Archived - Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee Annual Report 1998-1999

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Author: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada
Date: 2000
ISBN: 0-662-64701-7
Catalogue No.:R72-284/2000
QS- 5332-004-BB-AI

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(541 Kb, 42 Pages)


Table of Contents

Mary K. Okheena is a self-taught artist who has been drawing since childhood. In 1977, she began stencil printing and is now recognized worldwide for her artistic mastery. A contributor to the annual Holman print collection, Mary also teaches print making and illustrates children's books. She lives in Holman, NWT with her husband Eddie, and five children, Dennis, Carolyne, Denise, Byron and Micah.

In this work entitled "Reach for the Top"; Mary was inspired by the youth participating in the Northern Games. Like their elders, they strive to do their best at meeting their goals and reaching for the top.


The Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee (IFA ICC) is pleased to provide its first annual report on the implementation of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) (1984). This report covers the fiscal year extending from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 1999.

The IFA ICC was formally reconstituted with the signing of the terms of reference on May 11, 1999, and comprises a senior representative from each of the parties: the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, the Inuvialuit Game Council, the Government of the Northwest Territories, the Yukon Territorial Government and the Government of Canada. Additionally, each member of the IFA ICC has an appointed alternate member who may participate on the IFA ICC in the member's absence. The Committee has agreed to reach decisions unanimously among the relevant parties and serves as a forum where parties can raise issues and voice their concerns.

The role of the IFA ICC is to oversee, monitor and direct the implementation of the IFA. This annual report describes achievements and developments during the year. Information is contributed by various federal and territorial departments, the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, the Inuvialuit Game Council and other stakeholders to the Agreement.

Progress is being achieved within a relationship defined by mutual respect and a commitment to fulfill the obligations set out in the Agreement.

Nellie Cournoyea
Inuvialuit Regional Corporation

Duane Smith
Inuvialuit Game Council

Terry Henderson
Government of Canada

Mark Warren
Government of the Northwest Territories

P.I. Malloch
Yukon Territorial Government

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Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations

Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency

Community Economic Development Organization

Claims Implementation Branch

Canadian Wildlife Service

Distant Early Warning Line

Department of Fisheries and Oceans

Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development

Department of National Defense

Department of the Environment

Environmental Impact Review Board

Environmental Impact Screening Committee

Fisheries Joint Management Committee

Geographic Information System

Government of the Northwest Territories

Hunters and Trappers Committee

Inuvialuit Development Corporation

Inuvialuit Energy Inc.

Inuvialuit Final Agreement

Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee

Inuvialuit Game Council

Inuvialuit Harvesters Assistance Program

Inuvialuit Harvest Study

Inuvialuit Investment Corporation

Inuvik Gas Project

Inuvialuit Land Administration

Inuvialuit Land Corporation

Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation

Inuvialuit Regional Corporation

Inuvialuit Settlement Region

International Tundra Experiment

Memorandum of Understanding

Northern Affairs Program (DIAND)

National Historic Site

Research Advisory Council

Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development (GNWT)

Wildlife Management Advisory Council - North Slope

Yukon Development Assessment Process

Yukon Territorial Government
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These amendments were the result of extensive cooperation between the YTG, the Inuvialuit and the comanagement bodies established under the IFA and recognize the legal rights of Inuvialuit that have existed for 15 years under the IFA. They provide the YTG with the legal means to regulate and administer harvesting consistent with the requirements of the IFA and greatly improve the Yukon government's ability to manage wildlife on the Yukon North Slope.

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Section 1 - Summary of Agreement Provisions

The Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA), was brought into force and effect by the Western Arctic (Inuvialuit) Claims Settlement Act in 1984.

1.1 Land Ownership

The Agreement provides the Inuvialuit with fee simple absolute title to approximately 91,000 square kilometers of land in the Western Arctic (NWT). This area includes approximately 13,000 square kilometers on which the Inuvialuit have title to surface and subsurface rights. The ISR includes the North Slope of the Yukon Territory, the eastern half of the Beaufort Sea, part of the Arctic Ocean, Banks Island, much of the western part of Victoria Island and some of the Parry Islands (see map, Appendix 1).

1.2 Eligibility and Enrollment

An enrollment authority composed of one federal government and two Inuvialuit representatives was initially established to enroll those who were entitled to be registered as beneficiaries of the Agreement. Ongoing enrollment authority is now a responsibility of the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC).

1.3 Financial Compensation

Under the provisions of the IFA, the Inuvialuit received a total of $152 million over 14 years, ending in 1997. The Agreement also provided for one-time payments, made in 1984, of $7.5 million to a fund to assist the Inuvialuit in social development and $10 million to the Economic Enhancement Fund.

1.4 Economic Measures

Section 16 of the IFA addresses economic development in the settlement region. Its broad objectives are focused on integration into Canadian society through development of an adequate level of economic selfreliance and a solid economic base. Since 1984, the Economic Enhancement Fund has helped the Inuvialuit become more actively involved in the local economy and make long-term investments that will provide a solid base for future development.

IRC, DIAND and RWED have established the Economic Measures Steering Committee to identify the types of issues and data required during a public review of Section 16 scheduled for the year 2000.

1.5 Inuvialuit Corporations

Established under Section 6(1) of the IFA, IRC holds the overall responsibility for managing the affairs of its corporate subsidiaries and achieving the goals outlined in the IFA. Its ongoing functions and form obligations are:

IRC is directly controlled by the six community corporations in the ISR through their elected chairs. The chairs and directors of the community corporations elect the chair of IRC. The chair of IRC and the chairs of the six community corporations comprise the board of IRC.

The Inuvialuit Land Corporation (ILC) owns and holds responsibility for Inuvialuit lands received under the IFA. The Inuvialuit Development Corporation (IDC), Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation (IPC) and Inuvialuit Investment Corporation (IIC) are responsible for carrying on the business activities and investing settlement funds on behalf of the Inuvialuit.

1.6 Wildlife and Environmental Co-management

Within the ISR, the Inuvialuit have extensive wildlife harvesting rights. They also have a mechanism for integrating their claims against developers for harvest losses and for providing compensation or remedial measures as required.

The Agreement established structures to ensure Inuvialuit participation in wildlife management, conservation and environmental protection in the ISR. These structures include community-based Inuvialuit Hunters and Trappers Committees (HTCs) and the Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC), which has representation from each HTC.

The Agreement also established five joint advisory bodies that have equal government and Inuvialuit representation.

A Joint Secretariat was subsequently created to provide technical and administrative support to these five joint advisory bodies.

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Section 2 - Inuvialuit Regional Corporation

1998 marked the beginning of a new financial era for IRC and the entire Corporate Group. With the final payment of land claim capital from the federal government made in the closing days of 1997, the continued growth of the Corporate Group was solely dependent upon the success of the business corporations. During 1998, this success was reflected by a Corporate Group after-tax profit of $8 million.

In responding to the need for financial self-reliance, IRC moved to fill out the framework of corporate governance developed during the two previous years. Working toward the development of a consolidated Inuvialuit Corporate Group Business Plan, steps were taken to establish long-term business and strategic plans for the three major business subsidiaries - IDC, IPC and IIC. With the support and assistance of the Business Planning Committee, this process began with the development of draft mandates and goals for each of the business corporations.

IRC and the Business Planning Committee also initiated the development of guidelines to ensure that strategic decisions made by the business corporations reflect the goals of the Corporate Group as a whole. Combined with capital allocation and distribution policies, consolidated budgeting, financial reporting and cash flow management, these initiatives will provide a comprehensive response to one of the key responsibilities of IRC and the Corporate Group - the ongoing preservation and growth of land claim capital. The capacity of IRC to complete these important tasks received a significant boost in the fall of 1998 with the hiring of a full-time chief financial officer.

1998 also brought to an end the period in which the profits of the Corporate Group were largely sheltered from the payment of corporate income taxes. In previous years, IRC has been able to write off its business profits against the losses of earlier years and, in doing so, has avoided the payment of income tax. This shelter has been largely exhausted and in future years IRC, like other successful corporations, must pay tax on its profits. At an average tax rate of 43% on profits, the effect on the cash available to the Corporate Group will be significant.

All Inuvialuit beneficiaries shared in the profits of the business corporations through a $1.3 million distribution made in May 1998 under the terms of the Distribution Policy. This resulted in 2,886 beneficiaries each receiving a payment of $462.71.

2.1 Inuvialuit Lands

The upward trend of activity on Inuvialuit lands continued throughout 1998 with concession agreements, royalties and fees for the use of and access through Inuvialuit lands providing total year-end revenues of $2.5 million. Major projects included the clean-up of the DEW Line sites at Cape Parry and Nicholson Peninsula, the Inuvik Gas Project (Ikhil) and the Darnley Bay Resources project in the Paulatuk area. Other activities related to the use of Inuvialuit lands included an environmental assessment/oral history/archaeological project at the Yellow Beetle Loran Station (an old army camp near Kitigaaryuit), the first year of resurfacing the Holman airstrip and a broad range of residential leases and research projects.

