Archived - Annual Report 1999-2000 Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee
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Author: Published under the authority of the
Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
Catalogue No.: R71-63/2000
( 733 kb, 48 Pages)
Table of Contents
- Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
- 1 Summary of Agreement Provisions
- 2 The Inuvialuit Corporate Group
- 3 Arbitration Board
- 4 Inuvialuit Wildlife Management Structures
- 5 Joint Implementing Bodies
- 6 Government of the Northwest Territories
- 7 Yukon Territorial Government
- 8 Government of Canada
- Appendix 1:Map of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region
- Appendix 2: Financial Compensation Schedule of Capital Transfer Payments
- Appendix 3: Cumulative Costs of Implementation 1984–1985 to 1999–2000
- Appendix 4:Membership of Implementing Bodies (as of March 31, 2000)
Mary K. Okheena is a self-taught artist who has been drawing since childhood. In 1977, she began stencil printing and is now recognized worldwide for her artistic mastery. A contributor to the annual Holman print collection, Mary also teaches print making and illustrates children's books. She lives in Holman, Northwest Territories with her husband Eddie, and five children, Dennis, Carolyne, Denise, Byron and Micah.
In this work entitled "Travelling on Rough Ice", Mary remembered how her ancestors used to travel on the land. To get to their destination, they sometimes had to struggle across rough ice before gliding on smooth ice. They never gave up, always striving towards their goal. Mary reflected upon this similarity between life and travelling on rough ice.
The Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee (IFA ICC) is pleased to provide its second annual report on the implementation of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) (1984). This report covers the fiscal year from April 1, 1999 to March 31, 2000. The IFA ICC was formally reconstituted on May 11, 1999, and comprises of senior representatives from Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, Inuvialuit Game Council, the Government of the Northwest Territories, the Yukon Territorial Government and the Government of Canada. Additionally, each member of the IFA ICC has an appointed alternate member who may participate on the IFA ICC in the member's absence. The Committee has agreed to reach decisions unanimously among the relevant parties and serves as a forum where parties can raise issues and voice their concerns.
The role of the IFA ICC is to monitor the ongoing obligations of the parties pursuant to the IFA and resolve issues arising with respect to the implementation of the IFA. This annual report describes achievements and developments during the year. Information is contributed by various federal and territorial departments, Inuvialuit Regional Corporation, Inuvialuit Game Council and other stakeholders to the Agreement. Progress is being achieved within a relationship defined by mutual respect and a commitment to fulfil the obligations set out in the Agreement.
Inuvialuit Regional Corporation
Inuvialuit Game Council
Government of Canada
Government of the Northwest Territories
Yukon Territorial Government
Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
The Inuvialuit Corporate Group realized an after-tax profit of $5.6 million in 1999. Profits from 1998 were shared with all beneficiaries through a $1.2 million disbursement in May made under the terms of its Distribution Policy, resulting in 2,979 beneficiaries each receiving a payment of $401.51.
Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC) responded to the rapidly escalating interest in oil exploration in the Mackenzie Delta through the establishment of an oil and gas working group to gather information and provide recommendations to the IRC Board on hydrocarbon activities within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR).
Inuvialuit Land Administration (ILA) worked with the communities of Sachs Harbour, Paulatuk and Holman to identify Crown land that would be transferred to Inuvialuit Land Corporation (ILC) in exchange for the Inuvialuit lands that were used for community airstrips. Similar efforts were initiated in Tuktoyaktuk in exchange for Inuvialuit lands given up in the establishment of the Pingo Landmark Site.
Significant efforts were made to resolve the long outstanding issues of general access to Inuvialuit lands and municipal requirements for Inuvialuit lands. The Inuvialuit and the Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT) have agreed to meet to discuss land exchanges based on a set of principles, as a means of resolving the municipal lands needs.
IRC responded to the need for ongoing operational support to community corporations through the establishment of a full-time position to assist community corporation staff and directors to develop and maintain sound administrative and financial management systems.
The Aboriginal Human Resources Development Agreement (AHRDA) was negotiated between Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC) and the Inuvialuit. It is a five-year (1999–2004) contribution agreement through the Aboriginal Human Resources Strategy that enables the Inuvialuit to design and deliver AHDA programs and services to their communities. Annual funding totals $1,946,737.
Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation (IPC) in a joint venture with AltaGas Services Inc. and Enbridge Inc. completed the Ikhil Natural Gas Project delivering natural gas to the town of Inuvik in early summer.
IPC disposed of its southern Canadian oil and gas investments and focused its attention on emerging oil and gas exploration opportunities in the ISR.
Under contract with the Department of National Defence (DND), the Inuvialuit Projects Inc. completed the DEW line clean-up at Nicholson Peninsula, Northwest Territories (NWT) and commenced the clean-up at Komakuk Beach, Yukon.
The self-government negotiations with the governments of Canada and NWT progressed steadily on most sub-agreements, and a political accord was signed between IRC, the Gwich'in Tribal Council, the GNWT and the Government of Canada.
IRC continued to provide direct financial support to Inuvialuit Elders with one-time and Christmas payments totaling $400,000.
The Inuvialuit Harvesters Assistance Program (IHAP) provided financial support totaling $168,736 to 44 beneficiaries ranging from $500 to $7,500 each. In its second year of operation, IHAP has proven to be a successful and well-managed program providing communities with significant resources to support their sustenance harvesting activities.
Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC) continued to develop a quota for subsistence harvesting of muskox on the Yukon's North Slope. IGC initiated a meeting with representatives of Alaska natives, Alaskan state and federal governments,Wildlife Management Advisory Council - North Slope (WMAC-NS), Yukon Territorial Government (YTG) and IGC to discuss co-operative management of the North Slope muskox.
IGC and the Inupiat of Alaska signed the Beaufort Sea Beluga Whale Agreement. This Agreement sets out a system of sharing information and research, and has been modeled on the 1988 Inuvialuit-Inupiat Management Agreement for Polar Bears in the Southern Beaufort Sea. This polar bear agreement was re-signed in 1999–2000, continuing the international co-operation in managing this shared population for future generations.
Fisheries Joint Management Committee (FJMC) worked with the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) and representatives of the Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board (GRRB) and Sahtu Renewable Resources Board (SRRB) to develop an integrated fishery management plan for inconnu. Signing of this plan is scheduled for the summer of 2000.
The Beaufort Sea Conference 2000 took place in Inuvik. Co-sponsored by FJMC, DFO, the Arctic Institute of North America and the Aurora Research Institute, the conference provided a forum where 150 delegates, more than half of whom were from the six communities of the ISR, met to explore a variety of issues ranging from the effectiveness of co-management, and the application of new technologies such as satellite telemetry to consideration of new tools for managing human impacts on ocean resources.
A key activity of the Wildlife Management Advisory Council - NWT (WMAC-NWT) was to complete the updating of the six community conservation plans. A report on the March 1999 Community Consultation Plan Workshop was produced in April. Follow-up consultation with the Community Conservation Plan working groups and redrafting of the plans were conducted. The revised plans will be released in print and CD-ROM format in the coming fiscal year.
The Co-Management Plan for Caribou,Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Snow Geese and Small Herbivores on Banks Island was approved by the Sachs Harbour Hunters and Trappers Committee,WMAC-NWT and IGC. The plan will be available in early summer 2000.
WMAC-NS initiated a review and update of the 1994 Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan. The plan is intended to assist all parties concerned with meeting the objectives of wildlife conservation under the IFA.
The Environmental Impact Screening Committee (EISC) screened 26 project descriptions, including projects associated with research (15), hydrocarbon exploration (4), clean-up of Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line sites (2), film production (2), mineral exploration (1), tourism (1) and land lease (1). Of these, only one was referred for an environmental impact assessment. The screening process for 96 percent of submissions required less than 60 days to complete. Fifty-eight percent of submissions were screened within 30 days of receipt.
The Inuvialuit Harvest Study (IHS) was re-commenced in the last quarter of 1999–2000 after a decision was made the previous year to suspend data collection and terminate field worker employment as of January 31, 1999 for a period of one year. It was revitalized according to the blueprint developed by the IHSManagement Committee flowing from the community workshop.
The GNWT Department of Resource,Wildlife and Economic Development (RWED) is working closely with all appropriate Inuvialuit organizations on the creation of a new NWT Wildlife Act that incorporates land claim agreements and species at risk legislation.
The YTG began work to identify operational directives, policies and regulations that will require amendments to bring them into conformity with the IFA. This is a continuation of the initiative to ensure conformity of Yukon legislation with the Agreement.
On March 9, the Government of Canada announced a memorandum of understanding (MOU) between the Environmental Impact Review Board (EIRB) and the Minister of the Environment concerning Approvals for Substitution of Process. The MOU outlines how the environmental assessment process of EIRB may be substituted in place of a panel review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.
The Implementation Branch obtained approval from Treasury Board to replace the contribution agreement method of flowing funds to bodies created under land claim agreements with a Flexible Transfer Payment instrument. This implementation-friendly transfer mechanism addressed two major concerns of the contribution agreement approach: the inability of implementing bodies to carry over funds from one fiscal year to the next and the termination clause.
1 Summary of Agreement Provisions
The IFA was brought into force and effect by the Western Arctic (Inuvialuit) Claims Settlement Act in 1984.
1.1 Land Ownership
The Agreement provides the Inuvialuit with fee simple absolute title to approximately 91,000 square kilometres of land in the Western Arctic (NWT). This area includes approximately 13,000 square kilometres on which the Inuvialuit have title to surface and subsurface rights. The ISR includes the North Slope of the Yukon Territory, the eastern half of the Beaufort Sea, part of the Arctic Ocean, Banks Island, much of the western part of Victoria Island and some of the Parry Islands (see map, Appendix 1).
1.2 Eligibility and Enrolment
An enrolment authority composed of one federal government and two Inuvialuit representatives was initially established to enrol those who were entitled to be registered as beneficiaries of the Agreement. Ongoing enrolment authority is now a responsibility of IRC.
1.3 Financial Compensation
Under the provisions of the IFA, the Inuvialuit received a total of $152 million over 14 years, ending in 1997. The Agreement also provided for one-time payments, made in 1984, of $7.5 million to a fund to assist the Inuvialuit in social development and $10 million to the Economic Enhancement Fund.
1.4 Economic Measures
Section 16 of the IFA addresses economic development in the ISR. Its broad objectives are focused on full Inuvialuit participation in the northern Canadian economy and the integration of Inuvialuit into Canadian society through development of an adequate level of economic self-reliance and a solid economic base. Since 1984, the Economic Enhancement Fund has helped the Inuvialuit become more actively involved in the local economy and make long-term investments that will provide a solid base for future development.
1.5 Inuvialuit Corporations
Established under section 6(1) of the IFA, IRC holds the overall responsibility for managing the affairs of its corporate subsidiaries and achieving the goals outlined in the IFA. Its ongoing functions and formal obligations are:
- to implement the land claim settlement;
- to fulfil the role of institutional representative of the Inuvialuit; and
- to be the parent corporation to and monitor of the Inuvialuit Corporate Group.
