernmental Relations (NWT)|
|DFO||Department of Fisheries and Oceans|
|EIRB||Environmental Impact Review Board|
|EISC||Environmental Impact Screening Committee|
|ENR||Department of Environment and Natural Resources (NWT)|
|ESRF||Environmental Studies Research Fund|
|FJMC||Fisheries Joint Management Committee|
|HTC||Hunters and Trappers Committee|
|ICC||Implementation Coordinating Committee (of the IFA)|
|ICG||Inuvialuit Corporate Group|
|IDC||Inuvialuit Development Corporation|
|IFA||Inuvialuit Final Agreement|
|IGC||Inuvialuit Game Council|
|IIC||Inuvialuit Investment Corporation|
|ILA||Inuvialuit Land Administration|
|ILAC||Inuvialuit Land Administration Committee|
|ILC||Inuvialuit Land Corporation|
|INAC||Indian and Northern Affairs Canada|
|IPC||Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation|
|IRC||Inuvialuit Regional Corporation|
|ISR||Inuvialuit Settlement Region|
|ITI||Department of Industry, Tourism and Investment (NWT)|
|ITK||Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami|
|MGP||Mackenzie Gas Project|
|MVEIRB||Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact Review Board|
|NEB||National Energy Board|
|NRCan||Natural Resources Canada|
|PWGSC||Public Works and Government Services Canada|
|PW&S||Department of Public Works and Services (NWT)|
|RAC||Research Advisory Council|
|WABDS||Western Arctic Business Development Services|
|WMACNS||Wildlife Management Advisory Council - North Slope|
|WMACNWT||Wildlife Management Advisory Council - Northwest Territories|
- The Inuvialuit Corporate Group recognized earnings of $19.5 million in 2005 and $36.4 million in 2006. These earnings were shared; each of 3,650 beneficiaries received $477.99 from the 2005 earnings and 3,726 beneficiaries received $770.12 from the 2006 earnings.
- Inuvialuit Development Corporation enjoyed another successful year in 2005, with a profit of $8,346,000. In 2006, profits totalled $19,403,000.
- Inuvialuit Investment Corporation recorded a profit of $12,609,000 in 2005 and $19,576,000 in 2006.
- The Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC) succeeded in obtaining over $3.6 million to assist beneficiaries in gaining the necessary skills to access employment opportunities associated with construction and field operations of a Mackenzie Valley natural gas pipeline.
- Through the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Agreement (AHRDA), IRC accessed $2,066,000 to assist Inuvialuit with employment and training initiatives. The Corporation also provided year-round assistance in career planning, pre-employment skills, employment referrals and educational information. This funding will continue until 2009.
- The IRC share of funding provided to Aboriginal Futures under the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership Program was $4,499,880 for 2004 through to March 31, 2008.
- The regulatory hearings for the Mackenzie Gas Project got underway in 2005-2006. Both the National Energy Board and the Joint Review Panel held a number of hearings in various communities in the Northwest Territories and Alberta.
- The Department of Public Works and Services of the Northwest Territories awarded 20 contracts in 2005-2006 with a total value of $2,628,044 and 25 contracts in 2006-2007 with a total value of $7,229,998 to Inuvialuit owned businesses for work within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. Contracts with a total value of $789,964 (2005-2006) and $16,690,214 (2006-2007) were awarded to Inuvialuit owned businesses for work outside the Settlement Region.
1. Summary of Agreement Provisions
The Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) was brought into force and effect by the Western Arctic (Inuvialuit) Claims Settlement Act in 1984.
- Land Ownership: The Agreement provides the Inuvialuit with fee simple absolute title to about 91,000 square kilometres (35,000 square miles) of land in the Western Arctic (Northwest Territories). This area includes about 13,000 square kilometres (5,000 square miles) on which the Inuvialuit have title to surface and subsurface rights. The Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR) includes the North Slope of Yukon, the eastern half of the Beaufort Sea and the associated mainland, part of the Arctic Ocean, Banks Island, much of the western part of Victoria Island and some of the Parry Islands (see map, Appendix 1).
- Eligibility and Enrolment: An enrolment authority composed of one federal government and two Inuvialuit representatives was initially established to enroll those who were entitled to be registered as beneficiaries of the Agreement. Ongoing enrolment is now a responsibility of Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC).
- Financial Compensation: Under the provisions of the IFA, the Inuvialuit received a total of $152 million over 14 years. The Agreement also provided for onetime payments, made in 1984, of $7.5 million to a fund to assist the Inuvialuit in social development and $10 million to the Economic Enhancement Fund.
- Economic Measures: Section 16 of the IFA addresses economic development in the ISR. Its broad objectives are to support Inuvialuit participation in the northern Canadian economy and the integration of Inuvialuit into Canadian society through development of an adequate level of economic self-reliance and a solid economic base. Since 1984, the Economic Enhancement Fund and compensation payments have helped the Inuvialuit become more actively involved in the local economy with long term investments that will provide a solid base for future development.
- Inuvialuit Corporations: Established under subsection 6(1) of the IFA, IRC holds the overall responsibility for managing the affairs of its corporate subsidiaries and achieving the goals outlined in the Agreement. Its ongoing functions and formal obligations include implementing the land claim agreement; fulfilling the role of institutional representative of the Inuvialuit; and being the parent corporation to, and monitor of, Inuvialuit Corporate Group (ICG).
Inuvialuit Regional Corporation is directly controlled by six community corporations in the ISR through their elected chairs. The directors of the community corporations elect the chair of IRC, who, with the chairs of the six community corporations comprise the IRC Board.
Inuvialuit Land Corporation (ILC) owns the Inuvialuit lands received under the IFA. Inuvialuit Regional Corporation administers Inuvialuit lands through its division, the Inuvialuit Land Administration (ILA), and holds responsibility for matters related to the management, supervision and administration of such lands. Inuvialuit Development Corporation (IDC), Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation (IPC) and Inuvialuit Investment Corporation (IIC) carry out business activities and invest settlement funds on behalf of the Inuvialuit.
- Wildlife and Environmental Comanagement: The Inuvialuit have extensive wildlife harvesting rights in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. They also have a mechanism for settling their claims against developers for actual harvest losses and for compensation or remedial measures as required. The IFA established structures to ensure Inuvialuit participation in wildlife management, conservation and environmental protection in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. These structures include community based Inuvialuit hunter and trapper committees (HTCs) and the Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC), which consists of members from each HTC.
The Final Agreement also established five joint bodies that have equal government and Inuvialuit representation.
- The Environmental Impact Screening Committee (EISC) determines whether proposed developments require detailed environmental impact assessments.
- The Environmental Impact Review Board (EIRB) carries out public reviews of development proposals deemed necessary by the EISC
- The Fisheries Joint Management Committee (FJMC) advises the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans on matters relating to fisheries and marine mammals in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.
- The Wildlife Management Advisory Council-Northwest Territories (WMAC-NWT) advises government and other appropriate bodies on wildlife conservation matters in the Northwest Territories portion of the settlement region.
- The Wildlife Management Advisory Council-North Slope (WMAC-NS) advises government and other appropriate bodies on wildlife conservation matters in the Yukon North Slope.
The Joint Secretariat, located in Inuvik, was subsequently created to provide technical and administrative support to the five joint bodies and the IGC.
- Arbitration Board: Established under section 18 of the IFA, the Arbitration Board has the jurisdiction to arbitrate any difference as to the meaning, interpretation, application or implementation of the IFA between the Inuvialuit and industry or the Government of Canada.
2. Specific Issues
2.1 Mackenzie Gas Project
A consortium of four gas producers (Imperial, ConocoPhillips, ExxonMobil and Shell) with gas holdings in the Mackenzie Delta, in partnership with the Aboriginal Pipeline Group (APG), proposed the construction of a stand-alone 1,400 kilometre natural gas pipeline. This line would have an initial capacity of 1.2 billion cubic feet per day (bcf/day) with the potential to increase capacity to 1.9 bcf/day. The Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) includes natural gas development in the Mackenzie Delta, gathering lines, processing facilities and pipeline facilities to transport the gas south through the Mackenzie Valley to northern Alberta. The facilities would connect to the Nova Gas Transmission System and the associated commercial natural gas market, known as the NOVA Inventory Transfer, near the Northwest Territories–Alberta border.
The Joint Review Panel (JRP) for the MGP consists of seven members selected by the Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC), the Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact review Board (MVEIRB) and federal Minister of the Environment. The environmental impact assessment will consider the potential effect of the project on the environment and on the social, cultural and economic well-being of the residents and communities affected. Before the start of the hearings, many workshops were held in Inuvialuit communities in preparation for the environmental impact assessment and regulatory review.
Two parallel and related hearing processes have been initiated by the Joint Review Panel and the National Energy Board (NEB). The NEB evidentiary phase began January 25, 2006; the JRP hearings began February 14, 2006. At the conclusion of the public hearings the JRP will write its report, which is expected to be issued in 2009, and the regulators will adjourn their proceedings and await the recommendations. The NEB will reconvene for final arguments following the government response to the JRP report. If the NEB issues a certificate, then gas is expected to flow in the beginning of 2011.
2.2 Section 16 Economic Measures Review
The objectives of the economic measures chapter set out in subsection 16(2) are:
- full Inuvialuit participation in the northern Canadian economy; and
- Inuvialuit integration into Canadian society through development of an adequate level of economic self-reliance and a solid economic base.
In 2004, an action plan was developed by Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC). Working groups were proposed to address recommendations that had been divided into four main categories: economic planning and business development, capacity development and community planning, economic measures public review and evaluations, and communications. Working groups would review existing government programs and initiatives and discuss required adjustments.
Later that year, the Government of the Northwest Territories stated that it could not approve the action plan and proposed working groups independent of other priorities and initiatives. The Government of the Northwest Territories felt that resolving the health and education issues went beyond the scope of the economic measures objectives of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA). The territorial government is seeking to resolve these issues through ongoing program delivery and separate initiatives. Canada advised that the work outlined in the action plan depended on the participation of all three parties and, in the absence of approval from the Government of the Northwest Territories, the action plan would require redrafting as a bilateral agreement and be more limited in scope.
In October 2004, the Government of the Northwest Territories stated that it was prepared to undertake work in the areas identified in the action plan, but not prepared to endorse the action plan fully as it did not wish to duplicate the efforts of other initiatives. The Government of the Northwest Territories did agree to participate on an economic measures working group dealing with economic development issues. In February 2005, the Implementation Management Directorate attempted to set up another Economic Planning and Business Development Working Group meeting for April with all parties participating. However, the Directorate was unable to secure the participation of other agreement departments and the April 2005 meeting did not take place.
During the remainder of 2005 and most of 2006, the parties attempted to make progress. Inuvialuit Regional Corporation pressed Canada to take ownership of the economic measures initiative; however, Canada maintained that an initiative of this nature required the shared responsibility and equal commitment of all parties. Inuvialuit Regional Corporation requested that Canada initiate an economic measures working group. In March 2007, the Government of Canada sent the Government of the Northwest Territories and IRC a letter identifying Kim Thompson, Director of Implementation Management Directorate, as Canada's member on the working group. The letter also requested that both parties name members to the working group. Inuvialuit Regional Corporation named Roger Connelly and the Government of the Northwest Territories identified Scott Alexander and Roger Israel as its representatives. The working group began to organize an initial meeting for later in 2007.
3. Inuvialuit Regional Corporation
"The Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC) remains committed to fulfilling its ongoing responsibilities to implement the Inuvialuit land claim settlement".
Core goals of the land claim settlement guide to activities include:
- preserve Inuvialuit cultural identity and values in a changing northern society;
- enable Inuvialuit to be equal and meaningful participants in the northern and national economy and society; and
- protect and preserve the Arctic wildlife, environment and biological productivity.
In 2005, continued business and investment successes led to overall after-tax profits of $19,545,000. In 2006, after-tax profits were $36,459,000.These earnings were shared with all enrolled Inuvialuit: 3,650 beneficiaries each received $477.99 from the 2005 earnings and 3,726 beneficiaries received $770.12 from the 2006 earnings. In addition to the benefits provided through its own resources, IRC provided $8,700,000 in support of community wellness and capacity building initiatives through contribution agreements with federal and territorial government departments.
3.1 Business Subsidiaries
In 2005, Inuvialuit Development Corporation (IDC) recorded $8,346,000 in profits. Norterra subsidiaries Canadian North and Weldco Beales led the way with significant growth. Highlights in 2005 included Tuk Stanton Distributing opening ahead of schedule and the introduction of the Pivut Fare Program to reduce airfares on Canadian North's routes.
In 2006, IDC enjoyed its best year ever with notably strong financial performances by NorTerra Inc., Dowland Contracting Ltd and Stanton Group Ltd. Overall, IDC recorded $19,403,000 in profits. Highlights included the participation of IDC's subsidiaries in the refit at Kulluk, and drilling and support activities for Chevron Canada and JOGMEC (Japan Oil, Gas and Metals National Corporation). Inuvialuit Development Corporation sold its interest in the Yellowknife Super 8 Motel, IEG Energy Services and Oceanside Village (Nanaimo). However, it established several joint ventures, notably in the formation of IEG Consulting and Mackenzie Integrated Tubular Solutions.
Building on the success of previous expeditions, in both 2005 and 2006, 12 young Inuvialuit participated in the IDC Outward Bound Leadership Expedition. After paddling on Horton River, NorTerra Inc. flew them to Yellowknife, Hay River and Edmonton to visit Canadian North, Northern Transportation Company Ltd and Weldco-Beales Manufacturing.
In 2005, Inuvialuit Investment Corporation (IIC) benefited from strong equity markets with income of $12,609,000. In 2006, IIC recorded net earnings of $19,576,000, due to strong equity markets, particularly in Canada. At the end of 2006, the IIC portfolio (Heritage Fund) was valued at $195,000,000, an increase from $176,281,000 in 2005.