During the year, the Inuvialuit Land Administration (ILA) commenced a complete review of the ILA Rules and Procedures. When completed, the end product will be a more streamlined and user-friendly document tailored to present-day and anticipated uses of Inuvialuit lands. The review will also separate information related to the use of Inuvialuit lands from that of internal administrative procedures.

The Concession Agreement signed between ILC and Darnley Bay Resources Limited in 1995 resulted in significant financial rewards to the Corporate Group, with a concession payment of $1 million in shares and over $200,000 in cash for land administration fees in 1998. Falconbridge Limited, the world's second largest nickel producer, has confirmed its interest in participating in this project. IRC, ILA, IGC, joint management bodies and community organizations will closely monitor this project to ensure it provides maximum economic benefits to Inuvialuit and offers full protection for wildlife and the environment.

2.2 Inuvialuit Corporate Group

Inuvialuit Development Corporation

IDC and its subsidiaries enjoyed record profits due to the success of its largest investment, NorTerra Inc. IDC continued to consolidate operations and concentrate efforts on developing new northern markets. Prominent in this effort, Inuvialuit Projects Inc., a subsidiary of IDC, moved into construction, engineering and environmental work. IDC also took on the challenge of promoting and developing the region's largely untapped tourism potential and acquired Arctic Nature Tours as an appropriate vehicle to assist them in the coordination of this effort. IDC also continued to look for solutions for their properties in British Columbia (e.g., Nanaimo), which are the only remaining source of loss within the IDC group of companies. The management of these properties, especially in light of the poor economic conditions in British Columbia and the decline in property prices, presents a challenge to IDC in the coming year.

IDC's consolidated profit for 1998 was $7.6 million, compared with a loss of $90,000 in 1997. The increase in profitability was generated by IDC's 50% share in NorTerra, this contribution coming from all of its operating subsidiaries - NTCL, SRI Homes and Valgro. In 1998, Valgro was sold to Dresser Industries for an after-tax profit of $11.9 million. NTCL improved its profitability over the period with the completion of the Badami facilities for the Alaska North Slope and the sale of real estate assets in Fort McMurray, Alberta. As part of its growth strategy, NorTerra purchased Canadian North from Canadian Airlines International. NorTerra also purchased Weldco-Beales, a manufacturer of blades, buckets and attachments for heavy industrial equipment. These purchases will provide employment opportunities, growth and profits in the years ahead.

Inuvialuit Investment Corporation

This year was one of order and achievement for IIC with the completion of the transition to new investment managers and full compliance with the investment policy adopted in late 1997. IIC had a strong year in 1998, performing ahead of budgeted projections with a profit of $2.3 million.

Income in 1998 was largely derived from normal investment sources - interest, dividends and capital gains arising from active management of the portfolio. Expenses increased with the payment of a management fee of $1,000,000 to the parent corporation, IRC, which was used to reduce IRC's debt to IIC. The market value of IIC's assets increased to $126.3 million at the end of 1998. The value of the portfolio managed by IIC for the Corporate Group, including itself, was $145.6 million at year-end. Overall, the performance of IIC was ahead of the targeted return of the investment policy, placing IIC near the top of comparable funds.

Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation

The year 1998 showed mixed results for IPC. Although significant progress was made on the Inuvik Gas Project (Ikhil), the development plan for the Rainbow field in northwestern Alberta did not result in the production of natural gas as expected. Overall, IPC suffered a $ 5.2 million loss for the year.

Milestones for the Inuvik Gas Project (Ikhil) included the submission and approval of several applications to the National Energy Board, ILA approval of all land use activities, Public Utilities Board approval, procurement and delivery of the pipe to the town of Inuvik and to Ikhil for the gas gathering system, and contracts negotiated for laying the pipeline and related activities (signed early in the new year). IPC provided significant Inuvialuit business contracts, employment and training opportunities during 1998. Further opportunities will be provided in 1999, a year that will also see the completion of the construction phase of the project and the delivery of gas to the town of Inuvik in early summer.

Inuvialuit Energy Inc. (IEI) incurred a significant loss in 1998. The development program for the Rainbow field was disappointing, with production from recently drilled wells not achieving the levels anticipated and use of the gas plant lower than anticipated. On a more positive note, notable success was achieved at the Hobemma field on the Samson Reserve in central Alberta. The increased gas production from this project improved cash flows in the last quarter, setting a positive stage for 1999. Because of the difficulties encountered in 1998, a decision was made to change the management team at IEL This commenced before year-end and the changes will continue through 1999.

2.3 Community and Beneficiary Support

The summer of 1998 saw the implementation of the eagerly awaited Inuvialuit Harvesters Assistance Program (IHAP). A $4.4 million Inuvialuit Harvesters Assistance Trust Fund was established during a three-year period with funds contributed by IRC and the Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT). The primary objective of the fund is to provide ongoing assistance to Inuvialuit sustenance harvesters. During the IHAP's first year of operation, 61 beneficiaries received assistance ranging from $224 to $7,500 for a total program expenditure of $197,000. This important fund will be maintained over time with its value adjusted annually to the Canadian consumer price index (cost of living).

The provision of administrative support to community organizations was a priority. Working with the joint Secretariat, IRC accessed more than $147,000 to provide accounting and training services to assist community corporations, HTCs, development corporations and big game hunts in maintaining their financial accounting and administrative records. Although this was a successful one-time initiative, the need for continued support was recognized by the IRC Board and arrangements have now been made to dedicate human resources to this activity on a full-time, ongoing basis.

IRC spent considerable time and effort in support of the Paulatuk Community Corporation and HTC request to adjust the boundary of the proposed Tuktut Nogait National Park. Despite seemingly strong support in both the House of Commons and the Senate, the federal government, expressing concerns over national and international implications, denied the request. There were, however, significant side benefits to IRC's intervention. Parks Canada has acknowledged its responsibility to provide meaningful economic benefits to the community of Paulatuk in establishing this national park and has significantly increased its capital expenditure program. In other discussions, IRC finalized an MOU with Parks Canada relating to the custody and control of Inuvialuit archaeological specimens in the three national parks within the ISR.

Efforts to identify the type and levels of contaminants present in the ISR and assess their effects on people and the environment were ongoing throughout 1998. IRC and community corporations provided coordination and on-ground support for two important studies - the dietary risks and benefits associated with eating traditional versus store-bought foods and the measurement of contaminants present in expectant mothers. The results from both studies will be available in 2000.

IRC and ILA held ongoing discussions and negotiations throughout the year with the Department of National Defense (DND) regarding the clean-up of six abandoned DEW Line sites in the ISR. Through the collective efforts of Inuvialuit representational and corporate interests, the contracts for the three sites cleaned up to date have been awarded to Inuvialuit Projects Inc., a subsidiary of IDC. These clean-ups have provided extensive business and employment to beneficiaries during the last three summers.

Through the provision of technical and financial support to the Inuvialuit Communications Society, IRC assisted in the revival of the quarterly Inuvialuit newspaper Tusaayaksat, which published its first edition in September 1998. IRC's accountability to beneficiaries was maintained through the ongoing publication and mailing of IRC Board Summary newsletters and the consolidated annual report.

2.4 Community Development Division

The Community Development Division of IRC continued to provide an extensive range of social, educational, training, cultural and economic programming with approximately $5.5 million accessed. through federal/ territorial and project financed funding. Significant efforts were made during the first half of the year to review all divisional activities and prepare action plans to accurately reflect the priorities set by the IRC Board.

Educational support focused on two areas, with strong emphasis placed on early childhood development programs and the expansion of childcare centres in ISR communities. Student support progra ms also received priority through the provision of tutors, scholarships and supplementary grant programs.

The Division continued to invest heavily in training and upgrading skills with more than $1 million allocated to these programs. Notable successes were the Fur Garment Programs in Tuktoyaktuk and Aklavik, Adult Basic Education Programs and the Natural Resource Technology Program, all facilitated through Aurora College. Strategic planning, undertaken in conjunction with the college, has advanced the efficient use of federal training money. For a second year, with federal support, the Division sponsored and coordinated an in-house computer-based training program, aimed at developing the technical skills of Inuvialuit youth to help them enter the labour force.

Community wellness programs were strongly supported with approximately $1 million invested in a broad range of community-approved projects. The Brighter Futures Program was successfully managed by community corporations throughout the ISR. Major activities included the Creoula Project, a regional drum dance program and the securing of a multi-year arrangement for youth centres.

After an extended effort, the Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre established operations in Tuktoyaktuk in May 1998. Commencing the process of language revitalization, elders from each ISR community were brought to Tuktoyaktuk to discuss the language and its modernization. The centre also focused its attention on curriculum evaluation and development and publication of Inuvialuktun educational support materials. The support of research into Inuvialuit culture and heritage continued with oral history projects at Kitigaaryuit and Aulavik National Park.