IRC is directly controlled by the six community corporations in the ISR through their elected chairs. The directors of the community corporations elect the chair of IRC. The chair of IRC and the chairs of the six community corporations comprise the board of IRC. ILC owns and holds responsibility for Inuvialuit lands received under the IFA. The Inuvialuit Development Corporation (IDC), IPC and Inuvialuit Investment Corporation (IIC) are responsible for carrying on business activities and investing settlement funds on behalf of the Inuvialuit.
1.6 Wildlife and Environmental Co-management
Within the ISR, the Inuvialuit have extensive wildlife harvesting rights. They also have a mechanism for settling their claims against developers for actual harvest losses and for providing compensation or remedial measures as required.
The IFA established structures to ensure Inuvialuit participation in wildlife management, conservation and environmental protection in the ISR. These structures include community-based Inuvialuit hunters and trappers committees (HTCs) and IGC which has representation from each HTC.
The IFA also established five joint advisory bodies that have equal government and Inuvialuit representation.
- EISC assesses whether proposed developments require detailed environmental impact assessments.
- EIRB carries out public reviews of development proposals deemed necessary by EISC.
- FJMC advises the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans on matters relating to fisheries and marine mammals in the ISR.
- WMAC-NWT advises government and other appropriate bodies on wildlife conservation matters in the NWT portion of the settlement region.
- WMAC-NS advises government and other appropriate bodies on wildlife conservation matters in the Yukon North Slope.
The Joint Secretariat was subsequently created to provide technical and administrative support to four of the five joint advisory bodies. WMAC-NS receives implementation funding which is administered through the YTG for administration and operations.
2 The Inuvialuit Corporate Group
1999 was another profitable year for the members of the Inuvialuit Corporate Group with year-end net income of $5.6 million after tax [Note 1]. Profits from 1998 were shared with all beneficiaries through a $1.2 million distribution made in May 1999 under the terms of the Distribution Policy. This resulted in 2,979 beneficiaries each receiving a payment of $401.51.
The most significant event throughout the Inuvialuit Corporate Group during 1999 was the reappearance and rapid escalation of interest in natural gas exploration in the Mackenzie Delta. In the hydrocarbon exploration boom of the 1970s, the Inuvialuit had few financial resources, little control over land use and their rights within the traditional homeland received limited recognition. Now the Inuvialuit have the capacity to play a major role in establishing the ground rules for hydrocarbon companies exploring within the ISR, set sound environmental standards, monitor exploration activities and ensure that Inuvialuit are full participants in the associated economic benefits. In August the IRC Board responded to this renewed interest through the establishment of an oil and gas working group to gather information and provide recommendations to the Board on hydrocarbon activities within the ISR. Associated initiatives included the development of the process and conditions whereby Inuvialuit lands would be offered for exploration and production purposes and the commencement of short-, medium- and long-term business and human resource response strategies.
Having recognized the interdependency of all members of the Corporate Group and the impact the business affairs of any one member can have on the well-being of the others, the IRC Board accepted the recommendations of its Audit Committee, and approved a corporate governance policy establishing the level of capital expenditures within business subsidiaries that would require review and approval by the IRC Board. The Board also approved a conflict of interest policy that would apply to all directors and officers of the Corporate Group. Year 2000 business plans were considered and approved for all members of the Corporate Group.
The IRC Board discussed appointments to its subsidiary boards and committees. The Board identified the need for clarity and consistency in setting the roles, responsibilities, authority and compensation of the directors of subsidiary boards and in measuring their performance. The chairs of all subsidiary boards reported to the IRC Board on this topic at their November meeting.
2.1 Inuvialuit Lands
As compared to the previous year, there was little change in the level of activity on Inuvialuit lands regarding permit and lease fees, concession payments and royalty revenues totaling $1.4 million.Major projects included the completion of the Ikhil Natural Gas Project, the Inuvialuit Projects Inc. contract with DND to conduct the DEW Line clean-ups at Nicholson Peninsula (completed) and Komakuk Beach, and the demolition of the DEW Line tank farm at Saviktok Point (Tuktoyaktuk). Other projects involved the investigation of DDT contamination at the old "Army Camp" near Kitigaaryuit, seismic activities, soil sampling by Darnley Bay Resources Limited south of Paulatuk and a variety of research projects, residential leases and tourism licences.
ILA staff spent considerable time in the review of plans and other issues related to the DEW Line clean-up projects at Komakuk Beach, Shingle Point and Clinton Point. Discussions were held with all community corporations and HTCs on the level of fees for sports hunting and guiding activities on Inuvialuit lands.
ILA worked with the communities of Sachs Harbour, Paulatuk and Holman to identify Crown land that would be transferred to ILC in exchange for the Inuvialuit lands that had been used for community airstrips. Similar efforts were undertaken in Tuktoyaktuk in exchange for Inuvialuit lands given up in the establishment of the Pingo Landmark Site. Delays in the formation of a Husky Lake Management Plan Committee prevented work proceeding on this important project. Efforts to finalize both of these issues will continue throughout 2000.
With renewed interest in oil and gas exploration in the Mackenzie Delta, ILA staff were heavily involved in providing land use information to both industry and contractors as well as contributing to the development of strategies and conditions that would provide for the offering of Inuvialuit lands for natural gas exploration and development.
The large and complex task of reviewing ILA Rules and Procedures moved ahead at a steady pace throughout 1999. Comments and recommendations were provided by community corporations and HTCs at a workshop in June with industry and government agencies.
2.2 Inuvialuit Business Corporations
Inuvialuit Development Corporation
Established and mandated under sections 6(1)(a) and 6(1)(d) of the IFA, IDC and its subsidiaries recorded a profit of $1.6 million. This was a significant reduction from 1998 when the sale of Valgro Ltd. and property in Fort McMurray (50 percent owned by IDC through the NorTerra Group) boosted IDC's profits to $7.6 million. There were no major sales of either businesses or property during the year. IDC was assisted by the strong performance of its most profitable operating company, Inuvialuit Projects Inc., where the income from environmental clean-ups and northern construction offset lower than expected returns from the NorTerra Group. IDC continued to develop its investment in regional tourism through Arctic Nature Tours.
IDC invested in its Stanton Group subsidiary by extending the Airport Road warehouse and commencing work on a major expansion of the main facilities on Navy Road. During the last quarter IDC moved to take advantage of emerging business opportunities in the natural gas sector, initiating joint ventures in field services and other support areas.
IDC's real estate division provided significant cash flow throughout the year with demand outstripping available units. Positive developments with IDC's properties in British Columbia saw the completion of rezoning of the Port Moody property and settling with the Government of British Columbia on a value for the expropriated property in Nanaimo.
Aklak Inc. suffered the loss of a major mail contract and experienced difficulties in establishing an operating base at Cambridge Bay. Both of these concerns have been resolved, and it is expected that Aklak Inc. will return to profitability in the year 2000.
Inuvialuit Investment Corporation
Established and mandated under sections 6(1)(a) and 6(1)(e) of the IFA, IIC had a strong year performing well ahead of budgeted projections with an after-tax profit of $5.97 million and significantly increasing the value of its investment portfolio.
The increased earnings reflect extraordinary gains on the sale of assets from the portfolio as managers repositioned the mix of investments in the normal course of exercising their mandate. Expenses remained steady and the market value of IIC's assets increased to $141 million by the end of the year. This increase in value reflected growth in all major markets: Canada, the United States, Europe and Asia.
The value of the collective portfolio managed by IIC for the Corporate Group was $190.4 million at year-end. Overall, the performance of IIC was ahead of the targeted return of the investment policy and placed IIC near the top of comparable funds in Canada.
Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation
1999 marked a major change in direction for IPC. IPC disposed of its southern Canadian oil and gas investments, focusing its attention on emerging oil and gas exploration opportunities in the ISR. Overall, IPC lost $4.1 million compared to a loss of $5.2 million in 1998. In 1999, $2.2 million of the loss was from operations; the remaining $1.9 million loss was realized in the sale of IPC's majority owned subsidiary, Inuvialuit Energy Inc. (IEI).
In a joint venture with AltaGas Services Inc. and Enbridge Inc., IPC completed the Ikhil Natural Gas Project delivering natural gas to the town of Inuvik in early summer. By year-end an in-town distribution system was completed, and the electrical needs of the community were supplied through Northwest Territories Power Corporation's natural gas powered generators. By the end of 2000 it is anticipated that the majority of the town's heating requirements will be provided by Inuvik Gas Limited (owned one-third by IPC).
In the closing months of 1999, IPC received an offer for IEI and the company was sold. IPC's share of the proceeds was $32 million. As a result of this sale IPC has net cash assets of $24.6 million, currently under the management of IIC. Recognizing the likelihood of significant opportunities for oil and gas investment within the ISR during the next decade, IPC will observe how these opportunities unfold before developing further business plans for consideration and approval by the IRC Board.
2.3 Community and Beneficiary Support
IRC responded to the need for ongoing operational support to community corporations through the establishment of a full-time position to assist community corporation staff and directors to develop and maintain sound administrative and financial management systems.Working in concert with a similar position established under IGC/Joint Secretariat to support HTCs, a week-long finance and administration training program was provided to community corporation managers, hunters and trappers committee resource persons and Brighter Futures wellness workers. Supplemented by frequent community trips and Inuvik-based training for individual community corporation managers, the results of this support have been most encouraging.
IRC was successful in obtaining significant additional financial support for the ongoing operations of community corporations with over $30,000 provided to each through the federal government's Gathering Strength initiative and community capacity-building initiatives. The minimum level of core operational support provided to Inuvialuit organizations by the federal government (compared to the significant level of funding provided to bands and tribal councils) continues to be an area of concern for IRC. This issue will continue to be pursued in 2000 through direct communication with the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and the combined efforts of the other regional Inuit organizations and Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITC).
IHAP provided financial support totaling $168,736 to 44 beneficiaries ranging from $500 to $7,500 each. In its second year of operation, IHAP has proven to be a successful and well-managed program providing communities with significant resources to support their sustenance harvesting activities.
IRC continued to provide direct financial support to Inuvialuit Elders with a $500 Christmas payment to all beneficiaries over 50 years of age. In addition to the $299,000 paid through this program, a total of $97,500 was also paid to 39 beneficiaries who celebrated their 50th birthday during 1999.
IRC's Funeral Assistance Policy provided almost $30,000 in direct financial support to assist bereaved family members with their funeral arrangements.
IRC assisted the Inuvialuit Communications Society in its ongoing publication of Tusaayaksat through direct financial contributions totaling $48,000. IRC's accountability to beneficiaries was maintained through the IRC Board Summary newsletters and the consolidated annual report.
Throughout the year considerable time and effort were spent in responding to a broad range of environmental contaminant issues within the ISR. During the clean-up of the abandoned DEW Line sites within the ISR, it was recognized that PCBs were in the paint coating many of the buildings and other materials scheduled for demolition. IRC and ILA worked throughout the year with DND, Department of the Environment (DOE) and other authorities and researchers to identify an appropriate means to dispose of these materials in a manner environmentally acceptable and safe to human health. Significant progress has been made towards this end, and IRC and ILA will continue to work with the appropriate authorities and the involved communities in the year ahead.