Since the sale of its southern business interests, Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation has invested the proceeds through IIC until appropriate hydrocarbon-related opportunities arise in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region. The Corporation recorded earnings of $2,975,000 in 2006 and continues to hold a one-third ownership of the Ikhil Natural Gas Project.
3.2 Lands and Resources
In 2005, the Inuvialuit Land Administration (ILA) processed 83 "right" applications (27 land use licences, 3 residential leases, 27 land use permits, 17 rights-of-way, 7 quarry licences, 1 public lease and 1 commercial lease). The review process was initiated for applications related to the Mackenzie Gas Project.
In 2006, the ILA processed 29 "right" applications (17 land use licences, 1 residential lease, 6 land use permits, 3 rights-of-way, 1 quarry licence and 1 commercial lease). The review process began for applications related to the Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP). On receipt and consideration of the Joint Review Panel environmental report and recommendations, the ILA will finalize the environmental terms and conditions of access to Inuvialuit lands for formal approval by the IRC Board. Community ratification will be required on the portion of the gathering system right-of-way that crosses Inuvik 7(1)(a) lands.
In 2005, oil and gas exploration on Inuvialuit lands actually decreased as companies awaited a decision on the MGP. Increased interest in mineral exploration however, resulted in several mining companies carrying out activities on Inuvialuit and Crown lands, mainly in the Ulukhaktuk and Paulatuk areas.
In 2006, mineral exploration continued across the Inuvialuit Settlement Region with several mining companies carrying out activities on Inuvialuit and Crown lands with the most active area being north of Ulukhaktok. Oil and gas exploration on Inuvialuit lands was limited as companies await a decision on the MGP.
Clean-up activities in both years included the completion of the fuel spill clean-up at Kudlak Lake near Tuktoyaktuk, the continuation of work at the Shell West Channel site north of Aklavik and a joint clean-up of various fuel caches on Victoria Island by Great Northern Mining and Exploration, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada and the ILA.
Five ILA environmental monitors worked in 2005; 13 worked in 2006, ensuring exploration and other activities were carried out in accordance with the environmental terms and conditions outlined in the land use permits on Inuvialuit and Crown lands in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.
In 2005, an expanded and redefined Inuvialuit Land Administration Commission (ILAC) was established by IRC to hold specific responsibilities relating to the use and management of Inuvialuit lands. Throughout 2006, the ILAC addressed and developed recommendations to the IRC Board on several land management policy issues. Discussions included various sections of the Husky Lake Management Plan and the Inuvialuit Land Management System.
3.3 Community Development Division
The IRC's Community Development Division continues to provide a broad range of community based health, educational, cultural, social and economic programs supported by federal, territorial, private sector and inhouse funding.
- Through the federal Aboriginal Skills and Employment Program (ASEP), IRC expended $1.1 million on oil and gas training initiatives to build beneficiaries' skills in oil and gas related construction and field operations, and increase their employment opportunities associated with the Mackenzie Gas Project. The Corporation succeeded in obtaining over $3.6 million to assist beneficiaries in gaining the necessary skills to access employment opportunities associated with construction and field operations of a Mackenzie Valley natural gas pipeline.
- Through the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Agreement (AHRDA), IRC accessed $2,066,000 to assist Inuvialuit with employment and training initiatives. The Corporation also provided year-round assistance in career planning, pre-employment skills, employment referrals and educational information. This funding will continue until 2009.
- In 2006, IRC entered the last year of a three-year $1.8 million agreement with the Aboriginal Healing Foundation to deliver recovery and healing programs in Inuvialuit communities. These included a youth and family program in Aklavik, a drop-in program for male survivors of the residential school system in Inuvik, a community wellness program in Tuktoyaktuk, a youth counselling program in Paulatauk and on the land programs for youth and families in Ulukhaktok and Sachs Harbour.
- Through the Aboriginal Health Human Resource Initiative, IRC will access $100,000 annually until March 31, 2010 to promote a greater awareness of health career options among the Inuvialuit.
- The Inuvialuit Community Economic Development Office (CEDO) provided assistance on several community-based projects: Paulatuk Visitors Centre, arts and crafts rejuvenation in Ulukhaktok, marketing of Sachs Harbour muskox products, and Aklavik Inn and future developments.
- The Inuvialuit Child Development Programs provided training and operational support to Aboriginal Head Start projects in Inuvik and Paulatuk, and to early childhood development centres with programming for infants to 6 year olds in Aklavik and Tuktoyaktuk, and a day care in Ulukhaktok.
- he Inuvialuit Education Foundation provided financial support to 77 Inuvialuit students in 2005-2006 (72 in 2006-2007) through its Post-Secondary Supplementary Funding Program. In addition, support was given to beneficiaries through individual tutoring, scholarships, part-time studies and summer language camps.
- The Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre completed the Second Language Curriculum for Kindergarten to Grade 9 in the three Inuvialuktun dialects as well as research on the traditional knowledge of elders about ethnobotany and Tuktoyaktuk place names.
- Regional wellness was supported throughout the year with funding from Brighter Futures, the Canadian Prenatal Nutrition Program and the Urban MultiPurpose Aboriginal Youth Centres Program.
- The Inuvialuit CEDO provided a combination of advisory, administrative and advocacy support and investment in, and direct management of, selected community economic development projects. Projects supported included the Sachs Harbour commercial muskox harvest, the Paulatuk Visitors Centre, Bessie's Boarding Home in Aklavik and the Kunnek Resource Development Corporation reindeer project.
- Working with the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK) on a number of health-related issues, IRC established a strong Inuvialuit presence on territorial and national health committees to ensure long term benefits to the overall health of the Inuvialuit.
3.4 Beneficiary Development
Inuvialuit Regional Corporation is committed to supporting career development through partnerships, skill enhancement training programs and personal support. In partnership with Bow Valley College in Calgary and with funding from ASEP, the Inuvialuit Career Centre opened in 2006. The Centre provides online resources on career planning, résumé writing, interview skills and links to employers' Web sites. To date, it has served more than 700 beneficiaries. Other partnerships focused on the delivery of skills training, apprenticeship programs and training initiatives. More than 40 beneficiaries are employed in skill-building positions; IRC continues to seek new partnerships for beneficiary development opportunities.
In the fall of 2005, IRC and IDC, along with subsidiaries, held the second annual human resources meeting to discuss beneficiary development and promotion of beneficiaries within the Inuvialuit Corporate Group (ICG).
In 2006-2007, with funding from the AHRDA and ASEP, Aurora College offered programs in environmental monitoring, heavy equipment operation and safety, and driver education.
The Corporation supported more than 100 individuals in education and training programs that included aviation, radio operation, carpentry, land administration, safety and driver education, and kitchen helper. Within the IGC, nine beneficiary staff members participated in training and development programs.
3.5 Political and Cultural Representation
In November 2005, after a year of intense access and benefits negotiations to determine the commercial terms of access to Inuvialuit lands with the MGP proponents, the IRC Negotiating Team presented its recommended terms and conditions to the IRC Board. Following presentations in all Inuvialuit communities, these were approved by the Board in February 2006. The legal drafting process slowly moved forward in 2006-2007. Pending successful resolution of outstanding differences, IRC anticipates a sign-off on the agreement before year end.
Other highlights include the following:
- At a directors meeting, hosted in Inuvik in May 2006, with representatives from all communities, an extensive list of recommendations were developed and presented to the IRC Board for consideration.
- Despite a trying couple of years for the MGP, IRC continued to support its advancement while ensuring Inuvialuit interests were recognized and accommodated.
- The Gwich'in Tribal Council and IRC agreed to close the Beaufort-Delta Self-Government Office in 2005, in part to address financial constraints. This enabled IRC to focus efforts and resources at the community level for the finalization of community government consultations.
- Following the 2005 pull-out of joint self-government negotiations by the Gwich'in Tribal Council, IRC's efforts throughout 2006 centred on redefining its self-government options outside of a regional public government structure, developing and approving a new process and schedule agreement, finalizing community government constitutions, and drafting and seeking approval of a regional Inuvialuit government constitution.
- Following submission of the draft Regulatory Intent and draft Management Guidelines for the Tarium Nityutait Marine Protected Area to the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans in April 2005, progress has been hindered through the federal legal review and regulatory drafting processes. Monitoring of this important initiative continues by IRC, the IGC and the Fisheries Joint Management Committee (FJMC).
- In May 2005, the Government of Canada and the Assembly of First Nations signed a political agreement to find a fair resolution to the Indian residential schools legacy. Recognizing the importance of this issue to many Inuit, IRC and other Inuit organizations moved quickly to address this issue. In November 2005, the Government of Canada, the Assembly of First Nations, Inuit regional organizations and lawyers representing former residential school students signed an agreement-in-principle to address the legacy of Aboriginal residential schools. Throughout 2006-2007, IRC continued its efforts to ensure that Inuvialuit interests were fully addressed in the Indian Residential School Settlement Agreement. Significant time and effort were expended to assist Inuvialuit elders in applying for and receiving the $8,000 advance Common Experience Payment. Ultimately, 117 of 140 eligible elders received an advance payment. The lack of historical school records was the main reason the remainder did not receive the advance.
- As in previous years, IRC provided financial and logistical support to a broad range of regional and community events, including a hockey tournament, petroleum show, arts festival and youth forum. Involvement in ITK and the Inuit Circumpolar Council (Canada) helped advance IRC interests internationally. The Inuit Action Plan, submitted to the federal government in early 2006, called for government to develop an Inuit-specific approach to the provision of programs and services to Canada's Inuit.
4. Arbitration Board
The Arbitration Board is a quasi-judicial arbitration board set out under section 18 of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA). Essentially, it provides a mechanism to arbitrate disputes between the Inuvialuit and the governments of Canada, the Northwest Territories or Yukon, as well as between the Inuvialuit and industry. The Arbitration Board consists of 11 members, three appointed by the Government of Canada, including the designates of the governments of the Northwest Territories and Yukon, three appointed by the Inuvialuit and three appointed by industry. The chair and vice-chair of the Board are appointed by the Government of Canada, and must be acceptable to the Inuvialuit and industry (as defined by the Agreement). Section 18 sets out the detailed provision for the constitution of arbitral panels and the arbitration procedure.
In 2005, Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC) launched an arbitration against the Government of the Northwest Territories with regards to contracting, particularly the award of a contract to a Gwich'in firm in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region and the existence of a Gwich'in memorandum of understanding. Later that year, the Government of the Northwest Territories initiated arbitration against IRC for charging to access and cross private Inuvialuit lands while conducting municipal activities. The Government of Canada also initiated arbitration against IRC that same year with regards to the land exchange for airports.
In 2006, an arbitration panel was struck to begin hearing the contracting issue. The parties in the other arbitration matters requested that matters be placed in abeyance to undergo further negotiations outside of arbitration. As of March 31, 2007, negotiations continued.
5. Inuvialuit Wildlife Management Structures
5.1 Inuvialuit Game Council
The Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC) represents the collective Inuvialuit interest in wildlife and derives its mandate from subsection 14(74) of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA). The IGC works in parallel with Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC) to implement the IFA. It is responsible for upholding and dministering the Inuvialuit harvesting rights recognized under the IFA. The Council also has the mandate to represent the collective Inuvialuit interests in all matters related to renewable resource management in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR).
The IGC appoints Inuvialuit representatives to all the joint wildlife and environmental co-management bodies established under the IFA. With the consent of the IGC, the Government of Canada, the Northwest Territories or Yukon appoints the chairs for the co-management bodies. In addition to its responsibilities under the IFA, the IGC acts as the regional representative of Inuvialuit hunters, trappers and fishers, and holds a seat on the Implementation Coordinating Committee (ICC).
The IGC is made up of a director and an alternate from each of the six HTCs. The chair is elected by all 42 HTC directors and can be any active HTC member over 18 years of age. The vice-chair and treasurer are elected by the IGC directors from among themselves.
Many older pieces of government legislation do not reflect the harvesting rights of the Inuvialuit, which are established in the IFA. Although the IFA supercedes existing and future legislation to the extent of any inconsistency, the IGC feels it is important to ensure that when legislation is being written or amended, it is made consistent with the IFA.
5.2 Hunters and Trappers Committees
In response to increased development activities in the Mackenzie Delta, the Community Support Unit (CSU) works closely with the Hunters and Trappers Committees (HTCs) providing updates on any issues that arise relating to the oil and gas industry development. Over the course of the 2006-2007 fiscal year, CSU staff attended many public meetings relating to the proposed Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) and the Coastal Zone Canada Youth Forum and Main Conference. This included attending the Aklavik Hunters and Trappers meeting to present the draft interventions for the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project. This meeting was requested by the Aklavik HTC as a follow-up to the January 2006 Hunters and Trappers Regional Workshop held in Inuvik. Transcripts of the Joint Review Panel (JRP) hearings for January were left as information for the HTC directors and ISR communities. This meeting also updated the proposed amendments to the development project applications for the gathering system and each of the three anchor fields.
Two staff persons attended a meeting between the Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk HTCs to discuss the Parsons Lake Airstrip issue. Both HTCs agreed not to support the proposed airstrip construction.
- A proposal was prepared to INAC for individual Hunters and Trappers Committee Orientations to be held in each of the six ISR communities. This included preparation and logistics for travel, accommodation and other meeting requirements, for meetings to be held in each of the ISR communities. The total budget for the HTC sessions was $50,000. All sessions were for directors and staff. All sessions went very well, with many questions answered for the members attending. From February 27 to March 7, two day orientation meetings were held in each of the following locations: Inuvik, Sachs Harbour, Paulatuk, and Ulukhaktok. The fifth meeting that was to be held in Aklavik, was cancelled.