The Inuvialuit Community Economic Development Organization (CEDO) continued to provide a broad range of support services to assist in the development of a stable economic base in the region. In addition to assisting individual beneficiaries, it assisted the Aklavik Community Corporation in acquiring Bessie's Boarding House. Working in conjunction with the local economic development officer, the carving centre was re-established in Tuktoyaktuk. Planning commenced in 1998 for the establishment of a new community store and parks complex in Paulatuk. Significant support continues to be provided to the muskox harvest industry with the diversification of product and the establishment of long-term markets. CEDO also continued to examine the potential of revitalizing the reindeer herd in the Beaufort Delta.

2.5 Territorial and National Affairs.

An extended process of consultation led up to the implementation of the new national Firearms Act and regulations on December 1, 1998. This Act has serious implications for the purchase, storage, transportation and use of firearms. Beneficiaries who own or use firearms are encouraged to make inquiries into how this Act will affect them.

Significant progress was made in self-government negotiations throughout 1998 with several (program area) sub-agreements completed by year-end and set aside for legal drafting and review. In addition to finalizing the remaining sub-agreements, 1999 will see a major emphasis on communicating the details of negotiations to date throughout the ISR communities. This emphasis will be reflected in the 1999 budget through an extensive communications and fieldwork program. The negotiators are working toward a draft agreement in principle by the year 2000.

With five delegates and twelve drum dancers, the Inuvialuit were well represented at the Inuit Circumpolar Conference in Nuuk, Greenland, during the summer. At this meeting the chairman of the IGC, Duane Smith, was appointed to the position of Executive Council Member for the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, Canada.

In late 1998, an agreement was reached with federal and territorial governments to establish the Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee (IFA ICC). Similar committees have been established to oversee the implementation of all recent comprehensive land claim agreements in the Nunavut, Sahtu and Gwich'in settlement areas. The Committee will address issues and concerns related to the implementation of the IFA, including the obligations of federal and territorial governments. The more immediate of these include the Canadian Reindeer Ltd. lawsuit, GNWT access and use of Inuvialuit lands, the Year 2000 review of the economic provisions of the IFA, the clean-up of contaminated sites on Inuvialuit lands, and the inequity in the level of representational funding provided to IRC and community corporations versus that provided to Indian bands and tribal councils.

Throughout 1998, IRC continued its efforts to develop sound working relationships with all levels of government, the private sector, special interest groups and other Aboriginal organizations. It is important that IRC and its subsidiaries be recognized as strong, credible and professional representatives of Inuvialuit interests by those with whom it communicates and conducts business. The benefits of such recognition are many and IRC will continue to demand high standards of directors and staff in this area.

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Section 3 - Inuvialuit Wildlife Management Structures

3.1 Inuvialuit Game Council

The IGC represents Inuvialuit interests in wildlife in all matters related to renewable resource management in the ISR. It derives its mandate from Section 14(74) of the IFA. The IGC is responsible for the administration of Inuvialuit harvesting rights acquired under the IFA. To this end, Council members review wildlife research proposals from the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) and the renewable resource departments of both territorial governments for projects within the settlement region. They set funding priorities for these and other projects related to wildlife and the environment.

Apart from their regularly scheduled meetings, the Council members and their appointed representatives spend a large amount of time on issues at the local, regional, national and international levels. In 1998-1999, they worked closely with many organizations in representing the collective Inuvialuit interest on all matters relating to wildlife and the environment. In many instances, IGC requires the participation of co-management committees for advice and expertise. This co-management process is recognized throughout Canada and is gaining exposure internationally.

Because of budgetary considerations, IGC reduced the number of times it meets annually from five to four. Several teleconferences were also conducted to deal with urgent matters. At the local and regional level, IGC undertook the following throughout the year:

A considerable amount of time was dedicated to national and international matters, including participation at the following:

A notable event was the signing of the Agreement in Principal for the Management of Beaufort Sea Beluga Whales with the Inupiat of Alaska. As well, the chair of IGC, Duane Smith, assumed two positions at the national and international level. He was nominated and elected Executive Council Member for the Inuit Circumpolar Conference, Canada and co-chair of the Arctic Sustainable Use Specialist Group of the International Union for the Conservation of Nature.

3.2 Hunters and Trappers Committees

Section 14(75) of the Agreement provides for the creation of HTCs. An HTC has been established in each of the six Inuvialuit communities of Inuvik, Aklavik, Tuktoyaktuk, Holman, Paulatuk and Sachs Harbour. Administrative and operational costs of the HTCs are the responsibility of the GNWT.

Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee

The Aklavik HTC's activities included the following:

Olokhaktomiut (Holman) Hunters and Trappers Committee

Projects the Olokhaktomiut HTC participated in include the Caribou Land Base Survey, Seal Monitor Project, Kuujjua Fish Project, Kuuk River Fish Project, Fish Lake Project and the Community Caribou Harvest by the Kugluktuk HTC for the Holman HTC.

Inuvik Hunters and Trappers Committee

The Inuvik HTC met monthly to deal with ongoing issues, land use applications, and general information and assistance to the public and organizations. During November 1998, the Inuvik HTC held one successful caribou hunt that provided meat to a large number of beneficiaries and to the hospital in Inuvik. The hunt also provided an opportunity for students to gain practical experience in hunting. Through the beluga harvest, the Inuvik HTC assisted a large number of beneficiaries with the provision of muktuk and fish.

Seventeen applicants out of 46 were approved under the 1998 IHAP Monitors have been successful in the beluga harvest, Ikhil natural gas project and Japex.

Paulatuk Hunters and Trappers Committee

Apart from their regular duties, the Paulatuk HTC was involved in the following:

Sachs Harbour Hunters and Trappers Committee

The Sachs Harbour HTC met with a number of government departments and organizations to discuss issues of interest:

The Sachs Harbour HTC established a numbered company to conduct a harvest of 2,000 muskox scheduled for the fall of 1998. Because of bad weather, it was rescheduled to the fall of 1999.

At the Annual General Meeting in February 1999, a vote on the privatization of sport hunting was defeated.

Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee

Projects of the Tuktoyaktuk HTC included the following:

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Section 4 - Joint Implementing Bodies

4.1 Fisheries Joint Management Committee

Under section 14(61) of the Agreement, FJMC provides advice to the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans on all matters affecting fisheries and the management of fish and marine mammals found in the ISR. FJMC works closely with government agencies, renewable resource user groups in the Inuvialuit communities and other renewable resource boards in Canada and Alaska that oversee common migratory stocks.

In keeping with the co-management philosophy of the IFA, consultation with local HTCs, IGC, and DFO and other government agencies formed an important part of the Committee's activities. In addition to holding six regular meetings and several teleconferences, the Committee held public meetings in Holman, Inuvik, Aklavik and Tuktoyaktuk to discuss with hunters and fishers issues of concern related to fish and marine mammals, including current and planned FJMC projects. The Committee also held one of its regular meetings in Winnipeg to facilitate information exchange and project planning with DFO's scientific and management staff at the Freshwater Institute. Both the community meetings and the discussions with scientific staff are essential elements of the Committee's annual workplan and budget.

The Committee was active in numerous monitoring and research activities. The second year of a three-year project to evaluate the state of the important cisco and herring populations in the vicinity of Tuktoyaktuk was completed successfully, with interim results being reported at a well-attended open house. Char monitoring was carried out at Holman, Paulatuk and Shingle Point, and a fishing plan for Hornaday River char was developed and ratified in cooperation with the fishers of Paulatuk.

Beluga studies included data analysis from the highly successful satellite telemetry project of the previous year, an assessment of the reproductive history of the whales based on samples collected from the summer hunt over several years, and an analysis and verification of the beluga aging database. The multi-year ringed seal monitoring program was again conducted in the vicinity of Holman.

In cooperation with the HTCs, the Committee continued to sponsor the beluga harvest monitoring program. HTC whale monitors in each of the active whaling camps within the ISR collected biological information from each whale harvested. Committee staff provided program and logistic support, coordinated the collection of any special samples and collated all data.

With the goal of increasing the number of beneficiaries involved in the technical aspects of fish and marine mammal management, the Committee expanded its summer student employment program to include a Student Mentoring Program. With the full co-operation and support of DFO staff in Inuvik and Winnipeg, and with financial assistance from the Brighter Futures Program, four high school students participated in office and field projects in the Inuvik area, as well as in laboratory and office activities at the Freshwater Institute in Winnipeg.

Finally, the Committee sought support for and began the planning of a major scientific conference that would focus on the ocean resources of the region and provide a mechanism for identifying the renewable resource management objectives for the first decade of the new, millennium. Entitled Beaufort Sea Conference 2000, Renewable Resources for Our Children, the conference, scheduled for September 1999, will bring together hunters and fishers from the communities with scientists and academics to consider the resource management challenges of the new century.