An important element of community and beneficiary support was the time and effort spent by IRC and other Corporate Group staff in responding to a very broad range of issues and concerns brought forward by Inuvialuit individuals, organizations and companies throughout the year.
2.4 Community Development Division
The Community Development Division continued to tailor its programs to reflect the priorities outlined in the IRC business plan.
Human Resources staff provided year-round assistance to individual beneficiaries in career planning and guidance, pre-employment skills and employment assistance with natural gas-related opportunities. A total of $1.4 million was spent in providing these services.
The Inuvialuit Education Foundation provided incentives to Inuvialuit to continue their studies at all levels. Focusing in five specific areas – tutoring, post-secondary supplementary funding, scholarships, student incentive trips and the summer camps program – program expenditures totaled $190,000.
In the field of Inuvialuit heritage, the report on Inuvialuit Social Development Program's fieldwork at the Kitigaaryuit National Historic Site in 1997, Kitigaaryuit Archaeological Inventory and Mapping Project – 1997, was completed. Both the field report and the interview transcripts were completed for the Program's, Yellow Beetle (Old Army Camp) Oral History and Archaeology Project. A proposal was developed for the production of a publication on the history of Kitigaaryuit National Historic Site entitled Chapters in the History of Kitigaaryuit.
With funding from federal and territorial governments, Inuvialuit Early Childhood Development staff continued to work with each community in the ISR to provide administration services, support and training to community programs. Community Child Development Centres and the Paulatuk Aboriginal Head Start Program provided year-round services to young children and their families. The Regional Training Coordinator provided training and support through community visits, regional conference calls and training workshops. Culturally appropriate program activities progressed with the help of the Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre. The Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre focused its efforts on language and cultural promotion, language revitalization, and preservation.
Major accomplishments included the publication of eight books for children in three Inuvialuktun dialects; the publication and distribution of teacher resource kits for the Grade 1–6 Inuvialuit Culture and History program; and the provision of funding for language camps in all Inuvialuit communities.
Community Wellness staff accessed several community wellness programs including Brighter Futures, the Canadian Prenatal Nutrition Program and the Urban Multipurpose Aboriginal Youth Centres Initiative. A major goal in 2000 is to improve long-term planning and evaluation of wellness programs.
The Inuvialuit Community Economic Development Organization (CEDO) provided a wide range of business-oriented services to Inuvialuit community organizations and individuals. These services focused on three main areas: business development services, human resource services and financial services. Significant support was provided in response to Parks Canada's Tuktut Nogait National Park initiatives in the Paulatuk area which included park entry point clean-up, park boundary surveying and staking, and planning for a new park visitor centre/hotel/store complex. There were also significant economic opportunities for beneficiaries.
2.5 Territorial and National Affairs
1999 was a busy year for IRC on issues of territorial and national impact. The Beaufort/Delta Self-Government negotiations with federal and territorial governments progressed steadily on most sub-agreements and a Beaufort/Delta Political Accord was signed between IRC, the Gwich'in Tribal Council, the GNWT and the Government of Canada. This process outlines and provides for the recognition of the self-governing rights of Inuvialuit and the Gwich'in. It also provides a forum to address issues of primary importance to all residents of the Beaufort/Delta communities.
IRC worked closely with ITC and regional Inuit organizations in the development of the Inuit Action Plan and Partnership Agreement with Canada. This important initiative is proceeding through the combined efforts of all Canadian Inuit to ensure that the Government of Canada recognizes the different historical, cultural and geographic realities between Inuit and First Nations and the need to develop separate policies, programs and processes appropriate to the specific circumstances of each.
IRC participated in several other ITC co-ordinated initiatives associated with the federal government's response to the Report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. Prominent among these was the development of Inuit-specific, health-related programs in concert with Health Canada. These included such well recognized concerns as tuberculosis, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, home and community care, suicide prevention, mental health and prenatal nutrition.
The Canadian Working Group was established to oversee the Canadian component of an international Survey on the Living Conditions of Inuit in the Circumpolar Arctic. In liaison with the three other Inuit claimant groups in Canada and ITC, IRC worked with Statistics Canada and the Canadian Working Group to develop an appropriate survey process and questionnaire. Arrangements were made to satisfy the financing requirements of the survey through dovetailing with Statistics Canada's second Aboriginal Peoples Survey, scheduled for 2001.
IRC was an active participant along with IGC in the reconstituted IFA ICC which met three times in 1999–2000. The IFA ICC worked to resolve an extensive list of outstanding claim-related issues. Of significant importance was the development of a process to evaluate the success of the economic measures sections of the IFA. The Committee also agreed to publish this annual report on the status of implementation of the IFA.
3 Arbitration Board
The Arbitration Board, established under section 18 of the IFA, is intended to provide a mechanism to arbitrate disputes between the Inuvialuit and the governments of Canada, the NWT or the Yukon, as well as between the Inuvialuit and industry. The Arbitration Board has three members appointed by the Government of Canada, including designations by the GNWT and YTG. Industry, represented by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers, and the Inuvialuit each appoint three members to the Board. The chair and the vice-chair of the Board are appointed by the Government of Canada with the concurrence of the Inuvialuit and industry. Since the Board's inception, it has arbitrated on two matters of dispute between the Inuvialuit and the Government of Canada. The Arbitration Board is pleased to note that the parties to the IFA have worked diligently to resolve disputes and have resorted to arbitration only after exhausting all other avenues.
The Arbitration Board was not called upon to arbitrate in 1999–2000 and did not convene a meeting.
4 Inuvialuit Wildlife Management Structures
4.1 Inuvialuit Game Council
IGC represents the collective Inuvialuit interests in all matters related to wildlife. It derives its mandate from section 14(74) of the IFA and IGC is responsible for upholding and administering the Inuvialuit harvesting rights recognized under the IFA. Council members review wildlife research proposals from the Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) and the renewable resource departments of both territorial governments for projects within the settlement region. They also set funding priorities for these and other projects related to wildlife and the environment.
IGC is made up of a director and an alternate from each of the six HTCs. The chair is elected by the six IGC directors. The following highlights IGC activities of note:
- IGC continued to provide input into amending various territorial
and federal acts and regulations to ensure that they are consistent
with the IFA, in accordance with section 14(73)(d) of the IFA. Acts
in the amendment process included the National Parks Act and the GNWT Wildlife Act. IGC was also involved in commenting on the
draft Species at Risk Act, the federal legislation being introduced to
protect endangered species in Canada.
- IGC and communities reviewed the revised IHAP policy and procedures
manual which was produced by IRC. Some of the changes were
adopted by the communities, while others are being discussed. The
communities, IGC and IRC will continue to work on the structure of
the IHAP selections committees during the next fiscal year.
- IGC worked to ensure that the national and territorial park management
plans recognize traditional and ongoing Inuvialuit harvesting
rights within the Ivvavik National Park and Qiqiktagruk (Herschel
Island) Territorial Park. The Council reviewed scoping documents
for Qiqiktagruk (Herschel Island) Territorial Park, the draft
management plan for Ivvavik National Park and the interim
management guidelines for the ISR's newest park, Tuktut Nogait
- IGC continued to work with both the YTG and GNWT in their
drafting of each of their Dempster Highway harvesting regulations.
The Council's objectives in this activity are to ensure that there is
some consistency between the jurisdictions, maintain the integrity of
the migration of the Porcupine Caribou herd, avoid damage to the
habitat with vehicles before the ground is fully frozen, and ensure
the safe travel of persons along the highway during the harvesting
- In accordance with section 14(73)(f) of the IFA, it is the responsibility
of IGC to allocate harvesting quotas among the communities. At IGC's request, research was initiated by the GNWT to provide new
population data on polar bears. IGC continued to develop a quota
for subsistence harvesting of muskox on the Yukon's North Slope.
Information on muskox numbers which has been available since
1993 shows that this population is increasing. A draft muskox
management plan is being written. IGC initiated a meeting with
representatives from Alaska natives, Alaskan state and federal
governments,WMAC-NS and the YTG to discuss co-operative
management of the North Slope muskox.
- The rapid increase of the lesser snow geese population in the
Western Arctic suggests that the arctic coastal habitats could be
threatened by overgrazing as has been seen in the Hudson Bay region
of the Eastern Arctic. Traditional Inuvialuit harvesting is not sufficient
to reduce this rapidly growing population. IGC provided input
into CWS trial harvest of Banks Island snow geese by beneficiaries.
These geese were distributed to beneficiaries in the ISR communities
which do not have access to this species.
- IGC has commented on a number of wildlife management plans
prepared by the GNWT, including the plan for Cape Bathurst and
Bluenose caribou. It approved the Co-Management Plan for
Caribou,Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Snow Geese and Small Herbivores
on Banks Island.
- IGC was involved in several ongoing field research projects such as CWS's satellite tagging of king eider ducks nesting on Victoria Island, although most research projects were handled at the co-management board and community levels.
- IGC participated in numerous meetings with various exploration
companies interested in oil and gas exploration in the Beaufort
Delta. The Council was a registered participant in the Kuññek
Resources Development Corporation's Environmental Impact
Review and provided written comments on the project proposal
which is still under review.
- Cumulative environmental effects assessment and monitoring in the NWT has become more prominent with the establishment of the
Mackenzie Valley Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program Working
Group in the last fiscal year and the Cumulative Effects Assessment
and Steering Committee (for NWT) in 1999–2000. IGC was involved
in these processes with respect to potential environmental impacts
on the ISR via the Mackenzie River.
- IGC and the Inupiat of Alaska signed the Beaufort Sea Beluga Whale
Agreement. This Agreement sets out a system of sharing information
and research, and has been modeled on the 1988 Inuvialuit-Inupiat
Management Agreement for Polar Bears in the Southern Beaufort
Sea. This Agreement was re-affirmed in 1999–2000, continuing the
international co-operation in managing this shared population for
- IGC and JS staff have been involved in the Sachs Harbour climate project which documents local traditional ecological knowledge on observed climactic changes. This project will be completed next year.
4.2 Hunters and Trappers Committees
Section 14(75) of the IFA provides for the creation of HTCs. An HTC has been established in each of the six Inuvialuit communities of Inuvik, Aklavik, Tuktoyaktuk, Holman, Paulatuk and Sachs Harbour. Administrative and operational costs of the HTCs are the responsibility of the GNWT.
Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Aklavik HTC's activities included the following:
- A summer science camp was held in August for students in grades 5
to 13. The purpose of the science camp was to provide information
on the Aklavik HTC and introduce various management plans and
the role of science in these plans. Elders taught students about their
traditional knowledge of the land including edible plants and roots,
and basic survival skills.
- Two proposals, the collection of harvest data for char, arctic cisco,
conni and broad whitefish and a garbage clean-up around Shingle
Point and Running River, received funding. These resulted in shortterm
employment for five persons.
- A scientific licence was received to harvest four muskox at Fish River
to provide meat for the community of Aklavik.