6. Joint Implementing Bodies
6.1 Fisheries Joint Management Committee
The Fisheries Joint Management Committee (FJMC) provides advice to the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) on all matters affecting fisheries and the management of fish and marine mammals found in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR). The FJMC works closely with government agencies, renewable resource user groups in the Inuvialuit communities and other renewable resource boards in Canada and Alaska that oversee common migratory stocks.
Consultation and Planning
Consultation with local hunting and trapping committees (HTCs), the Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC), DFO and other government agencies formed an important part of the Committee's activities in 2006-2007. The Committee held four regular meetings, six teleconferences and two special meetings as well as public meetings in Aklavik in June, and Paulatuk and Ulukhaktot (Holman) in November to discuss with hunters and fishers issues of concern related to fish, marine mammals and research priorities for the region. One regular meeting was held in Winnipeg at DFO's Freshwater Institute to facilitate the exchange of information and project planning with DFO's scientific and management staff. The process by which the FJMC sets its research priorities and develops a work plan is unique among Inuvialuit joint implementing bodies. Community meetings in June and November, discussions with scientific staff at the Freshwater Institute in January and Committee planning sessions in March all comprise the essential elements in the Committee's annual work plan and budgeting cycle for the next fiscal year.
Research and Monitoring
In 2006-2007, the FJMC was active in numerous research, monitoring and management programs. Twenty-six projects were conducted through joint efforts between the FJMC and DFO.
Support continued for charr monitoring projects in Paulatuk and Ulukhaktok that provide information for existing community-based charr fishing plans for the Hornaday and Kuujjua rivers near Paulatuk and
Ulukhatok respectively. Also in support of the Hornaday plan, the Committee continued to contribute to a baseline water quality and quantity monitoring project for that river system.
The FJMC continued to support the West Side Working Group in its efforts to develop a community-driven integrated fishing plan for the Yukon North Slope and West Side rivers west of the Mackenzie River to Fish Creek near the Alaskan border. The Working Group continued to assemble critical scientific and traditional knowledge information on North Slope fisheries that will form the foundation of the developing management plan. The West Side Working Group also set research priorities to monitor charr harvests from Shingle Point, which began in 2005-2006, and tag Dolly Varden charr at Shingle Point and along the Yukon North Slope. Following preliminary planning in 2004-2005, a community-based monitoring program of the Big Fish River was initiated, involving elders and youth from the community of Aklavik, along with DFO and FJMC staff.
The Committee contributed to an ongoing project designed to monitor the reproductive status and condition of ringed seals in Amundsen Gulf and Sachs Harbour.
The quality of country foods continued to be a significant concern for the communities in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR). Therefore, the allocation of funds for research involving the collection of samples from harvested marine mammals for contaminant and disease analysis continued. In addition to annual research project funding, the Committee supported long term harvest monitoring programs that provide essential harvest data required by the Committee and DFO biologists as a basis for making sound management decisions.
- In co-operation with the HTCs, the FJMC delivered the Beluga Harvest Monitoring Program. Local Inuvialuit whale monitors employed by HTCs are stationed in each of the active whaling camps within the ISR. They collect biological information from each harvested whale. Committee staff members provide training, program and logistics support, co-ordination of special sample collections and data collation. Monitors also keep track of aircraft traffic over whale camps and submit detailed incident reports in cases where aircraft may have harassed or disturbed whales and harvesters. At season's end, these harassment incident reports were turned over to DFO Conservation and Protection for follow-up with air charter companies as required.
- The Committee continued its support of the collection of Inuvialuit subsistence fisheries harvest data by DFO.
The Committee continued with its Private Lands Sport Fishing Registry. The promotional campaign continued to better educate the fishing public with the renewal of large wall displays at major air and road travel gateways into the ISR, the provision of private lands wall maps for all fishing licence vendors and HTCs in the region, reprinting and distributing information brochures to vendors and HTCs, and placing advertisements in the NWT Explorers' Guide / Guide to Hunting and Fishing in the Northwest Territories and the Beaufort Delta Attractions Guide. Data collected in sport fishing surveys in 2000, 2001 and 2003 are being analyzed and will be published as an FJMC Technical Report, as well as in other formal publications. The survey and subsequent analyses will assist the Committee's management of sport fishing within the Settlement Region.
Several FJMC Technical Reports were published, distributed and posted on the Committee's Web site, with several more currently being finalized for release in 2007-2008.
The FJMC continued to be well positioned to provide sound advice on issues related to accelerating oil and gas industry activities in the ISR. The Committee and staff have been regular participants in pre-submission community and agency consultations by industry. Before every Environmental Impact Screening Committee (EISC) meeting, the Committee reviews all proposals that have the potential to impact on fish, marine mammals and aquatic habitat in the ISR, including those related to oil and gas.
The Committee is a registered intervener in the review of the proposed Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP), for both the Joint Review Panel (JRP) and the National Energy Board (NEB) review processes. All correspondence relating to the review is forwarded to the FJMC and scanned by staff; then relevant information is brought to the Committee. In addition to attending several JRP hearings to ask questions of the project proponents and other interveners, Committee members and staff made a presentation to the panel during the hearing on harvesting and other land use hearings held in Inuvik on March 17, 2007. Committee members and staff will continue to participate in the process, with several presentations planned for the 2007-2008 fiscal year.
Beluga Management and Pilot Marine Protected Areas
The FJMC continued its support of the Beaufort Sea Integrated Management Planning Initiative (BSIMPI) in cooperation with DFO. This multi-stakeholder initiative is facilitated through a working group that includes representatives from the FJMC, DFO, the IGC, Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, INAC and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers. The working group conducted community consultations through 2006-2007 to finalize support for the marine protected area under the Oceans Act. The draft Tarium Niryutait Marine Protected Area Management Plan and regulatory intent were completed, approved by the BSIMPI Senior Management Committee and working group and sent to Ottawa for formal drafting and ministerial approval. Once the marine-protected area is established, the FJMC will take over the day to day management responsibility and operations of the area, with support from DFO and the BSIMPI Secretariat.
In August 2006, the Committee was informed that a significant number of beluga had entered Husky Lakes, a brackish inland aquatic system to the south of Tuktoyaktuk. Following discussions between the FJMC, the Tuktoyaktuk HTC and DFO, the decision was made to monitor the situation with a number of surveillance flights, which took place in September and October. Communications plans were developed to minimize negative media coverage of the situation. From initial survey flights, it was determined that over 200 whales were involved. Thirty-nine whales became trapped in a savsaat in early November, and a plan was developed to harvest the whales and collect as much scientific information as possible. Hunters from Tuktoyaktuk and staff from DFO coordinated the harvest and sampling program. Committee members and staff accompanied the participants. Thirty-seven whales were harvested and sampled, with two whales lost during the program. The FJMC will continue to work with DFO to expedite the analysis of samples taken, and will also continue to work with the Tuktoyaktuk HTC and DFO to prepare for the possibility of similar events in the future.
Emerging Commercial Fisheries
In response to increasing interest by business entities from outside the region to develop commercial fisheries in the Beaufort Sea, the FJMC continued to work closely with DFO and the IGC to lay the foundations for a regionally managed, sustainable commercial fisheries that will benefit the Inuvialuit economically while not adversely affecting traditional subsistence harvesting activities.
Two southern fishing companies applied for and received licences for exploratory fishing operations, in partnership with a local Inuvialuit business, to ensure Inuvialuit participation in any future commercial fishing ventures. Some fishing activity took place in 2006-2007. Results of the program, however, have not been made available. There are plans to return in 2007-2008.
Species at Risk Legislation and COSEWIC
The FJMC has taken a more active role in ensuring Inuvialuit involvement in the protection of endangered fish and marine mammal species. The FJMC will continue to work with the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) to better define the FJMC's role in the federal assessment process for endangered species under the FJMC's jurisdiction. The Committee participated in the preliminary stages of re-assessment of several species in 2006-2007.
The FJMC continued to develop its existing Web site <www.fjmc.ca> to better inform the public, government and industry about the FJMC and fisheries co-management in the ISR. A variety of FJMC reports and other materials are available on the site for downloading. The FJMC reaches beneficiaries within the ISR through its annual community tour and regular contributions to the Joint Secretariat-Inuvialuit Renewable Resource Council newsletter, the Common Ground. The newsletter is distributed to every registered Inuvialuit beneficiary each summer and winter.
Student Mentoring Program and Inuvialuit Youth
The Student Mentoring Program of the FJMC returned for its 10th successful season. The Program began with three students with one student completing the term. The Program continued work placement partnerships with DFO, Parks Canada, the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study, Canadian Wildlife Service, the Gwich'in Renewable Resource Board and continued funding relationships with the NWT Department of Education, Culture and Employment, IRC and Enbridge Inc. In 2006-2007, student activities focused on the Coastal Zone Canada Youth Forum, August 11-14, 2006 in Tuktoyaktuk. The FJMC Mentoring Program encourages Inuvialuit youth to finish high school and continue with their studies in the sciences so they can become the ISR's future resource managers and biologists.
The Coastal Zone Canada 2006 Conference and Youth Forum were a focus for FJMC staff in the 2006-2007 fiscal year. Staff members were heavily involved in organizing and coordinating meetings, finding funding, promoting the conferences, and managing personnel, particularly for the Youth Forum portion. About 50 participants attended the Youth Forum, coming from the ISR communities, Yukon, the Northwest Territories, British Columbia, Alberta, Ontario, Nunavut and the United States. Besides the various Inuvialuit and northern youth who attended the Youth Forum, FJMC staff supervised an Inuvialuit student who provided administrative and logistical support throughout the summer, an intern who worked on various aspects of the Youth Forum for a six-month term, 11 young Tuktoyaktuk residents who received training and worked as facilitators and group leaders during the Youth Forum, and over 70 volunteers in Tuktoyaktuk who assisted in the delivery of the Youth Forum. The FJMC Resource Biologist, Andrea Hoyt, chaired the Youth Forum organizing committee meetings during the year leading up to the conference in Tuktoyaktuk. The Youth Forum involved a large number of young people and was successful in increasing the knowledge and skill level of Inuvialuit youth in resource management and environmental concerns.
6.2 Wildlife Management Advisory Council – Northwest Territories
During the reporting period, the Wildlife Management Advisory Council –Northwest Territories (WMAC-NWT) held four Council meetings, two teleconferences and a joint meeting with the Wildlife Management Advisory Council – North Slope (WMAC-NS).The key issues were caribou management and the environmental assessment of the MGP. The second ISR Co-Management Research Day was also held in March 2007.
In the fall of 2006, Council made recommendations regarding caribou herd management on Cape Bathurst and Bluenose West, following discussions held with communities and neighbouring regions that share these herds, to co-ordinate herd management across the herds' ranges. A key accomplishment was the organization of a regional workshop to identify and mitigate the impacts of having fewer available caribou. The workshop had 110 participants from the Inuvialuit, Gwich'in and Sahtu regions.
Environmental Assessment of the Mackenzie Gas Project
Hearings for both the NEB and the JRP environmental assessment processes began. This involved presenting recommendations on the MGP to the JRP on behalf of the WMAC-NWT at the hearing in Inuvik on January 16, 2007, and answering questions from the Panel and other interveners. Draft comments were provided to the Council on relevant research and development permit applications submitted to permitting authorities and to the EISC. Comments were also provided on draft management plans, legislation and policy from government and other organizations.
Inuvialuit Settlement Region Co-Management Research Day
This event, held March 27, 2007, in Inuvik, was co-hosted by the WMAC-NWT, WMAC-NS and the FJMC. Researchers reported on IFA-funded wildlife research conducted in the previous two years, and plans for the upcoming year. About 35 people participated with 11 presentations by researchers.
6.3 Wildlife Management Advisory Council – North Slope
The management priority for the Yukon North Slope is the conservation of the land, wildlife and Inuvialuit traditional use of the area. To help ensure this happens, the IFA established the WMAC-NS. The Council provides advice to the appropriate federal or territorial ministers on all matters relating to wildlife policy and the management, regulation and administration of wildlife, habitat and harvesting for the Yukon North Slope. The Council determines and recommends appropriate quotas for Inuvialuit harvesting of game in the North Slope and advises on measures required to protect habitat that are critical for wildlife or harvesting. To carry out these tasks, WMAC-NS works closely with the Government of Canada, other co-management boards, the Aklavik HTC and the Inuvialuit Game Council.
Inuvialuit Final Agreement Funded Wildlife Research
The WMAC-NS reviews proposals and makes recommendations for wildlife research and ecological monitoring on the Yukon North Slope. Parks Canada, the Government of Yukon and the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) provide IFA implementation funding for this work. Recommendations made by the Council are consistent with the goals of the IFA and the objectives of section 12 of the Agreement. Recommendations are based on priorities identified in the Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan, the Yukon North Slope Long Term Research Plan and other plans that apply to the North Slope. Recommendations are also based on priorities identified by the Aklavik HTC, community meetings in Aklavik and the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-op annual gatherings.
Projects recommended by WMAC-NS and conducted in 2005-2006 included:
- Yukon North Slope raptor survey;
- muskox ecology studies;
- rare plants and animals along the Beaufort Sea coast;
- Herschel Island fieldwork;
- the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Cooperative Community based Monitoring Program;
- vegetation change measurements;
- Porcupine caribou satellite collaring programs;
- Yukon North Slope grizzly bear research;
- Aklavik harvest data collection; and
- breeding shorebird survey.
Herschel Island (Qikiqtaruk) Territorial Park
The Council recommended the Herschel Island Territorial Park Management Plan to the Government of Yukon in 2006. The new plan reflects the increase in visitors and other management issues. Staff at Herschel Island provides updates to the Council in the spring and fall related to the year's activity. The Council travelled to Herschel Island in July to learn about ecological monitoring from park rangers and biologists.