4.2 Wildlife Management Advisory Council - Northwest Territories

Established under section 14(45) of the Agreement, WMAC-NWT's mandate is to advise appropriate ministers on all matters relating to wildlife polity and the management, regulation, research, enforcement and administration of wildlife, habitat and harvesting for the Western Arctic Region. It is the responsibility of the Council to prepare conservation and management plans and to determine and recommend harvestable quotas. The Council also reviews, and advises the appropriate governments on, existing or proposed wildlife legislation and any proposed Canadian position for international purposes that affects wildlife in the Western Arctic Region. The Council's geographic area of jurisdiction consists of that part of the ISR contained within the NWT.

The Council focuses on the conservation of terrestrial wildlife species, including polar bears and birds. It provides a forum for resource users and regulators to discuss all wildlife matters pertaining to the Western Arctic Region. The Council works closely with the IGC, the six Inuvialuit HTCs, the government agencies responsible for wildlife management in the ISR and the other co-management bodies established by the IFA.

Community Conservation Plans

A key activity of WMAC-NWT was the updating of the six community conservation plans. WMAC-NWT and the Joint Secretariat coordinated the review exercise, met with Community Conservation Plan Working Groups, assisted in redrafting the plans, and organized the Community Conservation Plan Workshop. This workshop, held in Inuvik on March 22-24, 1999, brought together community representatives, government agency representatives and co-management boards.

The objectives of the workshop were the following:

Based on the workshop discussions, innovative approaches have been recommended for designing, presenting, circulating, marketing and implementing the redrafted plans. A workshop report will be produced early in the next fiscal year.

A project to digitize the text and maps from the community conservation plans for retrieval and analysis will be included in this process. It will enable a more efficient use of information on Inuvialuit land use and wildlife harvesting for wildlife management and environmental impact assessment, and will assist the co-management bodies in more effectively fulfilling their mandates. In order to streamline and minimize costs for the production of the updated Community Conservation Plans, writing, mapmaking and printing will occur in-house, at the Joint Secretariat. Final plan revisions are scheduled early in the new fiscal year, followed by their release in print and on the website.

Species Management Plans

In recent years, WMAC-NWT has put considerable effort into the development of species management plans for the ISR. The process involves close consultation between the wildlife management agencies and the HTCs, with the Council providing direction and coordination. The Council approves and recommends management plans, often in association with resource management boards in adjacent land claim regions where species are of mutual concern.

The Co-Management Plan For Grizzly Bears in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Yukon Territory and Northwest Territories was completed and published jointly with WMAC- NS.

The draft Bluenose Caribou Management Plan details requirements for the maintenance of the bluenose caribou herd throughout its range. Because the plan will affect four land claim settlement regions (Inuvialuit, Gwich'in, Nunavut and Sahtu), all of the wildlife management organizations representing these regions agreed that RWED, Inuvik Region should assume the lead role for the development of the plan.

Work has continued on multi-species co-management plans for Banks Island and northwest Victoria Island. In addition, the development of a co-management plan for the fur industry was initiated, in cooperation with the Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board.

Quotas for Wildlife Harvesting

At its regular meeting in December 1998, WMAC-NWT recommended that there be no change of existing quotas for species in the ISR, pending further assessment of polar bear and grizzly bear quotas in the coming fiscal year.

Commercial Harvesting of Wildlife

The commercial harvest of muskox on Banks Island was not conducted in 1998-1999 because of bad weather. The IRC and the community of Holman conducted a federally approved commercial harvest of muskox for meat and qiviut (wool). A total of 101 muskox were harvested. The total amount of meat exported from the NWT was 6,200 kg and the total amount of qiviut harvested was 222 kg. GNWT biologists collected samples from the harvested muskox for the purposes of assessing the health and diet of the population. The Council will work with commercial harvesting interests on Banks Island and monitor their impact on muskox and caribou populations. Support and additional recommendations will be provided where appropriate.

Legislation Affecting Wildlife Management

WMAC-NWT continued to review and comment on proposed federal legislation on endangered species. The original Bill C-65, An Act Respecting the Protection of Wildlife Species in Canada from Extirpation or Extinction, died when Parliament was dissolved for the June 1997 federal election. However, the federal government has since indicated that the


Wildlife research is essential to enable WMAC-NWT to make decisions and recommendations on conservation and quotas. Wildlife research in the ISR is supported primarily by IFA implementation funds, as well as regular RWED and CWS expenditures and in-kind support. RWED and CWS propose research programs and priorities for the ISR based on continuing consultation with the HTCs. The role of WMAC-NWT has the following responsibilities:

WMAC-NWT approved wildlife research projects in the following areas:


In addition to convening the Community Conservation Plan Workshop in March 1999, WMAC-NWT members attended ten meetings and conferences throughout the year to assist the Council in adequately and knowledgeably fulfilling its mandate.

4.3 Wildlife Management Advisory Council -- North Slope

WMAC-NS is the Yukon counterpart of WMAC-NWT and was established under Section 12(46) of the Agreement. The Council's responsibilities include establishing harvest quotas, advising Inuvialuit and government agencies on all North Slope wildlife and habitat conservation issues, reviewing proposals for IFA-funded research projects related to wildlife management, making recommendations to IGC and advising the appropriate government ministers regarding the management of parks in the North Slope.

WMAC-NS focused its attention on three principal objectives during the year: amendments to the Yukon Wildlife Act to bring it into conformity with the IFA, improved communications and working relationships across the Yukon North Slope's territorial and jurisdictional boundaries, and the completion of a long-term research and monitoring plan.

Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research and Monitoring Plan

WMAC-NS has completed the development of a Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research and Monitoring Plan. The Plan is a simple, readable and usable web-based document that identifies the needs and priorities for environmentally related research and monitoring in the area. By presenting current issues and concerns, as well as proposed actions, the Plan directs and supports the activities of resource managers and researchers, and addresses the information needs of the people who live in the region and rely on its resources.

Based on wildlife and environmental research, the Plan identifies important gaps in information as well as opportunities to use existing data. It provides a guide to community involvement in projects, including the use of traditional and local knowledge. The Plan also provides information such as opportunities for partnerships, how to get research permits and possible sources of funding.

The Plan is intended to promote cooperative initiatives among government agencies, communities and universities, and to facilitate projects across settlement regional boundaries and state and territorial borders in Alaska, Yukon and the NWT Its goal is to develop programs that are truly interdisciplinary and, involve local communities and their knowledge of ecosystem health and functioning.

Ecological Monitoring

WMAC-NS continued to participate in and support a number of ecosystem monitoring initiatives. In conjunction with DOE, the Council coordinated the fourth annual gathering of the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-operative.

WMAC-NS also worked in conjunction with DOE to administer the third year of the Community-Based Monitoring Program. Community researchers in Aklavik, Fort McPherson and Old Crow were contracted to conduct interviews with local experts and record their observations on ecological conditions over the past year. This information, as well as scientific monitoring information, is being archived and used through the Co-op to help understand the changes occurring in ecosystems.

View the results of the Community-Based Monitoring Program and information on the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-operative.

Muskox Management

WMAC-NS has prepared a draft Muskox Management Plan for the Yukon North Slope. This plan has been developed to address the needs of the Inuvialuit and to recognize and incorporate the IFA's conservation criteria, such as the establishment of a hunting quota for muskox. The Council presented a draft version of the Plan at a public meeting in Aklavik; however, broader public consultation is still required.

There is still much that is unknown about the muskox population on the Yukon North Slope. Aerial surveys, which have been conducted since 1993, have produced varying results regarding muskox numbers. It is believed that the muskox move back and forth across the Yukon-Alaska border to their parent population but it is not known how many animals move or for how long. In order to answer some questions about the ecology of the muskox, the Council supported funding for a project to collar and satellite track Yukon North Slope muskox for four years, beginning in the spring of 1999. This project is intended to record the movement of muskox, as well as to obtain estimated reproductive rates and calf survival, verify the results of the population survey and monitor the way the animals use their territory year-round.

Grizzly Bear Management

The management of grizzly bears on the Yukon North Slope is of ongoing importance to the Council. WMACNS has maintained support of its resolution, passed in March 1997, for a total allowable harvest of ten bears and a harvestable quota of eight bears for the Yukon North Slope during the 1998-1999 hunting season. The remaining quota of two bears was transferred to the NWT portion of the Aklavik grizzly bear hunting area.

WMAC-NS members provided comments on the draft Grizzly Bear Management Plan for the ISR, prepared by the GNWT Actions identified for WMAC-NS in the Plan were implemented.

Amendments to the Yukon Wildlife Act

The passage of amendments to the Wildlife Act by the Yukon legislature established the legal means for the YTG to give practical effect to Inuvialuit harvesting rights and wildlife quota recommendations on the Yukon North Slope. WMAC-NS supported this initiative in order to bring the Wildlife Act into conformity with the IFA. A working group was established, consisting of representatives of the IGC and the YTG. Representatives of WMAC-NS and the Aklavik HTC also participated in the discussions between the parties and in the review of legislative proposals.