- The Trappers Training Program offered three Muskox training
programs which ran for 10 days each. This program was funded
through the Aboriginal Strategics Initiative of Industry Canada.
Three Inuvialuit instructors trained seven students between the ages
of 16 and 30.
- The HTC reviewed the Aklavik Community Conservation Plan and
all other relevant plans, identifying priorities and action items.
- Other projects included beluga monitoring (two monitors hired);
participation in IHAP (five Aklavik community members involved);
- Index Netting Program (two workers hired), IHS(one interviewer
hired); Rat River Char Program (held in March) and West Side Char
- HTC members attended the annual gathering for the Arctic Borderlands in Old Crow, Yukon and the Climate Change Workshop in Yellowknife.
Olokhaktomiut (Holman) Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Olokhaktomiut HTC activities included the following:
- Members participated in the fish tracking project, seal tagging
project, seal monitor project, Fish Lake char project and Tahiryuak
- The HTC collected cod, trout, muskox and fox samples for the Arctic
Institute of America and caribou samples for RWED. Twenty-five
fishnets were resold to membership. The HTC participated in big
game hunts for muskox during October and November.
- Three members received assistance from IHAP for the purchase of all terrain vehicles.
Inuvik Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Inuvik HTC met monthly to deal with ongoing issues, land-use applications and general information and assistance to the public and organizations. Other activities included the following:
- A caribou hunt, funded by the Brighter Futures Program was conducted in November. The hunt provided meat to a large number of beneficiaries and gave students an opportunity to participate and learn hunting skills.
- A Trapper Training Land Skills Program, also funded from Brighter Futures, involved three instructors and nine students in a 12-day program on the land. RWED officers also participated in the event. The success of this program has resulted in a recommendation to repeat it in the near future.
- The Inuvik HTC assisted a great number of beneficiaries with muktuk and fish. An inter-settlement trade with the Holman HTC involved an exchange of muktuk for char. Snow geese were available from the Sachs HTC.
- Eleven applications for funding were approved through IHAP. Two appeals from unsuccessful applicants were referred to IHAP committee for review.
- Monitors were involved in the beluga harvest. Four wildlife monitors worked with Schlumberger and Petro Canada on the Mackenzie Delta. Paulatuk Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Paulatuk HTC activities included the following:
- IHAP assisted eight applicants.
- Members conduced the beluga whale monitoring and arctic char data collection. The arctic char quota was filled immediately. FJMC and the Paulatuk HTC are investigating a scouting site for community fishing.
- Community Harvester Assistance Program (CHAP) funding was used to acquire caribou meat from Inuvik.
- A radio survey on the location of 45 collared caribou was completed and the data processed by RWED.
- Paulatuk HTC and Darnley Bay Resources Ltd. signed a MOU to hire fish monitors before and after drilling. The collected fish were sent to DFO for analysis. A second MOU was signed between these two parties to hire wildlife monitors for the drilling process. ILA has an environmental monitor in place.
Sachs Harbour Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Sachs Harbour HTC activities included the following:
- A harvest data field worker was hired for the IHS.
- The HTC provided letters of support regarding the Trapper Training Land Skills Program and the Flora of the Canadian Arctic Archipelago project.
- A member was hired to work with FJMC on a survey of the waters surrounding Sachs Harbour.
- Members attended the Beaufort Sea 2000 Conference.
- 1999 CHAP funding was used for the caribou charter in spring 1999 to provide meat to the community. In total 10 persons were assisted by CHAP and 11 were assisted by IHAP.
- Discussions were held on the caribou management plan, and approval was granted for polar bear population boundary delineation research in the Amundsen Gulf area.
Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Tuktoyaktuk HTC activities included the following:
- A worker was hired to harvest 500 geese for Elders, single parents and disabled members of the community.
- Members participated in the Husky Lakes Management Plan meetings, ILA Rules and Procedures meeting, Polar Bear Workshop, IHS workshops (two), reindeer operations public meeting with Kuññek Resource Development Corporation, Coney Management Plan Workshop,Marine Ecosystem Health Workshop and the Pingo Landmark Committee. In addition, a meeting was held with representatives of Petro Canada to discuss their future plans for exploration on the Mackenzie Delta.
- The IHS collection procedure was finalized. In the interim when the IHS was not operational, data collection of the numbers of harvested fish continued at the community's request.
- The last phase of the three-year cisco project was completed.
- CHAP funds were distributed to outpost cabin owners and community residents. A one-time payment of $100 per applicant (owning a snowmobile) was provided for subsistence harvesting of caribou and polar bears, and remaining funds were used for educational purposes.
5 Joint Implementing Bodies
5.1 Fisheries Joint Management Committee
Under section 14(61) of the IFA, FJMC provides advice to the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans on all matters affecting fisheries and the management of fish and marine mammals found in the ISR. FJMC works closely with government agencies, renewable resource user groups in the Inuvialuit communities and other renewable resource boards in Canada and Alaska that oversee common migratory stocks.
In keeping with the co-management philosophy of the IFA, consultation with local HTCs, IGC, and DFO and other government agencies formed an important part of the Committee's activities. In addition to holding five regular meetings, one special meeting and several teleconferences, the Committee held public meetings in Paulatuk and Sachs Harbour to discuss with hunters and fishers issues of concern related to fish and marine mammals, including current and planned FJMC projects.While in Paulatuk and Sachs Harbour, Committee members also visited the schools to explain to students, most of whom are beneficiaries of the claim, the Committee's role in renewable resource management. One of the regular meetings was held in Winnipeg at the Freshwater Institute to facilitate information exchange and project planning with the Department's scientific and management staff. The community meetings and the discussions with scientific staff, along with January and March planning sessions, comprise the essential elements in the Committee's annual work plan and budgeting cycle.
The Committee was active in numerous monitoring and research activities. The third year of a three-year project to evaluate the state of the cisco and herring populations in the vicinity of Tuktoyaktuk was completed and a final report is in preparation. Char monitoring was carried out at Holman, Paulatuk and Shingle Point, providing information to the community-based char fishing plans which have been implemented for the Hornaday and Kuujjua rivers near Paulatuk and Holman respectively.
The Committee provided support for the first year of the satellite telemetry program to monitor the movements of ringed seals which were tagged in the vicinity of Holman. It also worked with DFO and representatives of the GRRB and SRRB to develop an integrated fishery management plan for inconnu. Signing of this plan is scheduled for the summer of 2000. Since the quality of country foods continues to be a significant concern in the communities but information related to contaminants is often not accessible, the Committee retained an independent consultant to gather and collate all information related to contaminants in fish and marine mammals from studies carried out in or near the ISR.
In co-operation with the HTCs, the Committee continued to sponsor the beluga harvest-monitoring program.Whale monitors employed by HTCs are stationed in each of the active whaling camps within the ISR. They collect biological information from each whale harvested. Committee staff provided program and logistic support, co-ordinated the collection of any special samples and collated all data. With the goal of increasing the number of beneficiaries involved in the technical aspects of fish and marine mammal management, the Committee continued its Student Mentoring Program. Through the support of DFO staff, both in Inuvik and Winnipeg, and with financial assistance from the Brighter Futures Program, four high school students participated in office and field projects in the Inuvik and Aklavik areas.
In mid-September the Committee's long-planned Beaufort Sea Conference 2000 took place in Inuvik. Three and a half days of workshops and presentations brought Elders, school students and HTC representatives from the region together with Canadian and international scientists and managers to focus on the major issues facing the Canadian Beaufort Sea during the next decade. Co-sponsored by FJMC, DFO, the Arctic Institute of North America and the Aurora Research Institute, the conference provided a forum where 150 delegates, more than half of whom were from the six communities of the ISR, met to explore a variety of issues ranging from the effectiveness of co-management, and the application of new technologies such as satellite telemetry, to consideration of new tools for managing human impacts on ocean resources. The conference was judged to be highly successful.
In March, the Committee participated in the signing of the user-based Inuvialuit-Inupiat Beluga Whale Agreement. Under discussion for nearly 10 years and patterned after a highly successful polar bear agreement, the document commits the signatories to share harvest information, co-operate on research and management studies, share traditional and practical knowledge related to harvesting, and take a co-operative approach to their interactions with Eastern Beaufort Sea stock of beluga whales.
Twenty-four programs were conducted through joint efforts between DFO and FJMC. FJMC implementation funds totalled $856,300 in the year.
5.2 Wildlife Management Advisory Council - Northwest Territories
Established under section 14(45) of the IFA,WMAC-NWT's mandate is to advise appropriate ministers on all matters relating to wildlife policy and the management, regulation, research, enforcement and administration of wildlife, habitat and harvesting for the Western Arctic Region. It is the responsibility of the Council to prepare conservation and management plans and to determine and recommend harvestable quotas. The Council also reviews and advises the appropriate governments on existing or proposed wildlife legislation and any proposed Canadian position for international purposes that affects wildlife in the Western Arctic Region. The Council's geographic area of jurisdiction consists of that part of the ISR contained within the NWT. Its membership comprises three members appointed by the Inuvialuit, two members appointed by the GNWT, one member appointed by the Government of Canada and a chair. The chair is appointed by the GNWT with the consent of the Inuvialuit and the Government of Canada.
The Council focuses on the conservation of terrestrial wildlife species, including polar bears and birds. It provides a forum for resource users and regulators to discuss all wildlife matters pertaining to the Western Arctic Region. The Council works closely with IGC, the HTCs, the government agencies responsible for wildlife management in the ISR and the other co-management bodies established by the IFA.
Community Conservation Plans
A key activity of WMAC-NWT was to complete the updating of the six community conservation plans. A report on the March 1999 Community Consultation Plan Workshop was produced in April, 1999. Follow-up consultation with the community Conservation Plan Working Groups and redrafting of the plans were conducted. The revised plans will be released in print and CD-ROM format in the coming fiscal year.
Species Management Plans
WMAC-NWT has continued to put considerable effort into the development of species management plans for the ISR. The process involves close consultation between the wildlife management agencies and HTCs, with the Council providing direction and co-ordination. The Council approves and recommends management plans, often in association with resource management boards in adjacent land claim regions where species are of mutual concern.
The Co-Management Plan for Caribou,Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Snow Geese and Small Herbivores on Banks Island was completed, approved and released in March.
The Council approved the Bluenose Herds Management Co-operation Agreement with GRRB, SRRB and the Tuktut Nogait Board to establish an advisory and co-ordinating committee for the Bluenose-West and Cape Bathurst caribou herds.
Work continued on the following:
- the draft Bluenose Caribou Management Plan which details requirements for the maintenance of the Bluenose Caribou herd throughout its range. As the plan will affect four land claim settlement regions (Inuvialuit, Gwich'in, Nunavut and Sahtu), all of the wildlife management organizations representing these regions agreed that RWED, Inuvik Region should assume the lead role for the development of the plan;
- the draft Co-management Plan for the Fur Industry in the Inuvik Region, Northwest Territories, in co-operation with GRRB; and
- the draft Co-management Plan for Caribou,Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Eiders and Small Herbivores on Northwest Victoria Island, Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Northwest Territories.