Parks Canada and Ivvavik National Park
The Council recommended the Ivvavik National Park of Canada Management Plan to the Minister of Heritage in 2005. The plan ensures the management of Ivvavik National Park is responsive to issues and challenges associated with ecosystem conservation, climate change and potential industrial disturbance. The Western Arctic Field Unit is actively involved in muskox management and research on the North Slope. Field Unit staff played a lead role in the draft Canadian North Slope Muskox Management Plan. As well, the Field Unit is a partner in the Yukon North Slope Grizzly Bear Management Plan.
Species at Risk
The Council reviewed and provided comments to the COSEWIC on species being assessed within the region, including the ivory gull, rusty blackbird, peregrine falcon and short-eared owl. The Council also participated in a consultation with the Government of Yukon on the development of species at risk legislation for the territory.
A portion of the WMAC-NS budget is allocated to special projects including wildlife management, community participation, traditional knowledge and education. The following projects were funded by the Council in 2005-2006.
- Ecosystem Monitoring: The Council is a regular contributor to the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Cooperative. The Co-op's annual community-based monitoring program continued in Aklavik. The focus on data collection includes climate change, contaminants and regional development.
- Yukon North Slope Grizzly Bear Research Project: The Council works in partnership with the Government of Yukon, Parks Canada and the Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee on a six-year study to learn about grizzly bears on the North Slope. In 2005-2006, the Council focused on community activities related to bear management.
- Summer Student Program: The Council funded the participation of an Inuvialuit youth in field activities on Herschel Island in July. The mentoring program, coordinated by the FJMC, encourages Inuvialuit students to become future scientists and resource managers in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.
- Rare Plants and Animals on the Yukon North Slope: The Council hired an Aklavik harvester to support the rare plant and animal survey on the North Slope. The work included providing boat transportation, working as a bear monitor and assisting with fieldwork.
- Traditional Knowledge Database: A search was completed for additional traditional knowledge about the Yukon North Slope to include in the Council's traditional knowledge database.
- Communication Materials: The Council initiated a project to develop a series of plain language fact sheets that explain provisions of the IFA relevant to the mandate of the WMAC-NS. The Council continues to have a presence on the Web at <www.taiga.net/wmac>. The site includes a wide range of information on the Council and the Yukon North Slope. The newsletter, Wildlife Watch, also shares information about activities on the Yukon North Slope that may be of interest to the community. The Council also contributes to the Inuvialuit Joint Secretariat newsletter, Common Ground, twice per year. Common Ground provides a summary of the activities of the Inuvialuit renewable resource boards and committees.
6.4 Environmental Impact Screening Committee
Submissions made by proponents are submitted to the EISC for environmental screening. Screening decisions are made by a panel of five EISC members, consisting of the chair, two Inuvialuit members, the Canada member and the territorial member nominated by the territory (Yukon or the Northwest Territories) within which the project is to occur. Decisions are made on a majority vote basis, with the chair voting in the case of a tie.
During the reporting period, members attended screening meetings about every five weeks and participated in other activities on behalf of the EISC, as required, to fulfil the mandate of the EISC.
The 2006-2007 fiscal year was relatively busy with regard to the number of submissions received by the EISC, in comparison to previous years; 63 project descriptions were submitted.
6.5 Environmental Impact Review Board
Late in the 2005-2006 fiscal year the chair and coordinator updated the processes that govern part of the Board's mandate. The Environmental Impact Review Board (EIRB) also decided to establish a committee to complete a review of its operating procedures, guidelines and by-laws. This should be finalized during the fiscal year 2007-2008.
The EIRB held four meetings in 2006-2007. Three were by teleconference (June 6, October 17 and December 8). An in-person meeting was held in Inuvik on March 13-15, 2007. The frequency of these meetings permits Board members to remain current on environmental issues, participate in relevant conferences and training, and keep current on emerging trends and issues.
Ongoing training for Board members and staff, held in Yellowknife in 2007, included the Mining for Non Miners Workshop (January 2007) and the Introduction to Administrative Law course (March 2007). The Introduction to Natural Gas Workshop, scheduled for February 2007 was postponed and will be offered in the next fiscal year.
Complementary to Board training, the Joint Secretariat offered the separate one-day Administrative Law and Governance session in Inuvik for EISC and EIRB staff and Committee/Board members. John Donihee, Counsel to the Joint Secretariat, led the training.
Training by the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency was offered in Inuvik in March, as a joint initiative of the EISC and EIRB. Members from other local organizations in the area were also trained.
The EIRB, at its March 2007 meeting, met with both HTC and community corporation representatives from Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk in an effort to establish environmental standards in the Husky Lakes region. These were useful meetings that the Board hopes will bring a final resolution to this issue in the coming year.
The EIRB continues to work toward completing a strategic plan and to carry out a research project on sumps in the ISR. The Board will also be looking for community input on the design of an appropriate logo to better identify the Board's work.
6.6 Joint Secretariat
The Joint Secretariat was incorporated as a society in 1986. Although it was not provided for under the IFA, the parties saw fit to establish a secretariat to provide technical and administrative support to the renewable resource committees for the ISR.
The Secretariat continued to achieve its objective by providing the requisite financial administration and technical support to the IGC and comanagement boards set up pursuant to the IFA. It maintained and expanded its archival function, and continued to work closely with government, industry, the academic sector, multi-stakeholder research programs and Inuvialuit organizations.
The administration unit continued to provide exemplary service to the Joint Secretariat staff, Board of Directors and third-party agencies. In particular, it has been responsible for organizing and participating in community information meetings. Turnover was experienced on the administrative side with a couple of new hires and re-assignments of existing staff to fill vacated positions. Technical staff remains involved in the MGP hearings, having prepared and made interventions to the JRP.
Shell Canada continues to provide funding via the Arctic Institute of North America for the maintenance of the ISR literature database as a sub-unit of the Arctic Science and Technology Information System. Joint Secretariat staff continues to assist the Institute's staff in this initiative; the Web site is fully functional.
The coordinator for the Beaufort Sea Strategic Regional Plan of Action works from the Joint Secretariat offices. The draft regional plan is being completed and will go out to stakeholders early in the new fiscal year.
The Joint Secretariat continues to be active in promoting, facilitating and partnering with arctic research projects. These included drillingsump and permafrost studies, community based sea ice monitoring, local organization and participation in various conferences and workshops, the Coastal Zone Canada Conference in Tuktoyaktuk and continued involvement in the Northern Environmental Science Centre with the executive director of the Joint Secretariat attending several local meetings.
The Joint Secretariat continues to partner with the Aurora Research Institute, Natural Resources Canada and Health Canada on some International Polar Year projects.
The Executive Director peer reviewed some International Polar Year projects as well as chapters of the Arctic Council Oil and Gas Assessment. He is also a member of the Arctic Council's Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response Working Group as a Canadian delegate and attended its annual meeting. The Canadian delegation to the Working Group was asked to develop a proposal for oily waste disposal guidelines. The Joint Secretariat prepared the proposal, with federal government funding, and presented it at the annual meeting.
The Joint Secretariat, in concert with others, continues to lobby levels of government to expedite the appointment of co-management board chairs and members. The appointment process itself and the slow response time for new appointments continues to affect the efficiency and effectiveness of co-management within the ISR.
The Joint Secretariat hosted and made presentations to the MVEIRB regarding a comparison of the MVRMA and IFA development assessment processes.
The Secretariat continues to be involved in and monitors the progress of INAC's Comprehensive Land Claims Assessment. This is in conjunction with IRC. The Joint Secretariat also remains involved in the development of the NWT species at risk legislation.
The Arctic Shoreline Clean-up and Assessment Technology manual, which Canada took the lead in developing, has now been distributed to the ISR communities. It is also being translated into Russian with Joint Secretariat coordination and INAC financial support.
The Secretariat continued to work on several Inuit-specific projects with Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami.
7. Government of the Northwest Territories
Under the terms of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA), the Government of the Northwest Territories is responsible for appointing the chair and the NWT government members as well as providing a secretariat for the Wildlife Management Advisory Council – Northwest Territories (WMAC-NWT), providing the administrative and operational costs of the Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC) and the six community hunters and trappers committees (HTCs), designating a member to each of the Environmental Impact Screening Committee (EISC), Environmental Impact Review Board (EIRB), Arbitration Board and Research Advisory Council (RAC), and providing the budget for the operation and maintenance of the RAC. An agreement was struck whereby RAC funding is provided to the Joint Secretariat for library services. The government is also responsible for providing operational funding to the Joint Secretariat, which provides technical and administrative support to the various IFA boards in the Northwest Territories.
7.1 Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Intergovernmental Relations
Officials from the Department of Aboriginal Affairs and Intergovernmental Relations (DAAIR) worked closely with NWT program departments and the Joint Secretariat to promote effective administration of NWT implementation funding by coordinating the annual funding agreement process, monitoring departmental implementation budgets, recommending funding reallocations between approved implementation tasks and ensuring the timely carry-over of implementation dollars to future years.
The Department continued to deal with the long-standing issue of municipal requirements for Inuvialuit lands. Community governments' occupancy and use of Inuvialuit lands for municipal infrastructure purposes have been issues since the signing of the IFA. During the land selection process and in the absence of legal land surveys, the Inuvialuit selected lands included government infrastructure, such as garbage dumps, sewage lagoons, water intake sites and related access roads. This resulted in municipal infrastructure being situated on private Inuvialuit lands. The Government of the Northwest Territories has consistently advocated a land exchange to resolve this issue and negotiations continue with the Inuvialuit Land Administration (ILA).
As a result of the land selection process, certain airport lands also became Inuvialuit lands. The 1991 Airport Transfer Agreement between the governments of Canada and the Northwest Territories commits Transport Canada to acquiring the title to the additional lands necessary for airport purposes in Sachs Harbour, Paulatuk and Ulukhaktok. The Government of Canada and the Inuvialuit are pursuing a land exchange to resolve this issue. Officials from DAAIR worked very closely with the NWT Department of Transportation to ensure that government airport interests are protected.
In 2005-2007, DAAIR participated in four Implementation Coordination Committee (ICC) meetings with Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC), Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC), the Yukon government and federal government officials to discuss outstanding implementation issues. The ICC has provided a positive forum for addressing and resolving, in some cases, outstanding implementation issues.
7.2 Environment and Natural Resources
The Department of Environment and Natural Resources (ENR) began operations on April 1, 2005 as a result of restructuring of the NWT government. The Department promotes and supports the sustainable use and development of natural resources, and protects, conserves and enhances the environment of the Northwest Territories for the social and economic benefit of all NWT residents. In managing natural resources and the environment, ENR performs various IFA implementation activities.
The Department continued to work in collaboration and cooperation with the IGC, WMAC-NWT and North Slope, and the local HTCs on all matters regarding wildlife management in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR).
Wildlife studies within the ISR over the two fiscal years included:
- a productivity survey of Peary caribou on Banks Island and North West Victoria Island;
- polar bear population estimates for the southern and northern Beaufort Sea;
- grizzly bear ecology (including satellite tracking);
- woodland caribou ecology (include satellite tracking);
- Dall sheep population estimate and ecology studies;
- a photocensus and recruitment studies of the Cape Bathurst and Bluenose West caribou herds (including satellite tracking);
- harvest monitoring including wolf and wolverine carcass collections; and
- harvest data collection.
In addition, ENR spent considerable time in the environmental assessment process including the creation of a regional environmental assessment coordinator position in the Inuvik region. The Department continues to work closely with IGC and WMAC-NWT on drafting new wildlife legislation to protect species at risk in the Northwest Territories.
The Department continued to play a significant role in the development of the North Richardson Dall Sheep Management Plan; ENR participated as a member of the Dall Sheep Management Planning Working Group, hosting the first meeting of the Group in Inuvik. A draft plan was distributed for comment to the co-management boards and government. Community consultations are planned for the next fiscal year.
Surveys of the Cape-Bathurst, Bluenose West and Tuktoyaktuk peninsula caribou indicated a sharp decline in caribou populations. The Department presented results to the WMAC-NWT and IGC, and helped coordinate (and participated in) broad consultations with all user communities and user groups including the Tuktoyaktuk, Paulatuk, Aklavik and Inuvik HTCs. This resulted in closing the harvest to non-Aboriginal harvesters and recommendations for new legislation governing the harvest of caribou by Inuvialuit and other native users in the ISR. The WMAC-NWT and IGC were involved throughout this extensive consultation process; ENR continued to consult and coordinate ongoing meetings and workshops with the Inuvialuit including the Caribou Decline Impacts Workshop – Walking Together, held in November 2006 in Inuvik and the NWT-wide Caribou Summit held in Inuvik in January 2007.
7.3 Industry, Tourism and Development
The Department of Industry, Tourism and Investment (ITI) began operations April 1, 2005, as a result of restructuring of the NWT government. The Department promotes, assists and advises in the areas of economic, business and resource development, parks management and tourism opportunities.
The Department continued to work in close cooperation and consultation with IRC and the communities to support and encourage beneficiary involvement in business development and employment opportunities leading to economic self-sufficiency. The Department provided business advice, counselling and support, and assisted Inuvialuit businesses and individuals in gaining access to financial support from various sources. Activities in the ISR included:
- the delivery of business programs, including the Grants and Small Business, Business Development Fund, Business Development and Investment Corporations programs including loans and operational subsidies in the ISR;
- business advice and counselling services through economic development officer services to the communities;
- business training workshops;
- delivery of programs to school students including the Junior Achievement Program, Business Basics and the Economics of Staying in School program;
- support to the Western Arctic Business Development Services (WABDS), which continued to provide small business services,
- business counseling, training services and a business seminar on tax regulations; and
- continued work with the Department of Education, Culture and Employment and WABDS to deliver the Self Employment Incentive Program for entrepreneurs in the ISR and the Beaufort Delta region.