IFA-Funded Wildlife Research

WMAC-NS reviews proposals for IFA-funded research projects related to wildlife management and ecological monitoring on the Yukon North Slope, consistent with the goals of the IFA, the objectives of Section 12 of the Agreement and its related wildlife management responsibilities. WMAC-NS recommends the projects to the appropriate government for funding, and monitors the progress of all projects by requesting presentations and final reports from all agencies that receive funding. Projects recommended by the Council included Muskox Ecology Studies, Richardson Mountains Grizzly Bear Reproductive Rates, Herschel Island Vegetation Mapping and Yukon North Slope Land Use and Environment Atlas.

Herschel Island Territorial Park Management Plan

WMAC-NS met with Yukon Parks Branch officials to discuss the need to review the Herschel Island Territorial Park Management Plan. It was recognized that the Plan, completed in 1991, needs to be reviewed and updated to reflect issues such as the increase in visitor numbers, waste management, improvements to economic opportunities for the Inuvialuit, and improved linkages to North Slope conservation planning. WMAC-NS has forwarded recommendations to the YTG on a process for reviewing the Plan.

Intern Programs

Assisted by funding received from DOE's Science Horizon Program and the Canadian Council for Human Resources in the Environment Industry (Environmental Youth Corps Program), WMAC-NS hired two interns. Work conducted by the interns focused on the development of the Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research Plan, updating the database of information sources, compiling the Yukon North Slope Land Use and Environment Atlas, and working with Alaska on the expansion of ecosystem monitoring indicators.


WMAC-NS has established its own website. The site includes information on the Council and its activities and is linked to Yukon North Slope research projects. WMAC-NS has continued to produce a newsletter, Wildlife Watch, to inform the general public, Inuvialuit communities, government and non-governmental organizations of the Council's activities and provide updates on issues of community interest.

In addition to regular Council meetings, the WMAC-NS chair, members, representatives and the secretariat attended 12 workshops, conferences and other meetings throughout the year.

4.4 Environmental Impact Screening Committee

Section 11(3) of the Agreement provides for the establishment of the EISC. This Committee screens all development proposals within the settlement region to decide whether they require environmental impact assessment. If so, the proposals are referred by the Committee to the EIRB or to other review bodies for a public environmental impact assessment.

As was the case in 1995, EISC activities ceased temporarily in June 1998 because of the expiry, and subsequent delay and finalization, of the federal order-in-council appointments for the chair and government members to EISC. As a consequence, the EISC canceled its early June meetings.

EISC ruled on 31 project descriptions, of which 28 were determined to have no significant negative impact. The remaining three project descriptions were found deficient, and a revised project description was requested. Only one of the applicants chose to re-submit. None of the developments were considered to have the potential for significant negative impact and therefore no referrals were made by EISC for further environmental assessment or review.

Members of EISC attended a number of meetings, conferences and workshops, including various meetings of the wildlife co-management bodies, the NWT Association for Impact Assessment Meeting, the Mackenzie Valley Cumulative Impact Monitoring Workshop, and the 26th GeoScience Forum. Other activities of EISC during this fiscal year are listed below.

Environmentally Acceptable Minimum Flight Altitudes, April -June 1998

In June 1998, EISC canvassed FJMC, WMAC-NS and WMAC-NWT to obtain opinions on an environmentally acceptable and defensible minimum altitude at which flights should be conducted over areas with sensitive wildlife populations. A summary table and general information sheet were prepared to serve as reference materials during screening to determine the potential environmental effects of proposed developments. EISC has also made it routine practice to circulate the information to relevant development proponents.

Cumulative Effects Assessment Case Study, April-September 1998

During a workshop held in Yellowknife in February 1998, the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) requested examples of projects being examined for cumulative effects through the northern screening process. The EISC submitted a cumulative effects assessment case study relating to mineral exploration on Victoria Island that was accepted for inclusion in the CEAA's Cumulative Effects Assessment Practitioners Guide.

EISC's Bylaws, April-October 1998

EISC completed a review of its bylaws, a process initiated during the previous fiscal year, to make them consistent with the revised Operating Guidelines and Procedures. A major amendment to the bylaws was the inclusion of a section requiring EISC to indemnify members against liability incurred by reason of being, or having been, a member of EISC.

EISC's Operating Guidelines and Procedures, April 1998-February 1999

EISC completed its review of the Operating Guidelines and Procedures during the 1997-1998 fiscal year. Minor additional changes were made to the document during the following year and by February 1999 the document was finalized and ready for circulation.

Yukon Development Assessment Process Draft Legislation, February 1999

EISC reviewed the YDAP draft legislation and relayed comments to the Development Assessment Process Directorate, DIAND Yukon Regional Office. In particular, EISC noted that the draft legislation creates the possibility for duplication of the IFA environmental screening process, which has been operating successfully since 1986.

Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research and Monitoring Plan, February 1999

EISC reviewed the draft Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research and Monitoring Plan and forwarded comments to WMAC-NS. Although it contains a wealth of information, the Plan was not viewed as user-friendly, as it is unavailable to people without access to the Internet and considered unmanageable when downloaded.

Meeting Frequency and Meeting Options, March 1999

EISC re-examined the number and type of EISC meetings held each year and discussed the pros and cons of the alternatives available to them, such as physical meetings, telephone conferences and video conferences. It was decided to continue to meet in person approximately every six weeks, unless circumstances dictate that another form of meeting is more appropriate.

4.5 Environmental Impact Review Board

Established under Section 11(18) of the Agreement, the EIRB is responsible for carrying out the public environmental review of development projects. EIRB recommends whether development projects should proceed and under what terms and conditions. EIRB also recommends measures to minimize the negative impact of projects on wildlife harvesting. If wildlife compensation is an issue, it recommends limits of liability for the developer.

As an environmental impact assessment and review body for any development referred to it pursuant to the IFA, EIRB is structured so that both parties to the IFA, the federal government and the Inuvialuit, are represented equally. Of the three members appointed by the federal government, one is nominated by the YTG, one by the GNWT, and one by the Government of Canada. The chair is also appointed by the Government of Canada with the consent of the Inuvialuit.

The goals of the IFA directly relevant to EIRB operations are to ensure that the Inuvialuit are equal and meaningful participants in the environmental impact screening and review process, and to protect and preserve the Arctic wildlife, environment and biological productivity. During the year, EIRB was involved in the activities noted below. No public reviews were held.

Substitution of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement Review Process for the Federal Review Process, Ongoing

In February 1995, EIRB initiated discussions on an agreement in principle to substitute the IFA environmental review process for that in the Canadian Environmental Assessment Acts when considering developments of relevance to the ISR. In February 1998, the Minister of the DOE agreed that the EIRB review process addresses the key components of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Acts and could substitute, on a case-by-case basis, for a review panel mandated in the Act. Since that time and throughout the present reporting period, EIRB continued to correspond with the CEAA concerning a draft MOU between EIRB and the Minister of DOE regarding this substitution process. At fiscal year-end, a draft MOU was awaiting a review by the Minister.

Development Projects within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Ongoing

During the reporting period, EIRB followed the progress of current or proposed developments of relevance to the ISR as follows:

Inuvialuit Community Conservation Plans, Financial Support, May 1998-March 1999

In May 1998, WMAC-NWT sought financial support from the IFA co-management groups, including EIRB, for the review and update of the Inuvialuit community conservation plans. EIRB agreed to cover the expenses of EIRB members who participated in a workshop review.

Yukon Development Assessment Process, September 1998-February 1999

EIRB followed the development of the YDAP during 1998-1999. In December 1998 the chair reviewed the first draft of the YDAP legislation and forwarded comments to the YDAP Commission. Of particular concern was the fact that the document did not recognize the IFA's environmental screening process and suggested that a second process be added for the Yukon North Slope.

Use of Traditional Knowledge in Research, February 1999

In February 1999, EIRB responded to an inquiry from WMACNS regarding the use of traditional knowledge in the IFA's environmental screening and review process. EIRB informed WMAC-NS that proponents were required to incorporate traditional knowledge into the environmental impact statement, in accordance with the Operating Procedures. In addition, and as a consequence of the inquiry, EIRB decided to revise their Operating Procedures to clarify the difference between traditional knowledge and information arising from community consultation.

4.6 Joint Secretariat

The Joint Secretariat was incorporated as a society in 1986. Although it was not provided for under the IFA, the parties saw fit to establish the Joint Secretariat to provide funding, administrative and technical support services to IGC and the wildlife and environmental co-management boards. It also performs library and data archival duties for the Research Advisory Council (RAC).

Five chairs of the five renewable resource committees, including IGC, WMAC-NWT, FJMC,EIRB and EISC, constitute the Secretariat's members and directors.

The Board of Directors of the Joint Secretariat held three regular meetings, an annual general meeting and one teleconference during the 1998-1999 fiscal year.

Joint Secretariat staff continue to maintain a high level of liaison and cooperation with IRC. Involvement has largely been in the areas of existing and proposed environmental legislation, amendments to regulations, implementation of the IHAP and matters concerning the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada/Inuit Circumpolar Conference. A major objective of both the Joint Secretariat and IRC has been to provide financial administration support and related infrastructure to the HTCs. This onus has led to the joint development of an HTC Coordinator position to perform some of the activities previously provided by the Joint Secretariat staff. This is a RWED position supported by IFA implementation funds.