Quotas for Wildlife Harvesting
WMAC-NWT recommended in June, that 25 commercial caribou tags be issued for the Barren-Ground Caribou Management Area 1/BC/04 (Dolphin and Union herd, Holman area). This was accepted by the Minister of RWED, and the necessary regulatory changes are forthcoming.
In December,WMAC-NWT recommended that there be no change to existing quotas for species under quota in the ISR, pending further assessment of polar bear and grizzly bear quotas in the coming year.
Commercial Harvesting of Wildlife
The commercial harvest of muskox on Banks Island was conducted in October and November. The community of Holman did not conduct a commercial harvest of muskox in 1999–2000. On Banks Island, 1,450 muskox were harvested, yielding approximately 215,000 kg of meat (streamline carcass), approximately 4,500 kg of raw qiviut (wool) and approximately 23,000 m2 of raw leather. The GNWT biologists collected samples from a large portion of the harvested muskox for the purposes of assessing the health and diet of the population. The Council will work with commercial harvesting interests on Banks Island and monitor their impact on muskox and caribou populations. Support and additional recommendations will be provided where appropriate.
Legislation Affecting Wildlife Management
In accordance with section 14(60)(f) of the IFA,WMAC-NWT reviewed and advised on proposed wildlife legislation. It continued to review and comment on the proposed federal Species at Risk Act.
Wildlife research is essential to enable WMAC-NWT to make decisions and recommendations on conservation and quotas.Wildlife research in the ISR is supported primarily by IFA implementation funds, as well as regular RWED and CWS expenditures and in-kind support. RWED and CWS propose research programs and priorities for the ISR based on continuing consultation with the HTCs. WMAC-NWT considers these proposals, sets priorities for IFA-funded research each year, and advises the agencies and IGC of its decisions. It also reviews and advises on wildlife research proposed by other agencies and supported by other funds.
Inuvialuit knowledge directs and informs wildlife research in several ways. The consultation process among RWED, CWS and HTCs assists in setting priorities regarding what research needs to be done and how best to do it.WMAC-NWT requires that such consultation has taken place prior to approving any research project and also requires assurance that research is conducted in a manner satisfactory to the HTCs. The Council considers the development, design, conduct and interpretation of research on the basis of both Inuvialuit and scientific knowledge.
WMAC-NWT approved the following wildlife research projects with implementation funds provided to RWED:
- Arctic Islands Peary Caribou, Muskox, Arctic Wolf: commercial muskox harvest, Banks Island; commercial muskox harvest, Northwest Victoria Island; Peary caribou, Banks Island range use; Peary caribou, Northwest Victoria Island range use;
- Bluenose Caribou: productivity; calving grounds habitat mapping; photo census; diet and forage quality; range use and movements; recruitment;
- Grizzly Bear: Inuvik and Paulatuk Local Knowledge Project; Population Estimate Studies Workshop;
- Polar Bear: South and North Beaufort Sea Viscount Melville, harvest monitoring; review of management agreements; South and North Beaufort Sea, population delineation.
Implementation funds were allocated to CWS for the following project:
- Inuvialuit Harvest Study; monitoring of snow geese habitat on Banks Island; impact of harvest on snow geese populations; analysis and write-up of existing data sets.
In addition to regularly scheduled meetings and teleconferences, the Council participated in a joint meeting with WMAC-NS and hosted a meeting with representatives of GRRB and SRRB. In June,WMAC-NWT convened a polar bear workshop in Inuvik to facilitate updating the polar bear population management agreements in the Western Arctic.
WMAC-NWT members attended 11 meetings, workshops and conferences throughout the year to assist the Council in adequately and knowledgeably fulfilling its mandate.
The Council continued to advise EISC with respect to selected development procedures.
The Council participated in the review of Kuññek Resource Development Corporation's application, Revitalization of the Western Arctic Reindeer Herd, before EIRB and provided ongoing advice to this Board.
The Council provided advice to federal ministers with respect to waterfowl management and the Government of Canada's position at the forthcoming 11th Convention of the Parties meeting of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species.
5.3 Wildlife Management Advisory Council - North Slope
WMAC-NS is the Yukon counterpart of WMAC-NWT and was established under section 12(46) of the Agreement. The Council provides advice to the appropriate federal or territorial minister on all matters relating to wildlife policy and the management, regulation and administration of wildlife, habitat and harvesting for the Yukon North Slope. The Council determines and recommends appropriate quotas for Inuvialuit harvesting of game in the North Slope and advises on measures required to protect habitat that is critical for wildlife or harvesting. The Council also provides advice on issues pertaining to the North Slope to the Porcupine Caribou Management Board, Yukon Land Use Planning Commission, EISC and EIRB.
The following is a summary of some of the major areas of WMAC-NS activities.
WMAC-NS facilitated the preparation of a draft Muskox Management Plan for the Yukon North Slope. This plan applies the IFA's conservation principles, addresses Inuvialuit harvesting rights, and meets the requirements of the Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan. One component of the plan is a recommended harvest quota for the Yukon muskox. This quota takes into account the Alaskan harvest of the muskox population which ranges across Alaska and the Yukon North Slope. Broader public consultation will be conducted in the upcoming year.
A meeting of Alaskan and Canadian representatives was held in Anchorage, Alaska to discuss the management of muskox across Alaska and the Yukon North Slope. This meeting was an important first step to co-ordinate efforts such as the sharing of harvest information, integrating survey methodology, and collaboration on co-management plans.
WMAC-NS supported and recommended funding for a muskox satellite and tracking project conducted by the YTG and Parks Canada.
The Council also recommended funding for a population survey and composition count. The goals of these projects are to estimate reproductive rates and calf survival, verify the results of the population survey and monitor the way animals use their territory throughout the year.
Grizzly Bear Management
The management of grizzly bears on the Yukon North Slope is of ongoing importance to the Council.WMAC-NS reconfirmed through resolution in May, a total allowable harvest of 10 bears and a harvestable quota of eight bears for the Yukon North Slope during the 1999–2000 hunting season. The remaining quota of two bears was transferred to the NWT portion of the Aklavik grizzly bear hunting area.
WMAC-NS continued to implement the actions identified in the Grizzly Bear Management Plan for the ISR which was prepared by the GNWT in 1998. WMAC-NS members participated in a Grizzly Bear Research and Management Workshop which was held in Inuvik in March to review the status of grizzly bear population information and, discuss methods of estimating population.
Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan
The Council initiated a review and update of the 1994 Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan. The Plan is intended to assist all parties concerned with meeting the objectives of wildlife conservation under the IFA. An internship position was developed to facilitate this process.Working closely with the chair, secretariat and Council members, the intern reviewed, developed and incorporated appropriate revisions to the draft plan through research and consultation. Parks Canada will integrate the Ivvavik National Park Ecosystem Management Plan into this Plan.
WMAC-NS, in conjunction with DOE, co-ordinated the fifth annual gathering of the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-operative2 a component of the national Ecosystem Monitoring and Assessment Network. The Council recommended funding for the fourth year of the Co-operative's Community Monitoring Program and for the development of ecological monitoring programs in Aklavik.
Amendments to the Yukon Wildlife Act
Regulations are now being considered for the recently amended Yukon Wildlife Act. The Council encouraged the continuation of the work conducted by the YTG in this important area and recommended IFA implementation funds for this purpose.
IFA – Funded Wildlife Research
WMAC-NS receives proposals for IFA-funded research projects related to wildlife management and ecological monitoring on the Yukon North Slope, consistent with the goals of the IFA and the objectives of section 12 of the Agreement. Once reviewed and discussed, the Council recommends the projects to the appropriate government for funding, and monitors the progress of all projects by requesting presentations and final reports from all agencies that receive funding. Projects recommended by the Council included Richardson Mountains Grizzly Bear Reproductive Rates, Porcupine Adopt-a-Caribou Program, IHS– Yukon North Slope, Yukon North Slope Land Use and Environment Atlas, Yukon North Slope Satellite Images and Poster Production, Herschel Island Vegetation Studies and the North Richardson Mountains Moose Survey.
Qiqiktagruk (Herschel Island) Territorial Park Management Plan
The Council continued to actively promote the review of the Qiqiktagruk (Herschel Island) Territorial Park Management Plan to. reflect the increase in visitor numbers and other issues not addressed in this 1991 document. These issues include garbage management, certain wildlife management issues, visitor access and improved economic opportunities for the Inuvialuit. The Council provided the YTG with a detailed description of items that need to be addressed in the review, based on the Council's discussions with the Aklavik HTC, the community of Aklavik, Herschel Park rangers and other interested parties.
Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research Plan
The Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research Plan was completed early in 1999. In January 2000,WMAC-NS held an implementation workshop in Whitehorse, with representatives from various federal, territorial and state government agencies, research institutions and the communities of Aklavik, Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk. A draft of the Guide for Researchers, a component of the Research Plan was developed. The Guide will be posted on the Plan's Web site once completed. A poster for use in conferences and a brochure were produced to promote the Plan.
Parks Canada and Ivvavik National Park
WMAC-NS has continued to work in partnership with Parks Canada on issues related to wildlife research, management and ecological monitoring in Ivvavik National Park. The Council worked closely with Parks Canada in the Park Management Plan review and actively supported the Parks Canada initiatives to ensure that a comprehensive clean-up occurred at the DEW Line site at Komakuk.
Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee
Through public gatherings and meetings with the Aklavik HTC Board,WMAC-NS provided information and exchanged ideas on the management of wildlife, habitat and Inuvialuit harvesting on the Yukon North Slope and ensured that the concerns of the Aklavik Inuvialuit were addressed in its decisions and actions.
WMAC-NS maintained its Web site.WMAC-NS continued to produce a newsletter,Wildlife Watch, to inform user communities of the Council's activities and provide updates on issues of community interest. Newsletters and fact sheets can be viewed on the Web site. The Council produced a poster of the Yukon North Slope which incorporates two Landsat images. This poster is a combination map and source of general information about the area's landscape and wildlife. It is an important educational tool which illustrates the regional, national and international significance of the Yukon North Slope.
In addition to four regular Council meetings and a teleconference, the WMAC-NS members attended a number of workshops, conferences and other meetings throughout the year.
5.4 Environmental Impact Screening Committee
The IFA requires the screening of developments and activities of consequence to the ISR that could have a significant negative impact on the environment or wildlife harvesting. Section 11(3) of the Agreement provides for the establishment of EISC. This Committee screens all development proposals within the ISR to decide whether they require environmental impact assessments. If so, the proposals are referred by the Committee to EIRB or other review bodies for a public environmental impact assessment.
EISC consists of seven members of which three are appointed by IGC, and three members are appointed by the Government of Canada from names submitted by each of the Government of Canada, the YTG and GNWT. The chair is appointed by the Government of Canada with the consent of IGC.