Minerals, Oil and Gas
Through the Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) office, ITI provided a $90,000 contribution in each fiscal year to IRC from the Building Aboriginal Capacity Program to support efforts to ensure maximum Inuvialuit participation and benefit from ongoing petroleum exploration and development activities in the Mackenzie Delta region. Specific activities completed by the IRC under the Building Aboriginal Capacity Program included:
- delivery of employment and training support programs and services to assist Inuvialuit beneficiaries within the Settlement Region to find employment;
- maintaining the position of an oil and gas employment officer to assist Inuvialuit beneficiaries in accessing and maintaining employment in the oil and gas industry, to assist beneficiaries in accessing programs on safety, driver training and surveying, and in facilitating and implementing the Summer Student Assistant and Placement Program;
- delivery of the Pre-Employment and Travel Transportation Assistance Program, which included advance visits to each community twice a year to meet with community employment officers and councils, providing assistance with résumé writing, pre-employment screening and counselling;
- production of the "ISR Oil & Gas Bulletin" to provide information on activities and events occurring in the Beaufort Delta region relating to the oil and gas industry; and
- development of the Statistical Information Compilation and Monitoring Program, which gathered statistics on person hours worked by various groups and prime contracts and sub-contracts awarded during the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 work seasons. Each year, this information is summarized and presented at the annual meeting of industry and IRC, and is used for manpower and contract planning for the next season.
In 2005-2006, two workshops were delivered in Inuvik Region on managing and financing an independent small business. A regional workshop was held in Inuvik and a community workshop in Tuktoyaktuk. The total budget for both workshops was $36,400.
The Department participates as a Steering Committee member for the Beaufort Sea Strategic Regional Plan of Action (BSSRPA) and member of the Social Cultural Economic Impact Assessment Sub-Committee. The Committee held a three-day workshop in Inuvik: Future Directions for Social Cultural and Economic Impact Assessment in the ISR. The Department provided $25,000 in contribution assistance for this workshop.
Parks and Tourism
The Department worked with 15 licensed Inuvialuit tourism operators to develop, promote and market their tourism products. In addition, the Parks and Tourism section of ITI delivered tourism training through Aurora College's Northern Most Host and Kitchen Helpers programs.
To provide a balance to resource-based development, ITI provided support to the traditional economic activities of the Inuvialuit beneficiaries through:
- core funding (in the amount of $46,800 in each fiscal year) of the HTCs in each of the six communities within the ISR under the Local Wildlife Committee Program;
- assistance to community harvesters through the HTCs in each of the six communities in the ISR;
- the provision of $3,000 in 2005-2006 and $4,000 in 2006-2007 to IRC for inter-settlement trade;
- the provision of $25,000 to the Joint Secretariat to host a caribou conference;
- providing $20,000 to Ulukhaktok for the purchase of 25 freezers to replace the use of the community freezers;
- assistance for community harvests in Inuvik ($5,000 in 2005-2006; $15,000 in 2006-2007), Tuktoyaktuk ($5,000 in 2005-2006; $8,000 in 2006-2007) and Sachs Harbour ($6,300 in 2005-2006);
- support to the meat and by-products industry by providing assistance to both the muskox and reindeer industries; and
- assistance to the traditional On-The-Land Youth Skills Training Program. In 2005-2006, workshops took place in Tuktoyaktuk and Inuvik. (Program allocations were $6,400 for Tuktoyaktuk and $5,000 for Inuvik.) In 2006-2007, workshops took place in Tuktoyaktuk, Inuvik and Aklavik. (Program allocations were $15,000 for Inuvik, $5,000 for Tuktoyaktuk and $3,250 for Aklavik.)
The Department also has a program that assists with the marketing and sales of wild fur from the Northwest Territories, which has always been considered among the very best in the world. Fur harvesters, including Inuvialuit beneficiaries, in partnership with the Government of the Northwest Territories proudly carry on this tradition under the brand name Genuine Mackenzie Valley Furs.
Plans of survey of 7(1)(a) and 7(1)(b) Inuvialuit parcels, comprising 173 survey plan sheets, have been registered in the Department of Justice's Land Titles Office. In addition, a plan of survey for the Wynniatt Region Adjustment Area (Annex K6 of the IFA) has been registered. Certificates of title were issued to the Inuvialuit for all 13 Inuvialuit lands parcels and to IRC for the adjustment portion of the Wynniatt Region Adjustment Area. The plans of survey for the Annex R reservations were endorsed on the backs of the applicable certificates of title. The portion of the Wynniatt Region Adjustment Area to be transferred to her Majesty the Queen by IRC was registered, and a new certificate of title issued to Her Majesty the Queen.
The Department's Legal Division continued to contribute to the implementation of the IFA by providing legal advice on matters, such as government usage of Inuvialuit lands, the proposed land exchange and IFA amendments. Advice was also rendered on consistency of the IFA with the proposed changes to the NWT Wildlife Act.
In addition, Legal Division acted as counsel for ITI at a seven-day arbitration hearing conducted pursuant to the provisions of the IFA. The arbitration was initiated by IRC against the governments of the Northwest Territories and Canada with the primary issue being the interpretation of the contracting obligations of the Government of the Northwest Territories under section 16 of the IFA. Legal Division is also acting for DAAIR in a second arbitration initiated by the Government of the Northwest Territories. The primary issue in this matter is the Government's ability to access Inuvialuit lands. This arbitration is being held in abeyance while the Government of the Northwest Territories and IRC attempt to negotiate an agreement.
7.5 Public Works and Services
In support of the economic measures provisions in section 16 of the IFA, and consistent with the preferential contracting policies and procedures of the Government of the Northwest Territories intended to maximize local, regional and northern employment and business opportunities, PW&S awarded 20 contracts in 2005-2006 and 25 contracts in 2006-2007 within the ISR to businesses owned by Inuvialuit beneficiaries. The total value of these contracts was $2,628,044 in 2005-2006 and $7,229,998 in 2006-2007. The Department awarded additional contracts with a total combined value of $789,964 in 2005-2006 and $16,690,214 in 2006-2007 to Inuvialuit businesses for work performed outside the Settlement Region.
In 2005-2006, the following contracts were awarded within the ISR or within Inuvialuit communities:
- $1,995,202 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for upgrades to the fuel facility in Sachs Harbour;
- $126,845 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for painting the exterior of Aurora College buildings in Inuvik;
- $86,804 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for an investigation of the Sachs Harbour water intake;
- $66,300 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for renovations to the Court Administration Office in Inuvik;
- $48,750 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for exterior painting of the Ulukhaktuk Learning Centre;
- $44,900 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for as and when electrical services in Inuvik;
- $41,000 to E. Gruben's Transport Ltd for breach restoration work at Kudlak Lake in Tuktoyaktuk;
- $40,840 to Northwind Industries Ltd for as and when gravel and soil services in Inuvik;
- $37,421 to Aklak Air Ltd for various air charters;
- $36,505 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for renovations to Aurora College housing units in Inuvik;
- $27,000 to Northwind Industries Ltd for as and when water and sewer services in Inuvik;
- $24,500 to David Storr & Sons Contracting Ltd for snow removal and clearing in Inuvik;
- $22,500 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for a roof replacement in Ulukhaktuk;
- $10,485 to Arctic Storage & Rentals for as and when water tank cleaning services in Inuvik;
- $8,000 to Bob's Welding & Heavy Equipment Repairs Ltd for gravel supply work for Aurora College in Inuvik;
- $5,591 to Aklavik Inc. for an inspection of the Sachs Harbour Health Centre; and
- $5,401 to K & D Contracting for snow removal at the Moose Kerr School in Aklavik.
The following contracts were awarded to Inuvialuit businesses for work outside the ISR:
- $437,620 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for the supply and storage of a modular building for the Colville Lake School;
- $279,105 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for upgrades to the fuel facility in Colville Lake;
- $55,374 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for boiler replacement at Grandfather Ayah School in Deline;
- $9,644 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for cabinets in Fort McPherson; and
- $8,221 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for boiler repairs in Deline.
In addition to the noted contracts, PW&S maintained the following leases within the ISR with businesses owned by Inuvialuit beneficiaries:
- a 10-year $171,883 per annum lease with IDC for office space in the IDC Building in Inuvik;
- a 10-year $84,002 per annum lease with IDC for space in the Aklavik Office Complex; and
- an 8-year $93,513 per annum lease with IDC for office space in the IDC Building in Tuktoyaktuk.
In 2006-2007, the following contracts were awarded within the ISR or within Inuvialuit communities:
- $4,186,251 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for student housing in Inuvik;
- $838,370 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for work on the school in Tuktoyaktuk;
- $485,734 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for the pumphouse in Tuktoyaktuk;
- $468,451 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for pile remediation in Inuvik;
- $300,000 to Bob's Welding & Heavy Equipment Repairs Ltd for as and when gravel contract in Inuvik;
- $200,000 to Ikahuk Cooperative Association Ltd for fuel delivery services in Sachs Harbor;
- $125,000 to Arctic Storage and Rentals for installing blocking under Government of the Northwest Territories buildings;
- $93,157 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd to auto-flush a system in Sachs Harbour;
- $85,068 to Bob's Welding & Heavy Equipment Repairs Ltd for hauling gravel in Tuktoyaktuk;
- $66,938 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for casing/cleaning the pumphouse in Sachs Harbour;
- $63,752 to Bob's Welding & Heavy Equipment Repairs Ltd for hauling gravel in Tuktoyaktuk;
- $59,224 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for casing/cleaning lake work in Sachs Harbour;
- $43,200 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for as and when electrical services in Inuvik;
- $39,220 to Northwind Industries Ltd for snow clearing and removal in Inuvik;
- $38,577 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for installing a monument in Inuvik;
- $29,625 to Arctic Storage and Rentals for grounds-keeping services in Inuvik;
- $28,500 to E. Gruben's Transport Ltd for hauling and compacting gravel in Tuktoyaktuk;
- $18,640 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for wiring a building in Inuvik;
- $14,715 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for an emergency lighting panel for the school in Ulukhaktok;
- $9,888 to Arctic Storage and Rentals for asbestos clean-up;
- $8,514 to Aklak Air Ltd for a charter to Sachs Harbour;
- $7,562 to Aklak Air Ltd for a charter to Ulukhaktok;
- $7,500 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for refrigeration services in Inuvik;
- $6,500 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for the interior renovation of an ITI office in Inuvik; and
- $4,612 to Aklak Air Ltd for a series of charters to Ulukhaktok.
The following contracts were awarded to Inuvialuit businesses for work outside the Inuvialuit Settlement Region:
- $16,646,167 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for construction of a school in Tulita;
- $33,562 to Aklak Air for a series of charters to Tulita; and
- $10,485 to Arctic Storage and Rentals for tank cleaning in the Sahtu Region.
7.6 NWT Housing Corporation
In support of the economic measures provisions in Chapter 16 of the IFA, and consistent with the preferential contracting policies and procedures of the Government of the Northwest Territories intended to maximize local, regional and northern employment and business opportunities, the NWT Housing Corporation awarded 13 contracts in 2005-2006 and 16 contracts in 2006-2007 within the ISR to businesses owned by Inuvialuit beneficiaries. The total value of these contracts was $1,361,515 in 2005-2006 and $3,192,200 in 2006-2007.
The following contracts were awarded to Inuvialuit owned businesses in 2005-2006:
- $597,500 and $257,377 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for work in Ulukhaktuk;
- $139,400 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for work in Paulatuk;
- $94,300 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for work in Ulukhaktuk;
- $63,835 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for work in various communities;
- $35,300 to Price Contracting Ltd for work in Sachs Harbour;
- $35,000 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for work in Paulatuk;
- $29,100 to Arctic Builders for work in Inuvik;
- $27,729 to PTO Services for work in Ulukhaktuk;
- $23,262 and $15,522 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for work in Inuvik;
- $15,940 to Dowland Contracting Ltd for work in Aklavik;
- $13,750 to Bob's Welding for barge services from Inuvik to Aklavik; and
- $13,500 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for work in Tuktoyaktuk.
The following contracts were awarded to Inuvialuit owned businesses in 2006-2007:
- $1,900,000 to Tuk Development Corporation for construction in Tuktoyaktuk;
- $320,000 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for construction work in Inuvik;
- $259,000 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for construction work in Ulukhaktok;
- $139,500 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for construction work in Aklavik;
- $128,900, $14,300, $9,900 and $9,700 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for repair work in Aklavik;
- $123,700 to Bob's Welding & Heavy Equipment Repairs Ltd for construction work in Aklavik;
- $98,600 to KND Contracting for repair work in Paulatuk;
- $41,900 and $16,400 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for repair work in Sachs Harbour;
- $39,400 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for repair work in Tuktoyaktuk;
- $32,100 to E. Gruben's Transport for equipment rental in Tuktoyaktuk;
- $30,000 to Tuk Development Corporation for work in Tuktoyaktuk; and
- $28,800 to K&D Contracting for gravel in Aklavik.
- $16,400 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for repair work in Sachs Harbour;
- $14,300 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for repair work Aklavik;
- $9,900 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for repair work in Aklavik; and
- $9,700 to Weitzel's Construction Ltd for repair work in Aklavik;
8. Government of Yukon
The Yukon Secretariat coordinates Yukon's implementation activities under the IFA and manages the allocation of implementation funds received from the Government of Canada. The Yukon Secretariat is also responsible for administrative requirements related to the appointment of the chairperson and a Yukon member to the Wildlife Management Advisory Council – North Slope (WMAC-NS), the designation of a member to each of the Environmental Impact Review Board (EIRB), Environmental Impact Screening Committee (EISC) and the Arbitration Board.
The Yukon Secretariat maintained active membership on the boards and committees in 2005-2007.
8.1 2007 Yukon North Slope Conference
The seventh Yukon North Slope Conference was held in Whitehorse January 30-February 1, 2007. The chair of the Conference was John Donihee; the theme was Keeping Track: Environmental Monitoring and Reporting in Wildlife Management. There were three full days of plenary and panel sessions.