In addition to the direct committee-specific support provided by the Joint Secretariat staff, central service facilities are housed within its offices. These include the IHS and the Geographic Information System (GIS). The IHS is run by a coordinator and a management committee. The GIS is maintained and operated by a GIS specialist.

The IHS continues to undergo major modifications. The Study Management Committee and IGC decided to suspend data collection and terminate field worker employment as of January 31, 1999, for a period of one year. A combination of declining response rates and increasing evidence of non-response bias suggested that continuing data collection under the existing system was not justified. A major task for the new IHS Coordinator will be to secure community input for the revitalisation of the IHS with a view to resuming data collection via a redesigned, community-driven IHS in January 2000.

The IHS Management Committee Workshop, which was attended by the user agencies, enabled the development of a work plan and an activity schedule congruent with the restart date of January 2000.

In addition to these activities, experience has been gained with the newly developed database management system. This system requires further modification before it will be fully operational.

Digital information holdings were expanded to include hydrographic information from Alaska, as well as complete 1:250,000 scale topographic information and additional satellite imagery for the IRS.

Improvements to equipment, software, connectivity and information contribute to the ability of the joint Secretariat to develop, produce and disseminate moderate volumes of both digital and paper copies of documents and maps. Year 2000 related issues have begun to be addressed through the replacement of equipment and upgrading of software. The development of a website to communicate relevant wildlife management information (e.g., the Community Conservation Plans) over the Internet was initiated in partnership with the Minerals, Oil and Gas Division of RWED.

Planning for the Beaufort Sea Conference in September 1999 has involved several staff members throughout the year, as the Joint Secretariat has a lead role in local coordination and youth involvement.

Joint Secretariat board members and the Executive Director have been extensively involved in the future funding process for IFA implementation in the next five-year period. A meeting on this subject held in November 1998 with DIAND, Parks Canada, GNWT and YTG officials and representatives of the co-management boards, was constructive and positive. The Joint Secretariat is encouraged by the efforts of the Claims Implementation Branch (CIB) of DIAND in securing a more flexible instrument than the one currently being used to process implementation funds.

4.7 Arbitration Board

The Arbitration Board, established under Section 18 of the IFA, is intended to provide a mechanism to arbitrate disputes between the Inuvialuit and the governments of Canada, the NWT or the Yukon, as well as between the Inuvialuit and industry. The Arbitration Board has three members appointed by the Government of Canada, including designations by the GNWT and YTG. Industry, represented by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, and the Inuvialuit each appoint three members to the Board. The Chair and the Vice-Chair of the Board are appointed by the Government of Canada with the concurrence of the Inuvialuit and industry. Since the Board's inception, it has arbitrated on two matters of dispute between the Inuvialuit and the Government of Canada. The Arbitration Board is pleased to note that the parties to the IFA have worked diligently to resolve disputes and have resorted to arbitration only after exhausting all other avenues.

The Arbitration Board met in Calgary in 1999 to welcome new board members and to provide orientation to the workings of the Board. The Board was given a seminar on the relevant provisions of the IFA, the role of the arbitrator and a review of recent decisions of the courts affecting arbitrations. The Board was also debriefed on the IFA Implementation Meeting held in Edmonton in November 1998. The Board approved the Inuvialuit Arbitration Proceedings Rules with three minor amendments.

The Board does not contemplate meeting more than once a year unless disputes are referred to it by the parties. In that case, an Arbitration Panel will be constituted from the members of the Board in accordance with the provisions of Section 18.

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Section 5 - Government of the Northwest Territories

Under the terms of the IFA, the GNWT is responsible for appointing the chairperson and GNWT members as well as providing a secretariat for WMAC-NWT; providing the administrative and operational costs of IGC and the six community HTCs; designating a member to each of the EISC, the EIRB, the Arbitration Board and the RAC; and providing the budget for the operation and maintenance of the RAC. The parties have agreed that the Joint Secretariat be funded for the provision of library services to the RAC. The GNWT also provides funding to the Joint Secretariat for technical and administrative support to the various IFA boards.

5.1 Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs

Ministry officials worked closely with GNWT program departments and the Joint Secretariat to promote effective administration of GNWT implementation funding by coordinating the annual contribution agreement process and implementation audits, recommending funding re-allocations between approved implementation tasks and ensuring the timely carry-over of surplus implementation dollars to future years. The Ministry was also responsible for preparing the GNWT component of this Annual Report and coordinating the nomination process for the GNWT designate on the Arbitration Board. It assisted the Government of Canada in securing implementation funding for the next five-year period.

Significant efforts were made by the Ministry to resolve the long outstanding issues of general access to Inuvialuit lands and municipal requirements for Inuvialuit lands. These issues arise from the interpretation of Sections 7(16) and 7(61) of the Agreement and the fact that GNWT infrastructure such as airports, solid waste sites and water pumping stations are on Inuvialuit lands. Access to, and use of, these sites is now in dispute.

The Ministry participated in three meetings with Inuvialuit, YTG and federal government officials to discuss outstanding implementation issues and to finalize the terms of reference for a formal IFA ICC . It was agreed that the IFA ICC be approached to resolve implementation issues before seeking resolution through arbitration as provided for by the IFA.

5.2 Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development

RWED worked closely with IRC and the Inuvialuit communities, encouraging Inuvialuit participation in opportunities for employment and economic self-sufficiency within the ISR. The Department provided business advice, counseling and support and assisted Inuvialuit businesses and individuals in accessing financial support from RWED, other GNWT departments and the private sector. RWED is also participating in the DIAND/IRC Year 2000 review of the economic measures provisions of the IFA. The first meeting to initiate the review was held in February 1999.

The Department also worked closely and cooperatively with IGC, WMAC-NWT and the local HTCs on all matters regarding wildlife management in the ISR. Wildlife studies were a significant part of the GNWT's operations, with progress achieved on the following:

Inuvialuit Harvest Study

RWED continued to support the IHS. The study was managed by a committee comprising the chairs of the co-management boards and representatives from the communities. A presentation summarizing information collected by the IHS was prepared for the Harvest Study Co-ordinator.

Banks Island Caribou and Muskox

Composition surveys were done in June and July 1998 to obtain calf/cow and yearling/cow ratios for caribou on Banks Island and muskox on the southern third of the island. The island was surveyed in July 1998 to obtain population estimates for caribou and muskox. The number of arctic wolves was also documented.

Papers on the muskox urine analysis from Banks Island and the quality of forages from Banks Island were prepared and will be presented at a conference in Norway. Final reports on the mainland muskox survey (March 1997), the muskox mortality survey on Banks Island (August 1996), and the review of historical sex and age classifications surveys of caribou and muskox on Banks Island were prepared.

Draft reports for the grazing impact, the forage quantity and distribution, the snow conditions at caribou and muskox feeding craters, and the diet of caribou and muskox on Banks Island are at various stages of completion.

Northwest Victoria Island Caribou and Muskox

The area north of Minto Inlet and west of the Shaler Mountains was surveyed in July 1998 to get population estimates for caribou and muskox. The number of arctic wolves was also documented.

Melville Island Caribou

Composition surveys were done in July 1998 to obtain calf/cow and yearling/cow ratios.

Barrenground, Arctic Island and Peary Caribou Genetic Study

RWED worked with the HTCs and Renewable Resource Councils in the Inuvik, Sahtu and Kitikmeot regions and with Parks Canada and Yukon Renewable Resource staff to collect samples from Porcupine, Cape Bathurst, Bluenose-West, Bluenose-East, Bathurst, Dolphin-Union, Minot Inlet, Banks Island and Melville Island caribou to determine how they are genetically related. The samples were sent to the University of Alberta for analysis.

Bluenose Caribou

The third year of satellite tracking was completed. The collared caribou were located during the post-calving period to determine if they had calves. Maps showing the location and movement of the 15 satellite-collared caribou were provided on a regular basis to the 12 user communities and wildlife co-management boards. This project was co-funded by the Gwich'in Renewable Resource Board, Sahtu Renewable Resources Board, Nunavut Wildlife Management Board and Parks Canada.

Data from the satellite tracking program indicates that there are three herds within the range of the "Bluenose" caribou herd: Bluenose-East, Bluenose-West and Cape Bathurst. The Bluenose-East herd calves in the head waters of the Rae and Richardson rivers, ruts in the Caribou Point area of Great Bear Lake and winters from Kugluktuk south along the north, east and south shores of Great Bear Lake. The Bluenose-West herd calves in the western Melville Hills east of Paulatuk, ruts in the Anderson River area and winters from the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula area south to the Sàhtu Settlement Area. The Cape Bathurst herd calves on Cape Bathurst, ruts east of Husky Lakes and winters in the Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula - Husky Lakes area. Preliminary results of DNA analysis of tissue samples taken from each herd indicate that these three groups are genetically different.