EISC screened 26 project descriptions, including projects associated with research (15), hydrocarbon exploration (4), clean-up of DEW Line sites (2), film production (2), mineral exploration (1), tourism (1) and land lease (1). Of these, all except the Kuññek Resource Development Corporation were determined to have no significant negative impact. The Kuññek development to revitalize the reindeer industry was referred to EIRB for further environmental assessment and review. None of the project descriptions examined by EISC was deemed deficient.
Community consultation is a vital element of the screening process. Submissions were circulated to the relevant HTCs for comment. The screening process for 96 percent of submissions required less than 60 days to complete. Fifty-eight percent of submissions were screened within 30 days of receipt.
EISC was informed of additional projects which were proposed for the ISR but which were exempt from the screening process. These included research projects that were exempt by virtue of having gone through the IFA co-management process with approval provided by IGC, the relevant HTC, WMAC-NS, WMAC-NWT or FJMC.
Presentations were received from Kuññek Resource Development Corporation (Reindeer Herding Operations Plan), Explor Data Ltd (proposed winter seismic operation), Petro Canada (proposed Mackenzie Delta Seismic Program 2000), EIRB (MOU between EIRB and the Minister of the Environment concerning Approvals for Substitution of Process), and Darnley Bay Resources Ltd (Darnley Bay Exploration Program Phase III – drilling program). During the year, EISC members attended or delivered presentations at 10 meetings, conferences and workshops.
EISC reviewed the following documents with respect to their inclusion of information relating to the IFA screening process, EISC activities and/or environmental implications of the documents:
- Report on the Draft Yukon Development Assessment Process;
- Interim Management Guidelines for Tuktut Nogait National Park;
- Ivvavik National Park Management Plan;
- ILA draft Rules and Procedures; and
- Updated Guide to the Inuvialuit Settlement Region for Mineral Prospectors and Developers.
Harmonization of Regional Environmental Assessment Processes, October
Following receipt of a letter from EIRB, EISC initiated discussions with EIRB and IRC concerning the environmental assessment process which would be followed in the event of a trans-boundary project.
Mineral Agreement, November – IRC and the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND)
For the third consecutive year, EISC did not conduct an annual review of mineral activities in the ISR. The Director of Mineral Resources, DIAND and IRC worked to resolve outstanding issues relating to the Agreement.
Inuvialuit Harvest Study, January – ongoing
The inability to place data from IHS on the public record raised the issue of whether EISC could carry out its tasks with due diligence. At year-end, the matter was still under discussion with IGC.
5.5 Environmental Impact Review Board
Established under section 11(18) of the Agreement, the Board is responsible for carrying out the public environmental review of development projects. EIRB recommends whether development projects should proceed and under what terms and conditions. EIRB also recommends measures to minimize the negative impact of projects on wildlife harvesting. If wildlife compensation is an issue, it recommends limits of liability for the developer.
As an environmental impact assessment and review body for any development referred to it pursuant to the IFA, EIRB is structured so that both parties to the IFA, the federal government and the Inuvialuit, are represented equally. Three members are appointed by the Government of Canada, three from IGC and a seventh member, the chair, is selected by the Government of Canada with the consent of IGC. Of the three members appointed by Canada, one is nominated by the YTG, one by the GNWT, and one by the Government of Canada.
The goals of the IFA directly relevant to EIRB operations are to ensure that the Inuvialuit are equal and meaningful participants in the environmental impact screening and review process, and to protect and preserve the Arctic wildlife, environment and biological productivity. During the year, EIRB was involved in the activities noted below.
Substitution of the Federal Review Process by the IFA Review Process
EIRB continued to correspond with the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) seeking substitution of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act review process by the IFA review process for developments of consequence to the ISR. These efforts culminated in the signing of the Memorandum of Understanding Between the Environmental Impact Review Board and the Minister of Environment concerning Approvals for Substitution of Process on 10 December 1999. The Agreement details the process that each party would follow should there be a request for substitution under section 43 of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. As a result of the Agreement, relevant developments in the ISR may be subject to one, rather than two, environmental review processes. It is a decision to be made by the Minister on a case-by-case basis. In addition to avoiding duplication, the Agreement allows for both EIRB and the Minister of DOE to fulfil their obligations under their respective legislation.
Review of the Guide to the Inuvialuit Settlement Region for Mineral Prospectors and Developers, September 1999
EIRB reviewed the draft Guide to the Inuvialuit Settlement Region for Mineral Prospectors and Developers and forwarded comments to IRC. The Guide was developed by IRC and the Mineral Development Division, DIAND to describe the steps and processes, including environmental assessment, that the mineral industry must go through when working in the ISR.
Beaufort-Mackenzie Mineral Development Area Web site, November 1999
EIRB has placed their Operating Procedures and other items of interest to developers on the Beaufort-Mackenzie Mineral Development Area Web site. This Web site is a joint project of RWED's Mineral, Oil and Gas Division; the Joint Secretariat and ILA. The site brings together mineral and petroleum resource information for the ISR and assists industrial proponents in drafting informed project descriptions.
The Kuññek Review, November 1999 – ongoing
In November, EISC formally referred a proposal by Kuññek Resource Development Corporation for environmental review by EIRB. The proposal is the fourth development to progress to the public review stage through the IFA environmental review process. Given the progress on finalizing the draft MOU between EIRB and DOE regarding substitution of the federal review process with an IFA review process, EIRB advised the Minister of DOE of the referral. The development was not referred for review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.
Kuññek Resource Development Corporation submitted a draft Environmental Impact Statement, titled Revitalization of the Western Arctic Reindeer Herd, in late February. Eighteen individuals and groups registered as participants of the review, which enabled them to receive and comment upon relevant documents. This review continued into the next fiscal year.
Five-Year Review of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, February–March 2000
EIRB participated in workshops held across Canada in conjunction with the five-year review of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The Board identified the parallel screening and review process that the Act establishes, and which may apply to the ISR, as their main point of concern. In addition, EIRB noted that the substitution agreement between EIRB and the Minister of DOE, pursuant to section 43 of the Act, permits the Minister to allow EIRB review process to substitute for the federal review process for relevant projects, but it does not guarantee that substitution would occur.
EIRB also submitted comments to ITC, which was to make a submission to the CEAA on behalf of Canadian Inuit.
Yukon Development Assessment Process,March 2000
EIRB continued to keep apprised on the progress of the Yukon Development Assessment Process.
EIRB held one meeting and four teleconferences throughout the year. The Board or staff attended approximately 20 meetings, workshops and conferences.
5.6 Joint Secretariat
The Joint Secretariat was incorporated as a society in 1986. Although it was not provided for under the IFA, the parties saw fit to establish the Joint Secretariat to provide funding, administrative and technical support services to IGC and the wildlife and environmental committees, councils and boards. It establishes and maintains working liaisons with Inuvialuit organizations, government, industry, the academic sector and other relevant agencies or organizations. The chairs of the five renewable resource committees – IGC, WMAC-NWT, FJMC, EIRB and EISC – constitute the Secretariat's members and directors.
The Board of Directors of the Joint Secretariat held two regular meetings and one annual general meeting in 1999–2000. Joint Secretariat staff continue to maintain a high level of liaison and co-operation with IRC. Involvement has largely been in the areas of existing and proposed environmental legislation, amendments to regulations, implementation of IHAP and matters concerning the ITC/Inuit Circumpolar Conference. A continuing major objective of both the Joint Secretariat and IRC has been to provide financial administration support and related infrastructure to the HTCs. This onus has led to the creation at the Joint Secretariat of an administrative support officer position which is supported by RWED from IFA implementation funds. The level of assistance required by other Joint Secretariat staff for HTC support has declined with the establishment of this position.
In addition to the direct committee-specific support provided by the Joint Secretariat staff, central service facilities are housed within its offices. These include the IHS and the Geographic Information System (GIS). The IHS is run by a program manager with overall direction from a management committee. The GIS is maintained and operated by a GIS specialist.
The IHSwas re-commenced in the last quarter of 1999–2000 after a decision the previous year to suspend data collection and terminate field worker employment as of January 31, 1999 for one year. It was revitalized according to the blueprint developed by the IHS Management Committee flowing from the community workshop.
The previous IHS co-ordinator position was reprofiled as a program manager and was subsequently filled. In addition, each HTC hired a field worker. These personnel, along with support from the HTC administrative support officer, were pivotal in allowing the datagathering process to resume expeditiously. A series of community posters, a pamphlet and a pocket calendar were produced. The IHS data base has been reviewed, harvest estimation completed and the methodology fully documented.
Continuing improvements to equipment, software, connectivity and information contributed to the ability in the Joint Secretariat to develop, produce and disseminate moderate volumes of both digital and paper copies of documents and maps.
The Web site to communicate relevant wildlife management information is being used in partnership with the Minerals, Oil and Gas Division, RWED.
All Joint Secretariat staff were heavily involved in the successful Beaufort Sea Conference.
6 Government of the Northwest Territories
Under the terms of the IFA, the GNWT is responsible for appointing the chairperson and the GNWT members as well as providing a secretariat for WMAC-NWT; providing the administrative and operational costs of IGC and the six community HTCs; designating a member to each of EISC, EIRB, RAC and the Arbitration Board; and providing the budget for the operation and maintenance of RAC. An agreement has been struck whereby the RAC funding is now provided to the Joint Secretariat for the provision of library services. The GNWT also allocates implementation funding to the Joint Secretariat for technical and administrative support to the various IFA boards.
6.1 Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs
Ministry officials worked closely with the GNWT program departments and the Joint Secretariat to promote effective administration of the GNWT implementation funding by co-ordinating the annual contribution agreement process and implementation audits, recommending funding re-allocations between approved implementation tasks and ensuring the timely carry-over of surplus implementation dollars to future years. The Ministry was also responsible for preparing the GNWT component of this annual report and finalizing a new ongoing funding instrument for the various implementation bodies.
Significant efforts were made by the Ministry in an attempt to resolve the long outstanding issues of general access to Inuvialuit lands and municipal requirements for Inuvialuit lands. These issues arise from the interpretation of sections 7(16) and 7(61) of the Agreement and the fact that the GNWT infrastructure such as airports, solid waste sites and water pumping stations are on Inuvialuit lands. Access to, and use of, these sites are now in dispute. The Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development has agreed to explore the land exchange option should the Inuvialuit and the GNWT agree to pursue this option. The Inuvialuit and the GNWT have agreed to meet to discuss land exchanges, based on a set of principles, as a means of resolving the municipal lands needs.
The Ministry participated in three meetings with Inuvialuit, the YTG and federal government officials to discuss outstanding implementation issues. The IFA ICC has provided a positive forum for addressing and resolving, in some cases, long outstanding implementation issues.
6.2 Resources,Wildlife and Economic Development
RWED worked closely with IRC and the Inuvialuit communities, encouraging Inuvialuit participation in employment opportunities and economic self-sufficiency. The Department provided business advice, counselling and support and assisted Inuvialuit businesses and individuals in accessing financial support from various sources.
RWED was an active participant in the evaluation of the economic measures provisions under section 16(3) of the Agreement. RWED worked with all appropriate Inuvialuit organizations on the creation of a new NWT Wildlife Act that incorporates land claim agreements and species at risk legislation.