The three plenary session themes were:
- Environmental Science, Monitoring and Management – Dr. Chris Burn;
- The Environmental Management Framework in the NWT – David Livingstone; and
- The Role of Harvesters and Traditional Users in an Environmental Monitoring Program – Randall Pokiak.
The five panel session themes were:
- Wildlife Population Monitoring, Reporting and Management Implications;
- Monitoring and Reporting in Coastal Zones;
- Development and Cumulative Impacts Monitoring and Reporting;
- Environment and Climate Monitoring and Reporting; and
- Monitoring, Reporting and Decision Making Involving Traditional Users.
Included in the schedule were three workshops, Understanding your Audience, Giving a Great Presentation and Communicating Results. In addition, throughout the conference, researchers were able to display posters that described their work done on the Yukon North Slope.
There were over 170 participants at the Conference from Inuvialuit and First Nation organizations, non-government and government agencies, and industry.
8.2 Wildlife Projects
In 2005-2007, the Yukon government, in coordination and cooperation with WMAC-NS and the IGC, undertook the following projects in support of the Yukon North Slope's special conservation regime set out in section 12 of the IFA.
Porcupine Caribou Herd Satellite Location Program
This project maintains eight to ten satellite radio collars in the Porcupine caribou herd to document annual migration routes and winter range use of female caribou. This is an ongoing cooperative effort with many agencies contributing to the costs (system fees, data recovery and collar purchases).
Locations are logged on an ongoing basis. Maps were produced and distributed and a Web site and fax distribution list of caribou locations maintained. The Secretariat also contributes to an Internet-based educational organization. At the request of the Porcupine Caribou Management Board in February 2007, the Secretariat stopped providing current information to the public.
Yukon North Slope Muskox Studies
This was the last of a three year program (2002-2005). In April and July 2005, the Yukon government continued to document satellite locations and flew surveys on the Yukon North Slope. In July 2005, the one remaining satellite collar was removed from the muskox. Field activities will now be guided by the Canadian North Slope Muskoxen Co-Management Plan drafted by the Wildlife Management Advisory Council (North Slope).
Yukon North Slope Peregrine survey
Two field crews surveyed the Yukon North Slope for peregrine falcons as part of the North American Peregrine Falcon Survey. In June and July 2005, known nest sites of birds of prey were visited and productivity parameters recorded. While peregrine falcons were the priority, other birds of prey were also recorded. Final survey numbers will be contributed to the authors of the North American survey report.
Aklavik Harvest Data Collection
This cooperative project between the Government of Yukon and the Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee (HTC) is intended to document harvests of moose, caribou, sheep and furbearers in Yukon and the Northwest Territories by Inuvialuit hunters in Aklavik. Interviews were carried out in December 2005. In 2006, the WMAC-NS and the Government of Yukon were scheduled to review this program.
Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-op Funds from the IFA were contributed to the Borderlands Co-op again in 2006-2007. Interviews were conducted in the cooperating communities and the science indicators summarized. The annual gathering was not possible in 2006-2007 due to funding constraints. Funds allocated this fiscal year will be held in reserve to prevent future cash flow problems and help ensure the gathering is held every year.
Arctic Fox Den Survey on Herschel Island
Scheduling problems prevented this work from being conducted. A similar study led by Don Reid (with International Polar Year funding) started in early 2007.
Herschel Island Ecological Monitoring and Yukon North Slope Vegetation Change
In 2005 the Government of the Yukon documented species composition and estimated the density of snails and slugs related to ongoing wildlife parasite work by Dr. Susan Kutz. Yukon government staff did an initial assessment of the guillemot colony and planned further work on the recent reproductive failures, did further sampling to document the vegetation change detected in 2000, and some initial assessment of the rare plants living on the landing strip and the other spits of the island. GPS locations for visible lakes and streams to aid in developing a new digital image to be used in computer mapping was also recorded.
Rangers continue to record numerous aspects for the monitoring program. These data are computerized and stored in Dawson City and shared with appropriate researchers. For the field work this year, a shallow depth soil temperature data logger that disappeared from one of the permanent vegetation plots in 2005 was replaced. Measurement stakes at one of the two thaw slumps were expanded and the slump was re-measured. The slump monitoring protocol was reviewed with Dr. Wayne Pollard who was on the island at the same time. The condition of three trails created by visitors was documented; these trails were initially inventoried in 2003. Finally, two new rangers were trained to recognize vegetation communities to record on their wildlife sightings.
Grizzly Bear Population and Movement on the Yukon North Slope
2005 was the first full year of program engagement. In April, May and June, 10 defective collars were recovered and replaced from 2004, another 20 collars were deployed. In August and September, a distance sampling exercise was conducted, earlier attempts to conduct the exercise were thwarted by weather. Only the coastal plains were surveyed due to persistently strong winds which planes could not fly at low enough elevation level through the mountain blocks. The traditional and local knowledge component of the study was also started. In February and March of 2005 three bear hunters from Aklavik were interviewed. The hunters provided information pertaining to general bear management issues and provided thoughts on the direction that the overall study should take. In January and February of 2006 mid-length interviews were conducted of eight Aklavik bear hunters. The Yukon government reviewed all available literature and pre-existing interview materials pertinent to local and traditional knowledge of grizzly bear for the Aklavik region. Information from this exercise was summarized in a draft report. The report is currently being reviewed and refined, prior to circulation. In conjunction with the Government of NWT, the Yukon government also summarized the 1998 survey data from the NWT's extensive local and traditional knowledge interviews.
Mark–recapture data collection began in 2006-2007. In June, 107 DNA-collection fence sites were placed on the North Slope. These sites consist of a string of barbwire, laced around three rebar poles with a lure placed in the centre. The wire collects hair from bears when they come to the station to investigate the lure. The stations were checked three times throughout June and July, and all hair samples were gathered from the sites. Another DNA collection season will be conducted in 2007 and samples from both seasons will be sent to a lab for analysis. All collars dropped by the bears were recovered; in addition, eight bears were captured and collared to replace the dropped collars. Telemetry flights in May and June identified which females had cubs. This information helps in understanding reproduction and survival and, consequently, population growth rates. In January 2007, a third round of traditional and local knowledge interviews, with 12 hunters from Aklavik, were completed. They provided information pertaining to bear ecology, population change, habitat and other management issues. The information from this exercise has been summarized in a draft report and is being reviewed and refined, before circulation. Public outreach exercises were also held. The first exercise at Shingle Point was held to demonstrate the effectiveness of incineration methods in reducing bear attractants. An incinerator was left on site, and two people monitored the public use of this incinerator. The second exercise involved developing an education program for elementary school kids. The program focused on teaching children about bear ecology and the importance of managing garbage while on the land. This program was delivered at Moose Kerr School in Aklavik in March 2007. The program received favourable reviews from teachers, and there are plans to implement it into the curriculum in coming years.
North Coast Rare Plant and Butterfly Inventory
The funding supplied by the WMAC-NS and Environment Canada in support of NatureServe Yukon led to the completion of a second season of a vascular plant inventory on Yukon's north coast. The Yukon coast is one of the richest plant areas in the arctic, containing about 25 percent of the world's arctic flora. This survey inventoried a region not previously reviewed by botanists or ecologists. The four-day survey also included the communities of Aklavik and Inuvik for evidence of introduced and invasive plants. In total, 255 plant collections of 193 species were made, including 11 new to the ISR, one new to Yukon, three new to the arctic and possibly one variety new to science. Introduced and invasive plants were found in Inuvik and less in Aklavik.
8.3 Herschel Island – Qikiqtaruk Park
Herschel Island - Qikiqtaruk Park Management Plan Review
Herschel Island Park Management Plan Review continued in 2005/06 and revisions occurred to incorporate WMAC(NS) interests and input received through community consultations. A final plan will be recommended for approval and be printed and distributed in 2006.
The Herschel Island – Qikiqtaruk Territorial Park Management Plan was completed and approved in April 2006. This approval followed extensive consultations over the last five years and involved the Aklavik HTC, IGC, Aklavik Community Corporation, the WMAC-NS along with a variety of other interest groups. Implementation of this strategic plan will occur over the next 10 years and focuses on the protection and maintenance of the Park's natural, cultural and historical resources while supporting Inuvialuit subsistence interests.
Herschel Island Territorial Park officially opened for the season on April 14, 2005 and closed on August 31, 2005. In 2005 there were 484 visitors compared to the 530 visitors in 2004. Out of the 484 visitors, 104 were off the Russian cruise ship (Kapitan Khlebnikov), there were also 80 rafters, 50 researchers and Yukon Government employees, 50 Inuvialuit and 200 tourists.
Herschel Island Territorial Park officially opened for the season on April 13, 2006 and closed on September 4, 2006. In 2006, there were 580 visitors compared to the 484 visitors in 2005. Out of the 580 visitors, 104 were off the Russian cruise ship, Kapitan Khlebnikov, that arrived on July 30 and 135 visitors arrived on August 28 on the cruise ship Bremen. Visits from the Coast Guard vessel, Northern Transport Company Limited, RCMP, Armed Forces and researchers made up the balance of the numbers. A German film crew was on the island for 10 days doing a film on the Wayne Pollards Program (Global Warming in the Circumpolar Region).
The Elders and Youth Program ran from July 20 to August 3, 2006. The Aklavik Community Corp and HTC decided to send four elders, four youths and one camp assistant. Park rangers and government staff members were available to assist with the program by showing the youth what kind of work they do on the island and what kind of information is recorded. This season the program harvested 2 caribou, 264 herring and 10 char.
Wildlife Observations and Harvest
The Polar Bear Survey program, headed by Dr. Ian Sterling was carried out from April 4 - 12, 2005. Dr. Sterling sent a preliminary report in July and will follow up with a complete one in the future. A total of 280 bears were caught during this season's work in the Beaufort Sea. In the early spring a Ranger sighted a polar bear and was able to get some pictures. Aside from the polar bear sightings, the first grizzly bear sighting was June 25, 2005, two other grizzlies were spotted by pilots on the north side of the island.
In 2005 there were 7 caribou harvested (5 bulls & 2 cows), 37 char, 403 herring, 2 whitefish, 2 ring seals and 1 ugruk (bearded seal) were harvested. The Northern Games Committee put forward a request for some fish and after receiving permission from the Aklavik Hunters & Trappers Committee to harvest fish for the event, 150 herring were provided.
Dr. Ian Sterling and a crew were out again in early April to finish the polar bear program; however, due to poor weather the density of polar bears in the area seemed quite low and they only caught half as many as planned. In addition, a polar bear mother and two cubs were sighted in mid-May on the north side of the island and 23 muskox were sighted on the island after the ice went out. A whooper swan was sighted on June 29 and July 1, as well a red neck stint and a woodpecker. These are rare sightings.
In 2006, 15 caribou, 1 grizzly, 1 wolverine, 1 whitefish, 76 charr and 173 herring were harvested.
Heritage Site Management
In 2005-2006 Heritage Resources staff were on the island June 28th - July 6th. They removed damaged roll roofing material from the Rangers' Quarters (former Royal Canadian Corps of Signalers Transmitter Station) and re-surfaced the roof. This was done in conjunction with a contractor installing solar panels on the south facing slope. This former transmitter station was honoured, along with many other similar ones in Yukon and NWT, as part of Parks Canada's commemoration of the NWT and Yukon Radio System as an event of national historic significance, held in August.
Various other repairs were made such as:
- Repair of the roof of the Bonehouse;
- Repair of roof rafters in the Northern Whaling and Trading Co. Store; and
- Replacement of broken window glass in 3 buildings.
Staff also assisted in the installation of an additional propane heater for the Community House, carried out a general site inspection and made numerous small repairs to various structures.
The Rangers re-roofed the Mission House earlier in the year, before the return of the Black Guillemot colony.
A paleontologist accompanied the repair crew and carried out monitoring of paleontological and archaeological resources.
Heritage resources and activities taking place on the island. Heritage Resources staff were on the island June 29 to July 9, 2006. While there, work was carried out on the rangers' quarters (formerly the Royal Canadian Corps of Signalers Transmitter Station) including relevelling the building, repair and upgrade of the floor insulation, installation of new flooring and weatherstripping of storm windows. At the same time, loose roofing was refastened on the Bonehouse, the Northern Whaling and Trading Co. Store and the Canada Custom's Warehouse, and repairs were made to the rafters in the roof of the Northern Whaling and Trading Co. Store. Staff also carried out a general site inspection and made numerous small repairs to various structures.
The cultural resources of the island were included in Heritage Canada's top 10 list of Canada's most endangered places due to the effects of climate change.
The historic sites coordinator was invited to speak at a meeting of UNESCO in Paris in the spring of 2006, which resulted in the inclusion of Herschel Island in the UNESCO publication, Case Studies on Climate Change and World Heritage, released in the spring of 2007.
The Yukon Historical and Museums Association nominated the island to the World Monuments Fund list of the 100 most endangered places for 2008 released on June 6. The reason for the inclusion of Herschel Island on the list is the loss of cultural heritage resources due to increased shoreline erosion as a result of climate change.
9. Government of Canada
9.1 Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
The Implementation Branch serves as a liaison on Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) implementation issues for co-management boards, the Inuvialuit, territorial governments and other federal government departments. The Branch:
- administers and monitors funding arrangements with various implementing bodies having obligations under the IFA;
- monitors federal implementation activities to ensure compliance with the land claim agreement;
- processes the appointments to the Arbitration Board, Environmental Impact Review Board (EIRB) and the Environmental Impact Screening Committee (EISC) by the governments of Canada, the Northwest Territories and Yukon;
- processes amendments to the IFA; and
- publishes the annual report of the IFA Implementation Coordinating Committee (ICC).
The director general of the Implementation Branch serves as the Government of Canada member to the ICC, and the director of the Implementation Management Directorate is the alternate.
The Branch participated in a meeting of the IFA ICC, in 2005-2006 and two meetings in 2006-2007.