A report comparing the heavy metal content in the kidneys of Bluenose and Banks Island caribou is currently being reviewed for scientific publication.

Holman Commercial Muskox Harvest

RWED staff attended the Holman commercial muskox harvest to monitor activities and to collect biological samples and information from harvested muskox.

Grizzly Bear Local Knowledge Study

RWED worked with the Tuktoyaktuk and Aklavik HTCs to document current local knowledge on grizzly bears in their areas. This activity included interviewing elders and people who are active on the land.

Richardson Mountains Grizzly Bear

Radio-collared female grizzly bears were located in June 1998 to determine their reproductive status. The sex and age composition of the grizzly bear harvest was monitored. The Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board and YTG assisted with project funding.

Grizzly Bear/Polar Bear Harvests

The grizzly bear/polar bear harvests and problem bear occurrence/kill databases for the Inuvik Region were maintained. Quotas and harvest information for each community hunting area were reviewed. Results of the reviews were presented in the annual Summary of Harvest Data for Species Under Quota in the ISR report prepared for WMAC-NWT and WMACNS. Posters showing the number, sex and kill sites for grizzly bears/polar bears harvested each year during the GNWT quota years 1993-1994 to1997-1998 were prepared and sent to each HTC, the IGC and both WMACs.

Polar Bear Management Agreements

RWED met with the Paulatuk, Holman and Sachs Harbour HTCs to review the existing polar bear management agreements and discuss possible changes.

Arctic Wolf

Skulls and carcasses purchased from hunters and trappers on Banks and Northwest Victoria Islands were analysed to determine age, sex, incidence of disease, diet and general body condition of harvested wolves. Preliminary analysis of tissue samples and comparisons of DNA information with that from wolves from the mainland were completed by the University of Alberta. A draft report summarizing the results of the arctic wolf diet study on Banks Island was completed and submitted for publication.

Management Plans

The Co-management Plan for Grizzly Bears in the ISR, Yukon Territory and NWT was completed and published. Work continued on the draft Co-management Plan for Caribou, Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Snow Geese and Small Herbivores on Banks Island, ISR, NWT and the draft Co-management Plan for Caribou, Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Eiders, and Small Herbivores on NW Victoria Island, ISR, NWT. Several rounds of community and HTC meetings were held to discuss these multi-species management plans. A draft Co-management Plan for the Fur Industry in the Inuvik Region, NWT was prepared to address issues and concerns that were raised at the Beaufort-Delta Regional Trappers Workshop held in Inuvik in September 1998. Consultation on the plan was completed with the HTCs in the ISR.

5.3 Justice

The Legal Division of the Department of justice continued to contribute to the ongoing implementation of the IFA by providing legal assistance in a variety of areas, particularly land use and access.

Plans of survey for all of the 7(1)(a) and 7(1)(b) Inuvialuit parcels, comprising 173 survey plan sheets, have been registered by the Land Titles Office. The process to issue certificates of title to all Inuvialuit-owned lands may now proceed. In addition, a plan of survey for the Wynniatt Region Adjustment Area (Annex K-6 of the IFA) has been registered.

The Legislation Division completed various amendments to the wildlife regulations necessitated by the realignment of the boundaries of the wildlife management units/zones/areas to conform to the ISR.

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Section 6 - Yukon Territorial Government

The Yukon Secretariat of the YTG is responsible for administrative requirements related to the appointment of the chairperson and a Yukon member to the WMAC-NS, and the designation of a member to each of the EIRB, EISC and Arbitration Board. The Yukon Secretariat is also responsible for fulfilling Yukon's implementation obligations under the IFA and managing implementation funds. for participation on the above-mentioned boards and committees, ongoing wildlife research on the Yukon North Slope and the Herschel Island Territorial Park.

Amendment of the Yukon Wildlife Act

Amendments to the Yukon Wildlife Act to eliminate inconsistencies between the Act and the IFA were completed. The Act to Amend the Wildlife Act confirms YTG's intention to give effect to the IFA through appropriate legislative change. This legislative initiative has been one of the most significant long-standing interests of the Inuvialuit, as the inconsistency between the Wildlife Act and the IFA has been a source of confusion and frustration for YTG and the Inuvialuit beneficiaries.

This Act is the product of extensive cooperation between the YTG, the Inuvialuit and the co-management bodies established under the IFA. The legislation was developed with the assistance of a Working Group with representation from the YTG, IGC, WMAC-NS, the Aklavik HTC and the Joint Secretariat. The Working Group provided the necessary structure to ensure extensive consultation with the affected parties.

The amendments are specific to the Inuvialuit and to the geographic area of the Yukon North Slope within the ISR. The amendments recognize the legal rights of the Inuvialuit that have existed for 15 years under the IFA. They provide the YTG with the legal means to regulate and administer harvesting consistent with the requirements of the IFA and greatly improve the ability of the Yukon government to manage wildlife on the Yukon North Slope.

The Act was amended to include Part 9, which clarifies Inuvialuit harvesting rights in the Yukon North Slope and eliminates those limitations and restrictions in the Wildlife Act that the YTG has no authority to apply. For example, the Inuvialuit need not obtain the services of a special guide or outfitter to exercise their harvesting rights on the Yukon North Slope, nor would they be committing an offense should they exercise current or traditional methods of harvesting. The amendments also identify the process for giving effect to the preferential and exclusive harvesting rights of the Inuvialuit. These changes, and many others, reflect the content of the IFA and will allow those responsible for implementation to have the clear legislative guidance necessary to carry out their operational activities.

Wildlife Projects

The Porcupine Caribou Adopt-a-Caribou program is continuing. All original satellite collars were replaced with new transmitters that will last for three years. Maps of locations continue to be faxed and the website.

Muskox on the Yukon North Slope were surveyed in April 1998. A total of 116 muskox were counted between the Alaska border and Shingle Point. Again, there were few young animals, consistent with Alaskan surveys.

The Muskox Ecology Study was initiated in 1998. This is a cooperative project with the Aklavik HTC and Parks Canada (Ivvavik National Park) to obtain better population estimates. Ten satellite collars were purchased and deployed on eight cows and two bulls in April 1999. At the same time, 135 muskox were counted.

Herschel Island Vegetation Studies also began in 1998 with fieldwork by soil and plant specialists. The new Territorial Park Rangers were trained to use the terrain and vegetation map (produced in 1989) to locate and record wildlife sightings. The recording of wildlife sightings will be ongoing and a database will be developed. Fieldwork will continue in July 1999 with the ground truthing of the terrain and vegetation map and the setup of an International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) site to track long-term changes in vegetation.

The YTG was also involved in and contributed funds to a number of projects which were administered by other agencies. Contributions were made to the following:

Herschel Island Territorial Park

The Department of Renewable Resources was successful in obtaining an exemption from the Yukon Hire Policy for the staffing of Herschel Island Territorial Park. The Yukon Cabinet approved a recommendation to exempt all Herschel Island positions from the Yukon local hire policy, allowing the Department of Renewable Resources the discretion to state a preference for Inuvialuit beneficiaries for any available positions. This exemption resulted in the recruitment of three Inuvialuit beneficiaries in 1998-1999.

Activities involving the park included the following:

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Section 7 - Government of Canada

7.1 Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
Claims Implementation Branch

CIB serves as a liaison on IFA implementation issues for the Inuvialuit, territorial governments and other federal government departments. Its activities include:

During 1998-1999, several appointments were approved by Governor in Council for the Arbitration Board, EISC and EIRB, including the re-appointment of all the chairs.

CIB played an essential coordinating role in the renewal of implementation funding for the next five-year implementation period. This activity included input from all federal departments involved in the implementation of the IFA as well as the various implementing bodies. With a cooperative effort from all parties, this initiative proved to be very successful.

In November 1998, CIB and other federal officials, the GNWT, YTG and implementing bodies participated in a workshop to discuss various issues regarding implementation. The parties identified particular issues of long-standing concern, including the appointment process, funding and implementation priorities, and agreed to work together to resolve them.

A workshop was held in February 1999 to establish a working group to prepare for the public review of Section 16 of the IFA. This review, as dictated by Section 16(3) of the IFA, is to determine the efficacy of the economic measures provisions contained in Sections 16, 12 and 10 of the Agreement. Participants from IRC, IGC, GNWT and DIAND met in Inuvik to discuss the preliminary aspects of the review and to form the official working group.

In June 1998, CIB appointed a full-time polity advisor to address and monitor IFA implementation issues and to provide implementation funding to the territorial governments and Arbitration Board.

CIB was also involved in a number of activities in an effort to improve the effectiveness of the implementation of the IFA, including the following:

Northern Affairs Program

NAP administers legislation concerning the disposition and use of Crown lands, inland waters, offshore and non-renewable resources, and overall environmental protection in the Yukon and NWT.