The Department also worked closely and co-operatively with IGC, WMAC-NWT and the local HTCs on all matters regarding wildlife management in the ISR.Wildlife studies were a significant part of RWED's operations, with progress achieved on the following.
Inuvialuit Harvest Study
RWED continued to support the IHS which was overseen by a management committee comprising the chairs of the co-management boards and representatives from the communities and sponsoring agencies.
Banks Island Caribou and Muskox
Composition surveys were done in June and July to obtain calf/cow and yearling/cow ratios for caribou on Banks Island and muskox on the southern third of the island. Samples were collected from hunter harvested caribou to determine age, diet and body condition of adult male caribou on Banks Island.
Work continued on completing reports for the grazing impact, the forage quantity and distribution, the snow conditions at caribou and muskox feeding craters, and the diet of caribou and muskox on Banks Island. Other ongoing work concerned the completion of the habitat classification map for the island.Maps showing the movements of nine satellite radio-collared female caribou on Banks Island were prepared regularly and sent to the Sachs Harbour HTC,WMAC-NWT and IGC.
The Department attended the commercial muskox harvest held in Sachs Harbour. Approximately 1,100 animals were sampled to determine age, sex and body condition, and to assess the prevalence of tapeworms, lungworms and abomasal parasites in the animals harvested. The uteri of all female muskox aged two years and older were collected to determine reproductive status and breeding dates. Digital photographs of all parasites, diseases and abnormalities of muskox observed at the harvest were taken and provided to Agriculture Canada. The Department has initiated studies in co-operation with the universities of Saskatchewan and Fairbanks to obtain baseline data on abomasal parasites and to assess reproductive physiology.
Northwest Victoria Island Caribou
Work was undertaken to deploy satellite collars on Minto Inlet caribou. However, no caribou were located on the Minto Inlet winter range.
Melville Island Caribou
Composition surveys were done in July 1999 to obtain calf/cow and yearling/cow ratios.
Barrenground, Arctic Island and Peary Caribou Genetic Study
Tissue samples collected from the Porcupine, Bathurst, Dolphin and Union,Minto Inlet, Banks Island and Melville Island herds and those that calved on the Cape Bathurst Peninsula, the western Melville Hills and the headwaters of the Rae and Richardson rivers were analysed. Results of the analyses indicated that there are three genetically different caribou herds within the range of the Bluenose Caribou herd. Results of the study also indicated that Banks Island and Minto Inlet caribou are more closely related to those on Melville Island, while the Dolphin and Union caribou are more closely related to those on the mainland. The results of the study were presented to the communities and at the 10th Arctic Ungulate Conference in Norway.
The fourth year of the satellite tracking program was completed. Maps showing the location and movements of the satellite-collared caribou were provided on a regular basis to the 12 user communities and wildlife co-management boards. This project was co-funded by GRRB, SRRB, Nunavut Wildlife Management Board and Parks Canada. Results of DNA analyses and data from the satellite tracking program have indicated that there are three herds within the range of the Bluenose Caribou herd, including Bluenose-East, Bluenose-West and Cape Bathurst.
Sixty collars were deployed on Cape Bathurst and Bluenose-West caribou in preparation for a photocensus in summer 2000. Late winter recruitment surveys of the two herds were completed. This work was co-funded by GRRB, SRRB and Parks Canada.
The results of a study comparing the heavy metal content in the kidneys of Bluenose and Banks Island caribou were accepted for publication.
Grizzly Bear Local Knowledge Study
RWED worked with the Inuvik HTC to document current local knowledge on grizzly bears in their area. This activity included surveying Elders and people who are active on the land. The survey results will be analysed during 2000–2001.
Richardson Mountains Grizzly Bear
Radio-collared female grizzly bears were located in June to determine their reproductive status. The sex and age composition of the grizzly bear harvest was monitored. GRRB and WMAC-NS assisted with project funding.
Grizzly and Polar Bear Harvests
The grizzly and polar bear harvests, and problem bear occurrence/kill data bases for the Inuvik Region were maintained. Quotas and harvest information for each community hunting area were reviewed. Results of the review were presented in the annual Summary of Harvest Data for Species Under Quota in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region report prepared for WMAC-NWT and WMAC-NS. Posters showing the number, sex and kill sites for grizzly bears and polar bears harvested each year during the GNWT quota years 1994–1995 to 1998–1999 were prepared and sent to the HTCs, IGC,WMAC-NWT and WMAC-NS.
Polar Bear Management Agreements
A workshop was held to update the polar bear management agreements for the South, North and Viscount Melville populations.With the co-operation of WMAC-NWT, draft management agreements were prepared and distributed to the communities for review.
Skulls and carcasses purchased from hunters and trappers on Banks and Northwest Victoria Islands were analysed to determine age, sex, incidence of disease, diet and general body condition of harvested wolves. The information was summarized and included in the draft multi species co-management plans for these areas. Tissue samples collected from these wolves were sent to the University of Alberta for DNA analysis. DNA analyses of tissue samples collected from wolves on the mainland and arctic islands were completed and a paper summarizing the results was submitted for publication.
Work was initiated to assess the prevalence of parasites in Dall's sheep in the Richardson Mountains.
Work continued on the following management plans:
- the draft Co-management Plan for Caribou,Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Snow Geese and Small Herbivores on Banks Island, ISR, NWT. The draft Plan was recommended by the Sachs Harbour HTC,WMAC-NWT and IGC. The Plan will be available in early summer 2000;
- the draft Co-management Plan for Caribou,Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Eiders and Small Herbivores on Northwest Victoria Island, ISR, NWT;
- the draft Co-management Plan for the Fur Industry in the Inuvik Region, NWT; and
- the draft Co-management Plan for the Bluenose Caribou Herd, NWT.
The Legislation Division of the Department of Justice completed various amendments to the wildlife regulations to meet the community needs within the ISR.
The Legal Division continued to contribute to the ongoing implementation of the IFA by providing legal assistance in a variety of areas, particularly land usage and access.
7 Yukon Territorial Government
The Yukon Secretariat of the YTG is responsible for administrative requirements related to the appointment of the chairperson and a Yukon member to WMAC-NS, and the designation of a member to each of EIRB, EISC and the Arbitration Board. The Yukon Secretariat is also responsible for overseeing Yukon's implementation obligations under the IFA and managing implementation funds for participation on the above-mentioned boards and committees, ongoing wildlife research on the Yukon North Slope and the Qiqiktagruk (Herschel Island) Territorial Park.
7.1 Wildlife Projects
A moose survey was conducted in the northern Richardson Mountains and adjacent Yukon Coastal Plain in March 2000. This area was previously surveyed in March 1989 as part of a Wildlife Management Program. A co-operative re-survey of the area involving the Aklavik HTC, Parks Canada (Inuvik National Park) and the YTG was completed this year to provide a current estimate of moose abundance to be used in future assessments of the moose population status.
A total of 445 moose were counted in the survey area, an increase of 67 percent over a similar survey count in 1989. Of the total moose observed, 175 were mature cows, 174 were mature bulls (for a ratio of 99 bulls per 100 mature cows), 74 were calves (40 calves per 100 mature cows) and 22 were adults (sex unconfirmed).
The Porcupine Caribou Adopt-a-Caribou Program continued. All original satellite collars were replaced with new transmitters that will last for three years. Maps of locations continue to be faxed and the Web site, continues to be updated.
The Muskox Ecology Study, initiated in 1998, is a co-operative project with the Aklavik HTC and Parks Canada (Ivvavik National Park). Ten satellite collars were purchased and deployed on eight cows and two bulls in April. The information from the collars will be added to the information already gathered on the muskox population and will be used to calculate various estimates, including calf production and survival rates. This study will end in March 2001 when the collars are scheduled to be removed.
Herschel Island vegetation studies also began in 1998 with fieldwork by soil and plant specialists. In 1999, the new territorial park rangers were trained to use the terrain and vegetation map (produced in 1989) to locate and record wildlife sightings on an ongoing basis. This season, the field crew noticed significant changes in the vegetation during this work. In July, some ground truthing of the terrain and vegetation map was completed, and an International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) site was established to track long-term changes in vegetation.Work in the summer of 2000 will confirm these vegetation changes, and a permafrost monitor will be installed.
The YTG was also involved in and contributed funds to a number of projects which were administered by other agencies. Contributions were made to the following:
- the IHS (Joint Secretariat);
- the Yukon North Slope Land Use and Wildlife Atlas (WMAC-NS);
- the Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research Plan (WMAC-NS);
- the Yukon North Slope Satellite and Slide Image Poster (WMAC-NS);
- the Richardson Mountain Grizzly Bear Cub Productivity Study (GNWT);
- the Grizzly Bear Management Plan for the ISR (GNWT); and
- the Muskox Management Planning meeting in Anchorage, Alaska (WMAC-NS).
7.2 Legislative Review
The YTG began work to identify operational directives, policies and regulations that will require amendments to bring them into conformity with the IFA. This is a continuation of the initiative to ensure conformity of Yukon legislation with the Agreement.
Inconsistencies previously identified during the development of the Yukon Wildlife Act amendments were compiled and distributed to the working group for review. Legal counsel was then retained to work on a draft summary of conflicts and inconsistencies in the wildlife regulations. Work on this project will continue into 2000–2001.
7.3 Brochure – Aboriginal Harvesting Rights Along the Dempster
An information brochure was released in July to inform Aboriginal harvesters of their subsistence rights and responsibilities along the Dempster Highway. As it included a section on the Porcupine Caribou herd, the brochure summarized the rights and responsibilities of the Inuvialuit and Yukon First Nations in this area.
7.4 Qiqiktagruk (Herschel Island) Territorial Park
The review of the Herschel Island Territorial Park Management Plan was initiated in the spring of 1999. Preliminary discussions focused on the method of the Inuvialuit consultation and it was determined that the WMAC-NS would be the primary contact point to obtain input. In addition, the YTG would also consult with IGC and the Aklavik HTC. Over the following winter, a scoping document outlining the process and listing the initial issues was prepared with the involvement of the Inuvialuit. It is expected that the majority of the review including the public review component and plan revision will be completed in the 2000–2001 fiscal year.
Three new rangers were hired for the 1999–2000 season.With the requirement for additional training, programs such as Parks Day, Career Days and the Elder Host Program did not take place this season. These programs will resume in the near future.
Although only one cruise ship stopped at Herschel, a decline from previous years, total visitation levels were slightly higher and were estimated at between 700 and 800 people.
The Heritage Branch continued to carry out routine maintenance work on the historic buildings, and repaired the damage sustained in 1998 from a polar bear. All buildings have been stabilized and now require only cyclical maintenance such as routine painting and repairs.
8 Government of Canada
8.1 Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
Implementation Branch (IB) serves as a liaison on IFA implementation issues for the Inuvialuit, territorial governments and other federal government departments. Its activities include:
- negotiating and monitoring funding arrangements with various
implementing bodies having obligations under the IFA and monitoring
federal implementation activities to ensure compliance with the
land claim agreement;
- processing the Canada, the GNWT and YTG appointments to the
Arbitration Board, EIRB and EISC; and
- managing the discussions on proposed amendments to the IFA and publishing the annual implementation report of the IFA ICC.