During the year, the Implementation Branch:
- processed appointments to various boards under the IFA;
- continued the responsibility of transferring funding from the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) to INAC to provide the Fisheries Joint Management Committee (FJMC) with a flexible transfer payment funding agreement similar to other boards under the IFA; and
- held a workshop in March 2006 on contracting.
In 2006, the Auditor General of Canada advised INAC that it would be conducting a performance audit of the implementation of the IFA. Implementation Branch staff worked throughout 2006-2007 to provide the Auditor General with the necessary information to complete the audit. Its report is scheduled for November 2007. The audit aims to answer the following questions:
- how federal commitments made under the IFA are implemented;
- how INAC monitors implementation of the Agreement; and
- how INAC monitors the success of the IFA vis-à-vis the three principles of enabling Inuvialuit to participate equally and meaningfully in the economy and society of Canada's North and of the nation, protecting and preserving the wildlife, environment and biological productivity of the Arctic, and preserving Inuvialuit cultural identity and values within a changing northern society.
Northern Affairs Program
The Northern Affairs Program administers legislation concerning the disposition and use of Crown lands, inland waters, the offshore, non-renewable resources and overall environmental protection within the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
The Program administers implementation funding provided for conducting granular resource (sand and gravel) inventories. The ongoing review of environmental impact statements and applications for the Mackenzie Gas Project (MGP) has led to concern about the overall potential of the region to meet both short and long term public, community and industrial requirements for granular resources. The results of recent granular inventory work undertaken as part of this implementation task were shared with a broad range of NWT granular resource stakeholders through presentations at a workshop in Yellowknife in September 2006.
Because granular materials, particularly sand and gravel, are relatively scarce in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), one of the most important considerations in effectively managing the resource is the determination of potential future demands. The IFA requires that demand forecasts be prepared at least every five years. An approach and methodology for obtaining preliminary estimates for the volumes of granular resources required for various types of industrial, community development and related public infrastructure (e.g., highways), established before the previous forecast, was reviewed and modified in 2006-2007. A scoping study was undertaken in 2005-2006 to review the results of previous forecasts, identify sources of information for new forecasts and prepare a template for a new survey of demand. The new survey of granular resource demand will take place in 2007-2008. Its results will help guide and support responses to quarry permit applications and the ongoing development of a regional granular management plan.
Work continued on an Internet-based information mapping and exchange system to be used for information sharing and consultation on the development of the regional granular resources management plan. This work included data preparation and loading, updating base layers and upgrading user interfaces for accessing, reviewing and editing information. Additional dynamic reports provided detailed information about selected locations. Work on the plan is ongoing. The plan and mapping system will guide responses to applications for use of granular resources throughout the ISR.
Northern Oil and Gas Directorate
The Northern Oil and Gas Directorate routinely engages in environmental consultations with the IGC, representing the hunters and trappers committees (HTCs), before offering onshore and offshore lands to the oil and gas industry. Environmental information obtained from the IGC greatly assists INAC in identifying and confirming environmental sensitivities within the ISR. This information is carefully considered by the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development before offering Crown lands to industry.
As part of the consultation process, meetings were held with the IGC on September 8, 2005, and October 1, 2006, in Whitehorse to review the results of the previous year's ISR Crown lands offering in the Mackenzie Delta and the Beaufort Sea. As part of the discussions, the environmental sensitivity of certain onshore and offshore lands in support of the next call for nominations was reviewed. In addition, oil and gas activity over the past year was highlighted, and seismic and drilling activity for the coming winter forecasted.
The environmental sensitivity information received from the IGC and government agencies has helped with decisions to offer Crown lands. For example, following recent caribou surveys involving the Inuvialuit, Natural Resources Canada determined that there have been significant declines in the Cape Bathurst and Bluenose West caribou herds. As a result of this information, INAC alerted potential land nominators that additional restrictions may be imposed at the regulatory stage, such as certain timing restrictions for some areas. In addition, industry has been alerted to the fact that the grizzly bear has been listed as vulnerable under the Species at Risk Act.
Oil and gas exploration activities continued on the exploration licences issued by INAC for Crown lands in the Mackenzie Delta. Benefit plans approved under the Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act resulted in employment, training and business supply and service opportunities for Inuvialuit, other northerners and their businesses. Inuvialuit and Inuvialuit owned businesses respond positively to the many opportunities.
Mackenzie Gas Project
Imperial Oil Resources Ventures Ltd, ConocoPhillips Canada, Shell Canada Ltd, ExxonMobil Canada and the Aboriginal Pipeline Group are co-venturers in the proposed MGP. The Project includes the development and operation of three natural gas fields — Taglu, Niglintgak and Parsons Lake — in the Mackenzie Delta, a natural gas and natural liquids gathering system with associated processing facilities near Inuvik, a natural gas liquids pipeline from Inuvik to Norman Wells and a natural gas transmission pipeline from Inuvik to northern Alberta. The co-venturers applied for regulatory approvals from the National Energy Board (NEB) in 2004.
The two parallel and related review processes for the MGP — the Joint Review Panel (JRP) and the NEB Panel — continued in 2006-2007. The JRP was appointed in August 2004 by the Minister of the Environment, in agreement with the chairs of the Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact Review Board (MVEIRB) and the Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC), the parties with legislated environmental assessment responsibilities along the proposed route. The JRP began hearings in February 2006; its report and the Government of Canada response to it are expected in 2008 as are the decisions of the NEB Panel with respect to MGP components. The NEB panel began hearings in January 2006 and adjourned in December 2006, pending completion of the JRP's environmental hearings and its report, and Canada's response.
Canada appreciates the work of Tyson Pertschy, an Inuvialuit beneficiary, as a member of the JRP. Mr. Pertschy was appointed on the recommendation of the chair of the IGC.
Research Associated with the Mackenzie Gas Project
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Environment Canada received funds for northern oil and gas research from the federal budgets of 2004 and 2005 in support of the environmental assessment and regulatory processes associated with the MGP and induced oil and gas activities.
Research projects in 2006-2007 included:
- an examination of permafrost and terrain conditions across the tree line in the Mackenzie Delta (INAC);
- aerial photography and mapping of the MGP to develop a digital elevation model (INAC);
- geoscience and habitat mapping in the Beaufort Sea (NRCan/DFO);
- coastal and nearshore stability (NRCan);
- updating navigational charts for the Mackenzie River and Beaufort Sea (DFO);
- the potential impacts of the hydrocarbon industry on the seasonal use of the Eastern Beaufort Sea by beluga whales (DFO);
- the hydrology of the Mackenzie Delta Lake and Channel (EC); and
- shorebird surveys throughout the Mackenzie Delta (EC).
Beaufort Sea Strategic Regional Plan of Action
The Beaufort Sea Strategic Regional Plan of Action (BSSRPA) is intended to address concerns related to offshore oil and gas development in the Beaufort Sea and coastal transition zone through:
- protection of the environment from significant adverse impacts of proposed developments;
- protection of social, cultural and economic well-being of the Inuvialuit communities and residents; and
- encouragement of responsible economic development.
In early February 2007, the BSSRPA coordinator completed a community tour in the ISR, providing an update on the progress of the plan development. The Steering Committee presented draft plan recommendations to the ISR leadership at the end of March 2007. These recommendations were grouped into three main themes:
- increasing regulatory efficiency and effectiveness;
- optimizing benefits and mitigating environmental, social and cultural impacts; and
- planning for the future.
A plain language version of the plan has been completed and is now available.
Environmental Studies Research Fund
The Environmental Studies Research Fund (ESRF) sponsors environmental and social studies designed to assist government decision making related to oil and gas exploration and development on Canada's frontier lands. The ESRF program, initiated in 1983 under the Canada Oil and Gas Act now receives its legislated mandate through the superseding legislation, the Canada Petroleum Resources Act proclaimed in February 1987. Funding for the ESRF is provided by industry through levies on exploration and production properties on frontier lands. The ESRF is directed by a 12-member joint government–industry– public management board and is administered by a secretariat residing within the NEB in Calgary, Alberta.
The Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development appointed Dr. Norman Snow, Executive Director, Joint Secretariat, to the ESRF Management Board effective August 2005. Dr. Snow has attended oard meetings and participated in reviewing current research projects and in establishing priorities for future work.
Other initiatives included a research seminar in November 2005 in Inuvik. Sponsors of the workshop included INAC Science, the Program of Energy Research and Development, the ESRF and the BSSRPA. In addition to the presentations on current research, the workshop was successful in identifying future research priorities. In March 2006, the BSSRPA held a very successful workshop on socio-economic issues.
Land Administration is responsible for the administration of those surface and subsurface rights owned by the Crown in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.
The Department is identified as the holder of five reserves on Inuvialuit land under Annex R of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement. A number of these reserves are no longer required and have either been cleaned up or are in the process of being cleaned up. The process to release the reserve and remove the encumbrance against the title of the Inuvialuit lands is underway.
Contaminated Sites Program
The primary goal of the Contaminated Sites Program is the elimination of risks to human and environmental health, while also providing support for economic development and employment.
Kittigazuit Bay/Yellow Beetle: Kittigazuit is located on the shore of the Beaufort Sea, about 50 km west of Tuktoyaktuk, Northwest Territories. The site was used as a long-range aid to navigation from 1947-1950 by the Royal Canadian Air Force and the United States Air Force. In 1976, the site was designated as a waste metal depot by INAC. The area is of significant interest to Inuvialuit both historically and spiritually and was selected as part of the IFA.
A large portion of the remediation was completed in the late summer/fall of 2002 through a contribution agreement with Inuvialuit Projects Inc. (IPI), a subsidiary of the Inuvialuit Development Corporation. This involved demolition of remaining structures, consolidation of waste, and delineation and excavation of metal-contaminated soil. During this investigation, some hydrocarbon-contaminated soil was detected, which was delineated in 2003-2004. This led to further work in 2004-2005, which included the excavation, containerization and shipment of this hydrocarbon-contaminated soil off site. Again, this work was completed through a contribution agreement with IPI of about $719,000. Unfortunately, due to low water levels in the fall of 2004, the material had to be stored in Inuvik and wait for barge shipment to a disposal facility in Hay River in the spring of 2005. This has now been done and remediation of this site is complete and the encumbrance against the title of the land can be removed.
Horton River: Once a DEW Line Intermediate Site, Horton River is also referred to as BARE or Malloch Hills, near Horton River Delta on Cape Bathurst within the Amundsen Gulf on a peninsula between Paulatuk and Tuktoyaktuk. It was remediated in 1994 under the terms of a cooperation agreement between the Inuvialuit Land Administration and INAC. The cleanup involved construction of a landfill on top of an existing dump on the site near the airstrip, which INAC committed to monitor. Monitoring to date has found no major issues. Funding was available in 2003-2004, and Inuvialuit Environmental and Geotechnical, through Inuvialuit Projects Inc., was contracted through the contribution agreement to conduct more formal monitoring of the site. The company completed this monitoring again in 2004-2005 to ensure the remediation objectives for this site have been met. Overall indications are that the landfill is stable and not leaching.
Atkinson Point: Otherwise known as BAR-D, Atkinson Point was an Intermediate Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line site located about 80 kilometres northeast of Tuktoyaktuk by McKinley Bay. This military radar site was constructed in 1957 and operated until 1963.
The site includes several sources of contaminants, including poly-chlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), heavy metals and potential hydrocarbons in the soil. Several landfills, barrels and fuel tanks, as well as buildings contaminated with PCB-amended paint and asbestos remain on site.
Some initial work was completed in 1993, in which most of the visible debris at Atkinson Point was consolidated and stockpiled. However, further detailed assessment, consultation and remediation planning is required before a complete remediation plan is developed for the site.
No funds were available in 2004-2005 due to the ranking of higher-risk sites for funding. However, funding for this site was approved for the 2005-2006 fiscal year. Work over 2006-2007included supplementary environmental site assessment consultation and regulatory approvals and procurement for remediation. The contractor plans to complete the majority of the remediation work in the summer of 2007. All hazardous and non-hazardous wastes will be removed for disposal.
Johnson Point: On the East coast of Banks Island, Johnson Point was used as a staging area for oil and gas exploration in the area in the early 1970s. Based on concerns from the Sachs Harbour HTC, a proposal was submitted in 2004 to provide funds for a site assessment to be completed in 2005-2006. The primary site assessment was completed in 2005-2006 with the more detailed assessment in 2006-2007 along with the incineration of about 100,000 litres of old waste fuel from the tank farm. A remediation plan is in development with extensive community involvement and site procurement planned for 2007-2008.
Several companies are active in the ISR, either continuing their previous explorations or beginning new work. Most exploration has centred on diamonds with a more recent return to the historical focus on copper, nickel and platinum deposits.
The governments of Canada and the Northwest Territories and the Aboriginal Summit negotiated devolution between 2002 and March 2005. While progress was made, no agreement was reached. There were no formal devolution negotiations during the 2005-2006 and 2006-2007 fiscal years. There is no targeted date for completion of the agreement-in-principle.
The issue of resource revenue sharing is being negotiated separately between the Government of the Northwest Territories and Finance Canada. When agreement has been reached on resource revenue sharing, these arrangements will be included in the agreement-in-principle.
9.2 Fisheries and Oceans Canada
The Department of Fisheries and Oceans provides support to the FJMC and is responsible for making policy and regulatory changes to accommodate Inuvialuit rights concerning the harvest, trade, transport and comanagement of fish and marine mammal resources in the ISR. The Department also promotes the principle of cooperative management of fisheries resources in the ISR, with full cooperation from the Inuvialuit.
In the 2005-2006 year, 20 projects recommended by the FJMC received funding from DFO to a total of $343,600. The projects ranged from seal and fish monitoring to beluga reproduction and mercury accumulation in marine mammals. The projects maximize Inuvialuit participation from the six communities of the ISR and involved numerous meetings with each community HTC.