As the main recipient of decisions and recommendations from the EISC and EIRB, NAP administers funding and monitors the implementation of screening and review processes to ensure that issues are dealt with in a timely manner. Through its regulatory authorities, NAP is involved in the implementation of measures countering the impacts of industrial development. In addition, NAP administers implementation funding for conducting granular (sand and gravel) inventories.

Granular implementation activities involved preparatory work needed for the development of a granular resources management plan for the ISR.

This work will continue in 1999-2000 for use in the preparation of revised granular demand forecasts and management plans as required by the IFA, initially on a trial basis for areas of greatest need.

7.2 Department of Fisheries and Oceans

DFO is responsible for making policy and regulatory changes to accommodate Inuvialuit rights concerning the harvest, trade, transport and co-management of fish and marine mammal resources in the ISR, and for supporting the FJMC. Implementation funding has been provided to augment wildlife study programs. DFO is promoting the principle of cooperative management of the fisheries resources in the ISR, with full cooperation of the Inuvialuit. In 1998-1999, 25 programs were conducted through joint efforts between DFO and FJMC.

7.3 Department of the Environment

DOE, through CWS, is represented on the wildlife management advisory councils, which deal with all significant wildlife issues in the ISR.

CWS is a member of WMAC-NWT and WMAC-NS for the ISR, and provides technical input into the IHS, which is documenting the number of birds, mammals and fish harvested by Inuvialuit. The information gathered during the study is intended for use in wildlife management, for calculating a compensation regime for loss of wildlife and habitat caused by industrial development in the ISR, and for determining the subsistence wildlife use and requirements of the Inuvialuit. In cooperation with the Inuvialuit, CWS is carrying out a number of studies of migratory birds in the region that are being used in the management of this important resource. The studies will help guarantee that populations are not over-harvested and that the habitat on which the birds depend receives adequate protection.

7.4 Canadian Heritage

Parks Canada is responsible for the protection of natural and cultural resources, including the wildlife populations and habitat of the two national parks in the ISR: Ivvavik National Park, in the western portion of the North Slope; and Aulavik National Park, on Banks Island.


The Pingo (Canadian Landmark) National Historic Site (NHS) is located six kilometers south-southwest of Tuktoyaktuk. Included within its boundaries is the largest pingo in Canada and a number of others at different stages of evolution. Created over a number of years, a pingo is an ice-cored mound produced when ice grows in or below permafrost as a result of water pressure.

The agreement to create the Pingo NHS is contained in the IFA. Legislation passed in 1996 led to the creation of the Pingo NHS. A Working Committee including representatives from Parks Canada and several community organizations in Tuktoyaktuk has been established to guide the development and presentation of the site. This Working Committee has begun drafting a management plan for the Pingo NHS, and has developed an educational brochure for distribution to the general public.

National Park Regulations

Consultations are ongoing with IGC on a public consultation process to discuss required amendments to the National Park Regulations to ensure that this legislation conforms to the IFA.

Inuvialuit Employment Strategy

The majority of employees in Ivvavik National Park are Inuvialuit beneficiaries. An Inuvialuit employment strategy is currently being developed by Parks Canada. As part of this initiative, discussions were held with IRC regarding the retention and promotion of Inuvialuit beneficiaries.

Ivvavik National Park

DND and Parks Canada successfully negotiated a MOU for the clean-up of Komakuk Beach DEW Line site. Once the clean-up is completed, Parks Canada will begin the process of incorporating this land into the Ivvavik National Park, thereby completing the park's land base.

7.5 Public Works and Government Services Canada

Public Works and Government Services Canada continued to advertise procurement opportunities in the ISR on the MERX system and to meet the requirements of the IFA by notifying IRC of procurement opportunities within the ISR. The MERX system is an electronic on-line service of Contracts Canada that advertises government contracting opportunities to potential bidders. For the procurement of goods, services or construction destined for locations covered by the Agreement, a copy of the procurement notice is faxed to the claimant group represented by IRC.

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Appendix 1

Map of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region

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Appendix 2

Schedule of Capital Transfer Payments

Annex N of the IFA outlines the capital transfer payments which were made to the Inuvialuit on the last business day prior to December 31 of each of the following years and in the following amounts:

Year Payment
1984 $12 ,000, 000
1985 $1 ,000, 000
1986 $1 ,000, 000
1987 $1 ,000, 000
1988 $5 ,000, 000
1989 $5 ,000, 000
1990 $5 ,000, 000
1991 $5 ,000, 000
1992 $5 ,000, 000
1993 $20 ,000, 000
1994 $20 ,000, 000
1995 $20 ,000, 000
1996 $20 ,000, 000
1997 $32 ,000, 000
Total $152 ,000, 000

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Appendix 3

Cumulative Costs of Implementation 1984-1985 to 1998-1999

Fiscal Year Amount
1984-1985 $1 ,595, 882
1985-1986 $1 ,795, 812
1986-1987 $6 ,854, 165
1987-1988 $6 ,330, 236
1988-1989 $7 ,250, 518
1989-1990 $6 ,878, 202
1990-1991 $6 ,878, 858
1991-1992 $7 ,362, 633
1992-1993 $9 ,512, 215
1993-1994 $10 ,632, 825
1994-1995 $5 ,850, 000
1995-1996 $5 ,967, 000
1996-1997 $6 ,086, 340
1997-1998 $6 ,107, 228
1998-1999 $6 ,107, 228
Total $95 ,309, 980

* These funds represent funds allocated for implementation purposes, as actual expenditure figures are not available

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Appendix 4

Membership of Implementing Bodies as of March 31, 1999

Inuvialuit Regional Corporation Board
Nellie Cournoyea, Chair and CEO
Alex Illasiak, First Vice-Chair
William Day, Second Vice-Chair
Patrick Gruben, Secretary-Treasurer
Bradley Carpenter
Ruben Green
Peter Malgokak

Inuvialuit Land Corporation Board
Nellie Cournoyea, Chair
William Day
Patrick Gruben
Alex Illasiak

Inuvialuit Development Corporation Board
Dennie Lennie, Chair and CEO
Andy Carpenter
Eddie Dillon
Wayne Gordon
Patrick Gruben
Albert Ruben

Inuvialuit Investment Corporation Board
Frank Hansen, Chair
Lloyd Atkinson
Lucy Kuptana
Hugh Segal
Evelyn Storr
Glenna Storr

Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation Board
Russel Newmark, Chair and CEO
Bradley Carpenter
Maria Hansen
Adam Inuktalik
Doug Irish
Gordon Milne
Ernest Pokiak

Inuvialuit Enrolment Committee
Nellie Cournoyea
Fred Bennet
Billy Day
Annie Goose
Agnes Tardiff

Inuvialuit Game Council
Duane Smith, Chair
Frank Pokiak, Vice-Chair
Billy Archie
Dennis Arey
John Keogak
Dan Klengenburg
Johnny Lennie
David Ruben
Nelson Green

John Alikamik
Billy Day
Danny C. Gordon
Chucky Gruben
John Max Kudlak
Desmond Nasogaluak

Fisheries Joint Management Committee
Robert K. Bell, Chair
Donald Dowler, Vice-Chair
Burton Ayles
Billy Day
Pat Ekpakohak
Max Kotakak
Ron Allen, Liaison for DFO

Wildlife Management Advisory Council-NWT
Peter J. Usher, Chair
Frank Poliak, Vice-Chair
William Day
Ron Graf
Ricky Joe
Kevin McCormick
John Nagy

Ray Case
Herbert Felix
Jim Hines
Ron Morrison
Arnold Ruben

Wildlife Management Advisory Council-North Slope
Lindsay Staples, Chair
Joan Earner
Brian Pelchat
Danny C. Gordon
Nelson Green

Billy Archie
Carol Arey
Dorothy Cooley
Alan Fehr

Environmental Impact Screening Committee
Tom Beck, Chair
Marsha Branigan
Tom Butters
Billy Day
Alex Kaglik
Bruce McLean
Fred Wolki

Environmental Impact Review Board
Robert Hornal, Chair
Peter Bannon
Richard Binder
Tom Butters
Herbert Felix
Noel Green
Eddie Okheena
Andrew Williams

Joint Secretariat, Inuvialuit Renewable
Resource Committees* Board of Directors

Duane Smith, Chair
Tom Beck, Vice-Chair
Bob Bell
Robert Hornal
Peter Usher

Norm Snow, Secretary
Lindsay Staples

* Joint Secretariat provides secretariat services to IGC, FJMC, WMAC (NWT), EISC, EIRB. The secretariat for WMAC (NS) is located in Whitehorse: (Aileen Horner, secretary).

Arbitration Board
Stein K. Lal, Chair (joint, appointed by Canada)
A. Ernie Pallister, Vice-Chair (joint)
George Braden (GNWT)
Charles Hunter (Inuvialuit)
Georgina Jacobson-Mazusumi (Canada)
David Luff (industry)
Tyson Pertschy, (Inuvialuit)
Ian Scott (industry)
Nick Schulz (industry)
Kathleen Wood (YTG)
Lena Selamio (Inuvialuit)

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