In the 2006-2007 year, DFO funded 20 projects recommended by the FJMC for a total of $348,000. The projects included community fishing plans, seal and arctic charr monitoring programs, mercury analysis in marine mammals, ecosystem modelling and water quality analysis. Many funded projects are part of ongoing research programs that offer the benefit of providing long-term historical data to be used in the co-management process.
The HTCs and community members in each of the six Inuvialuit communities were involved extensively with the field projects. They received $173,000 for work done, which is about half of the total project budget. The Department also provided funding for the participation of the two Canada members on the FJMC.
9.3 Environment Canada
Environment Canada, through the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS), is represented on the wildlife management advisory councils, the Wildlife Management Advisory Council – Northwest Territories (WMAC-NWT) and the Wildlife Management Advisory Council – North Slope (WMAC-NS), which deal with all significant wildlife issues in the ISR.
In cooperation with the Inuvialuit, the CWS continued to carry out studies of migratory birds in the ISR. These studies will help guarantee that populations are not over-harvested and that important migratory bird habitat receives adequate protection. During the past two years, studies of migratory birds focused on surveys of waterfowl on Victoria Island and the mainland and on the possible factors involved in declining goose numbers on Banks Island and at the Anderson River Bird Sanctuary. In addition, waterfowl harvest data were collected at three communities and a number of long-term data sets were analyzed and summarized for wildlife management purposes. A considerable amount of additional funding, obtained from outside the IFA-related sources, helped address conservation issues in
the Western Arctic.
With the tremendous increase in oil and gas exploration in the ISR, Environment Canada invested a significant amount of effort in reviewing the environmental impact statement for the MGP and participating in the JRP hearings for the MGP. Several studies have been initiated to help deal with impacts of gas and oil development on wildlife in the ISR.
As well as addressing the fundamental functions of protecting the environment and wildlife conservation, Environment Canada programs benefit the Inuvialuit in other tangible ways. About half of the IFA-related funding and other funds obtained by Environment Canada are reinvested back into Inuvialuit owned companies, organizations or individuals through contracts and payments.
9.4 Parks Canada Agency
Parks Canada Agency is responsible for protecting natural and cultural resources, including the wildlife populations and habitat of the three national parks in the ISR: Ivvavik National Park in the western portion of the North Slope, Aulavik National Park on Banks Island and Tuktut Nogait National Park near Paulatuk. In addition to its activities in these areas, Parks Canada continued to participate in discussions with the IGC on amendments required to the National Parks Regulations to ensure they conform to the IFA. The WMAC-NS, WMAC-NWT, Tuktut Nogait National Park Management Board and the Aulavik Advisory Committee are also part of the discussions.
A final draft of the Tuktut Nogait National Park Management Plan was prepared and began the approval process within the Agency before submission to the Minister's office.
Culture, Education and Outreach
Parks Canada undertook the following activities in the reporting period.
- Discussions continued with the IGC on a public consultation process to discuss required amendments to the National Parks Regulations.
- Parks Canada works with the Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre and a contractor toward the publication of a book on Inuvialuit ethnobotany. The Agency contributed $50,000 toward the project.
- Work is proceeding on a third publication presenting Paulatuk oral history. Interviews took place in 2005-2006, and final text preparation and revision were completed in 2006-2007.
- Park staff, mostly Inuvialuit, visited all nine communities of the Western Arctic to deliver the Environmental Stewardship Certificate program to Grade 4 students.
- Park staff attended school career fairs promoting national parks careers.
- Camps for youth from Aklavik, Inuvik and Paulatuk were held in each of the three national parks. Camps included a science field trip for biology students from Inuvik, a field trip for students from Aklavik and a field trip and camp for youth from Paulatuk.
- Artists in the park programs were held in Ivvavik National Park. In 2005, an Inuvialuit carver participated and in 2006 an Inuvialuit painter took part.
- Parks Day events were held in Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour, Inuvik and Shingle Point on Saturday July 16, 2005 and Saturday July 15, 2006. Events featured live music and dancing and in Paulatuk, Oceans Day activities for youth.
The Pingo Canadian Landmark National Historic Site is located adjacent to Tuktoyaktuk. Included within its boundaries is the largest pingo in Canada and a number of others at different stages of evolution. Created over a number of years, a pingo is an ice-cored mound produced when ice grows in or below permafrost as a result of water pressure. The agreement to create the Pingo Canadian Landmark is contained in subsection 7(70) of the IFA.
Lands of equal value have not yet been transferred to the Inuvialuit for the Pingo Canadian Landmark. The ILA applied to INAC to begin discussions on the land swap.
The environmental assessment for the interpretive trail and visitor facilities has been completed and has passed the screening. Parks Canada continues to work with DFO, INAC and Transport Canada to secure the necessary permits and authorizations for the site development work. A hazard assessment and site surveys and plans are also complete.
In January 2006, Parks Canada filed an intervention with the JRP citing concerns with potential impacts and cumulative effects on national historic sites, national parks and the Pingo Canadian landmark.
The third year of a photo-point monitoring program of the Split and Ibyuk pingoes was completed.
Wildlife Population and Habitat
Parks Canada participates in the Northern Bioregional Working Group to ensure that ecological monitoring activities provide effective indicators of the state of the environment in the national parks. Parks Canada works with cooperative management partners to ensure that the needs of local partners are included in this initiative.
Parks Canada provides $11,250 in annual contribution funding to the Porcupine Caribou Monitoring Board to assist the Board in community consultation. Parks Canada also provided $6,000 annually toward satellite monitoring of the herd.
Contribution funding of $10,000 was provided to the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-op to help monitor ecosystem changes by collecting traditional knowledge throughout the range of the Porcupine caribou herd.
Research and monitoring in the ISR in 2006-2007 included the following activities:
- arctic coastal climate change;
- Tuktoyaktuk–Mars analogue;
- coastal demersal fishes as an indicator of coastal/marine ecological integrity for the northern bioregion;
- biocomplexity of patterned ground ecosystems;
- Yukon North Slope muskox population;
- an assessment of the Stokes Point DEW Line contaminated site;
- bottom-dwelling fishes and clams as indicators of ecological integrity;
- studies of the Yukon North Slope and Inuvialuit Settlement Region grizzly bear populations;
- wildlife observatories linking vulnerable ecosystems;
- interview and field study investigations of the Northern Yukon marmot population;
- the role of patterned ground ecosystems;
- climate change, disturbance and tall shrub dynamics in the Western Arctic;
- a breeding shorebird survey;
- archaeology surveys at Uyarsivik (Cache) Lake;
- wildlife surveys in all three national parks;
- a Nunavut bird checklist survey;
- raptor surveys;
- Banks Island, Peary caribou, Cape Bathurst and Bluenose West caribou surveys;
- Porcupine caribou herd survey;
- Satellite monitoring of plant productivity;
- Firth River Campsite monitoring to identify human impacts along the Firth River;
- water flows in the Firth River;
- changes in water levels and temperatures during storms in the Beaufort sea;
- water quality of the Thomsen and Firth rivers;
- condition of cultural sites along the Firth River;
- impact of erosion and visitor disturbance along the coast of Ivvavik; and
- lemming monitoring.
Employment and Economic Opportunities
Park Canada continues to use Inuvialuit businesses on a preferred basis in the management and operation of Ivvavik National Park and other heritage resources in the ISR. In 2006-2007, there were 32 permanent and 6 seasonal employees; 59 percent of the employees were Inuvialuit. Two youth from Paulatuk worked with Parks Canada in a student mentorship program during the summer of 2006.
Two Inuvialuit employees took part in an Aboriginal leadership development program; one employee completed and graduated from the program. An Inuvialuit employment strategy has also been incorporated into the human resource plan for the field unit.
Parks Canada collaborated with Arctic Nature Tours, a subsidiary of Inuvialuit owned Aklak Air, to pilot a guided day trip tourism opportunity in Ivvavik National Park during the summer of 2005. The proponents worked with Aklavik Community Corporation to contract with a local resident to help guide the project, and host and guide the trips. The trips continued in 2006 following the success in 2005.
Arts and crafts items were purchased from artists and crafts people from Sachs Harbour and Paulatuk for display in the park visitor centres.
A new Inuvik-based tourism group, the Western Arctic Tourism Stakeholder Committee, met several times to work together to promote tourism in the Western Arctic. The Committee focused on implementing recommendations from a marketing plan presented in the spring of 2005, Marketing Tourism in Canada's Western Arctic: Marketing Plan 2005-2008.
Total Parks Canada Agency spending on Inuvialuit goods and services in 2005-2006 totalled $1,044,298 with $29,112 on goods and $1,015,186 on services. In 2006-2007, spending totalled $857,006, with $23,831 in goods and $833,175 in services.
9.5 Public Works and Government Services Canada
Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) continued to provide opportunities for claimant groups to bid on government contracts by advertising procurement opportunities on the government electronic tendering system and by notifying claimant groups of the procurement of goods, services and construction destined for the ISR.
Assistance and information on the procurement process were provided as requested by the Inuvialuit, as well as information on contracts. Whenever practical and consistent with sound procurement management, PWGSC recommended that bid evaluation criteria be included in solicitations to maximize socio-economic benefits for the Inuvialuit.
9.6 Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
The Agency continued to work with other government departments, Inuvialuit and First Nations to develop frameworks for environmental assessment and regulatory processes for potential project developments in the Northwest Territories. In particular, the Agency continued to implement agreements to harmonize three environmental assessment processes for the review of the MGP. The two MGP-related agreements involving the Agency are the signed memorandum of understanding with the Inuvialuit that provides for certain measures contained in the IFA to be encompassed in a panel review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, and the agreement with the IGC and MVEIRB that provides for the establishment of a single review panel process under the Act and the MVRMA for the MGP. The Agency is also a signatory to a memorandum of agreement that established the Northern Gas Project Secretariat to support environmental assessment and regulatory review processes for the MGP.
In addition to its work on the MGP, the Agency also cooperated with the NEB, the EIRB and the IGC on a comprehensive study of the Devon offshore exploratory drilling project.
9.7 Human Resources and Skills Development Canada
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, through Service Canada, provides funding to Aboriginal groups to undertake skills training and employment development. Funds are provided to Aboriginal groups through the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Agreement (AHRDA), which is in place until March 31, 2009. In fiscal year 2006-2007, $2,029,087 was provided to the Inuvialuit. This funding provided for the establishment and maintenance of day cares.
The AHRDA stipulates the capture of results data to reflect achievements resulting from program expenditures. In 2006-2007, 58 Inuvialuit participated, with 55 interventions completed, 17 employed and 7 returning to school.
Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership Program
The IRC was one partner that developed a multi-year strategy for industrial skills development related to opportunities anticipated out of oil and gas industrial development. A proposal from this partnership was successful in being funded pursuant to the Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership (ASEP) Program.
This multi-year funding program will assist the Inuvialuit to identify and support clients through interventions that will lead to permanent and meaningful jobs in the oil and gas industry. The IRC share of funding provided to Aboriginal Futures (the training partnership) was $4,499,880 for 2004 through to March 31, 2008.
The ASEP Program was approved late in the fiscal year. Therefore, projects approved through this initiative were in their early stages at year-end. An important characteristic of initiatives supported under the ASEP Program is that all training undertaken will lead to long-term sustainable jobs.
9.8 Natural Resources Canada
Natural Resources Canada has completed all surveying activities for the Inuvialuit Comprehensive Land Claim Agreement as per its obligations. All plans are recorded in the Canada Lands Surveys Records and Land Titles Office where appropriate. The IFA survey plans were made into three atlases.
Schedule of Capital Transfer Payments
Annex N of the IFA outlines the capital transfer payments which were made to the Inuvialuit on the last business day prior to December 31 of each of the following years and in the following amounts:
Cumulative Costs of Implementation 1984-1985 to 2006-2007
|Fiscal Year||Amount $|
* These funds represent funds allocated for implementation purposes, as actual expenditure figures are not available.
Membership of Implementing Bodies as of March 31, 2007
Inuvialuit Regional Corporation Board of Directors
Nellie Cournoyea, Chair and CEO
Eddie Dillon, 1st Vice Chair
Joseph Haluksit, 2nd Vice Chair
Carol D. Arey
Inuvialuit Land Administration Commission
Albert Elias, Chair
Inuvialuit Development Corporation Board
Wayne Gordon, Chair
Frank Pokiak, Chair
Fisheries Joint Management Committee
Robert K. Bell, Chair
Robert K. Bell, Chair
Max Kotokak Sr.
Joint Secretariat, Inuvialuit Renewable Resource Committees*
Board of Directors
Frank Pokiak, Chair
Bob Bell, Vice-Chair
Norm Snow, Secretary
Inuvialuit Investment Corporation Board
Frank Hansen, Chair
Janet Kanayok (2006-2007)
Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation Board
Nellie Cournoyea, Chair
Carol D. Arey
Inuvialuit Enrolment Committee
Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee
John Max Kudlak
Wildlife Management Advisory Council-NWT
Larry Carpenter, Chair
Frank Pokiak, Vice-Chair
John Max Kudlak
Evelyn Storr (2005-2006)
Leonard Harry (2006-2007)
Wildlife Management Advisory Council-North Slope
Lindsay Staples, Chair
Danny C. Gordon
Stein K. Lal, Chair
A. Ernie Pallister, Vice-Chair Sandra Elanik
Jack R. Williams
Joe Bishop (2005-2006)
Inuvialuit Game Council
Frank Pokiak, Chair
Peter Esau Sr.
Environmental Impact Screening Committee
Environmental Impact Review Board
Elizabeth Snider, Chair
Cathy Cockney (2006-2007)
* The Joint Secretariat provides secretariat services to the IGC, FJMC, WMAC-NWT, EISC, EIRB. The secretariat for the WMAC-NS is located in Whitehorse.
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