The Director General of IB serves as the Canada member to the IFA ICC, and the Director of Implementation Management acts as the Canada alternate.
The Branch participated in three meetings of the IFA ICC and was involved in a variety of IFA implementation activities.
- A "rolling" status report was developed. This report, which is maintained
by IB on behalf of the IFA ICC, contains updates from all
parties. It is distributed to all members and participants and includes
reference to responsible parties/offices.
- The Branch participated with other DIAND representatives (Audit
and Evaluation Branch, NWT regional office), the GNWT and IRC in the Section 16 Review Working Group.
- Discussions were continued with IRC regarding amendments to
- The Branch obtained approval from Treasury Board to replace the
contribution agreement method of flowing funds to bodies created
under land claim agreements with a Flexible Transfer Payment
instrument. This implementation-friendly transfer mechanism
addressed two major concerns of the contribution agreement
approach: the inability of implementing bodies to carry over funds
from one fiscal year to the next and the termination clause.
- Work continued on the development of a detailed IFA implementation
status report. This document is being prepared by a consultant
and is expected to be completed in 2000–2001
- The Branch co-ordinated the production of the first annual report of the IFA ICC.
Northern Affairs Program
The Northern Affairs Program (NAP) administers legislation concerning the disposition and use of Crown lands, inland waters, the offshore, non-renewable resources and overall environmental protection within the NWT, Nunavut and Yukon.
NAP responsibilities include administering and monitoring a funding agreement that supports the activities of the Joint Secretariat, EISC and EIRB. During 1999–2000 additional funding was provided to allow EIRB to carry out an environmental impact assessment and review of a project proposal submitted by the Kuññek Resource Development Corporation regarding the revitalization of the reindeer industry in the Beaufort Delta. A draft Environmental Impact Statement was submitted by the company to EIRB in February. NAP is participating in the review of this project, most of which will be carried out in 2000–2001.
NAP administers implementation funding for conducting granular (sand and gravel) inventories. The recent renewal of interest in the region's hydrocarbon potential and proposals for pipeline and highway construction have necessitated reviews of granular resource demands and the overall potential of the region to meet public, community and industrial requirements for granular resources. Two new contracts were initiated during the year:
- to update the granular resources demand model and prepare a new
forecast of future granular demands as required by the IFA; and
- to evaluate methods for determining granular resource potential using geographic information systems and apply this to developing an understanding of granular resource values for selected lands in the ISR.
This work will continue in 2000–2001 and beyond as plans further evolve for new hydrocarbon and infrastructure development in the ISR. Granular resource potential, inventories of granular supplies and future granular demands will require integration with other landrelated information within land information systems to develop a regional granular resources management plan for the ISR.
Northern Oil and Gas Directorate
The Northern Oil and Gas Directorate routinely engages in environmental consultations with IGC prior to offering onshore and offshore lands to the oil and gas industry. Environmental information obtained from IGC greatly assists DIAND in identifying and confirming environmental sensitivities within the ISR. This information is carefully considered by the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development prior to offering Crown lands to the industry.
In addition to a December IGC meeting in Inuvik, discussions took place with the Aklavik HTC in January concerning the environmental sensitivity of the Mackenzie Bay/Shallow Bay area, prior to offering ISR Crown lands.
Land Administration is responsible for the administration of the surface and sub-surface of Crown lands within the ISR. In a review of the IFA pursuant to section 7(72) which sets out that (1)(b) title to land be granted to the Inuvialuit of equal value to the Pingo Canadian Landmark site, this exchange was identified as still outstanding. Working with Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) in Edmonton, the NWT Region identified several parcels which will require a land exchange to ILA under the IFA and the B&C Airports Transfer Agreement. In support of section 7(106), a request was made to all departments listed in Annex R of the Agreement for an update on the status of the sites. Those sites under DIAND's name that were inspected and identified as environmentally clean are now in the process of being removed as an encumbrance against Inuvialuit title. DIAND is working with the Inuvialuit Land Titles Office of the GNWT and Justice Canada on this initiative.
Mineral Development Division
The Mineral Development Division consults with the Inuvialuit on an annual basis as required by the Mineral Prospecting Agreement. A report on the results of this consultation was not completed during the period of this report. However, consultation meetings were held in March. Consultation attempts in 1999 were hampered by poor weather conditions.
The Division worked with the IRC to complete a booklet entitled, A Guide to Developers in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region.
Also under the Mineral Prospecting Agreement, the Mining Lands Division sends information on the ISR to all prospecting permit holders and both new and renewed prospecting licences. Information on the ISR is included in the annual guidelines for prospecting permit applicants. The package that is sent to both prospecting licence holders and prospecting permit holders includes caribou protection measures, ISR environmental sensitivity maps, an issues and guidelines statement, a covering letter that outlines requirements for activities conducted in the ISR and the benefit guidelines.
Seventy-five mineral claims were recorded within the ISR during the year. There were no active Canada mining leases and no prospecting permits were issued.
Economic Activity Funding
The Inuvialuit CEDO continued to be a full participant in DIAND's CEDO funding program. This program provides $370,684 annually to fund activities to address economic and employment objectives within the ISR. As well, IRC is consulted on all economic development initiatives applicable to the Inuvialuit.
The Inuvialuit Regional Development Corporation (IRDC) was provided with a contribution of $25,000 from the Resource Access Negotiations Program to negotiate a mineral concession agreement with Darnley Bay Resources and Falconbridge.
As part of the federal Youth Employment Strategy, IRC was provided with a contribution of $114,300 to implement the following three programs within the ISR.
- First Nations and Inuit Science and Technology Camp Program.
This Program promotes science and technology as career choices by
supporting science camps which provide Inuit youth living in recognized
communities with first-hand experience in various science and
- First Nations and Inuit Summer Student Career Placement Program.
This Program supports opportunities for career-related work experience
and training during the summer months to in-school Inuit
youth living in recognized communities.
- First Nations and Inuit Work Experience Program. This Program supports/promotes supervised work experience for out-of-school unemployed Inuit youth in community services, community businesses, or other work experience that will contribute to their employability in an enriching and fulfilling way.
In support of advancement of the governance capacity of Inuvialuit community corporations and associated community-level claim organizations, IRDC was provided with $200,000 from the Professional Development Program of Gathering Strength initiative.
Maps produced by the NWT Region were reviewed to ensure there was no reference to the proposed Nelson Head National Landmark.
DIAND's Waste Program provided approximately $212,000 to assess and remediate a DDT-contaminated site, and $22,000 for the removal of approximately 50 kilometres of barbed wire from an old reindeer fence and the dismantling of an old radio tower.
DIAND's Northern Contaminant's Program (NCP) provided $40,000 to staff the position of an Inuvialuit Regional Contaminants Co-ordinator to address general contaminant issues within the ISR, and approximately $17,000 to assess contaminants in fish. The Inuvialuit are also represented on the NWT Contaminants Committee and the NCP supported the representative's attendance at in-person meetings and at national workshops.
The NWT Region sent a representative to participate in each of the IFA ICC meetings held during the year.
In September 1996, a self-government negotiation Process and Schedule Agreement was signed by Canada, the GNWT, the Gwich'in and the Inuvialuit. Negotiations continued during 1999–2000 on draft sub-agreements intended to form parts of a Beaufort Delta Self- Government Agreement-in-Principle. Various DIAND branches which did not participate directly in these negotiations were consulted regularly by the Chief Federal Negotiator and officials of the Self- Government Branch.
8.2 Department of Fisheries and Oceans
DFO is responsible for making policy and regulatory changes to accommodate Inuvialuit rights concerning the harvest, trade, transport and co-management of fish and marine mammal resources in the ISR, and for support to FJMC. Implementation funding has been provided to augment wildlife study programs. DFO is promoting the principle of co-operative management of the fisheries resources in the ISR, with full co-operation of the Inuvialuit. In accordance with section 14(61) of the IFA, FJMC assists the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans in the management of fisheries and gives advice to the Minister on matters relating to the ISR.
Canadian Coast Guard provided the Aids to Navigation Service on the Mackenzie River in the ISR from June 5 to approximately mid- October.Within the ISR, positions changed on 10 navigational aids. The following land administration activities occurred.
- Cancellations of two reserves (land sites) were requested. These
reserves underwent environmental inspections during the summer.
- New applications were submitted to ILA for the continued use of
10 land sites which have been reserved for over 10 years.
- Fourteen sites for navigational requirements had applications for reserves submitted and were pending.
There are three sites which fall within the land set aside by Order in Council #1979-1154 for a reindeer grazing reserve. These sites have no hazardous materials and pose no threat to the reindeer.
8.3 Department of the Environment
DOE, through CWS, is represented on the wildlife management advisory councils which deal with all significant wildlife issues in the ISR. CWS is a member of WMAC-NWT and WMAC-NS, and provides technical input into the IHS. The information gathered during the study is intended for use in wildlife management, for calculating a compensation regime for loss of wildlife and habitat caused by industrial development in the ISR, and for determining the subsistence wildlife use and requirements of the Inuvialuit.
In co-operation with the Inuvialuit, CWS is carrying out a number of studies of migratory birds in the ISR. These studies will help guarantee that populations are not over-harvested and that the habitat on which the birds depend receives adequate protection. During the past year, studies of migratory birds focused on the populations and habitat of snow geese, the most heavily harvested species of migratory birds in the ISR.
Long-term data were analyzed and summarized in order for this information to be used for wildlife conservation purposes.
8.4 Canadian Heritage
Parks Canada is responsible for the protection of natural and cultural resources, including the wildlife populations and habitat of the two national parks in the ISR, Ivvavik National Park, in the western portion of the North Slope; and Aulavik National Park, on Banks Island.
The Pingo (Canadian Landmark) National Historic Site (NHS) is located six kilometres south-southwest of Tuktoyaktuk. Included within its boundaries is the largest pingo in Canada and a number of others at different stages of evolution. Created over a number of years, a pingo is an ice-cored mound produced when ice grows in or below permafrost as a result of water pressure.
The agreement to create the Pingo NHS is contained in section 7(70) of the IFA. Legislation passed in 1996 led to the creation of the Pingo NHS. A working committee including representatives from Parks Canada and several community organizations in Tuktoyaktuk was established to guide the development and presentation of the site. This working committee continued the drafting of a management plan for the Pingo NHS which is near completion.
An educational brochure has been distributed to the general public. In addition, a three-dimensional model of Ibyuk Pingo has been made for educational and interpretation purposes.
National Park Regulations
Consultations are ongoing with IGC on a public consultation process to discuss required amendments to the National Park Regulations to ensure that they conform to the IFA.
Inuvialuit Employment Strategy
The majority of employees in Ivvavik National Park are Inuvialuit beneficiaries. An Inuvialuit employment strategy is currently being developed by Parks Canada. As part of this initiative, discussions were held with IRC regarding the retention and promotion of Inuvialuit beneficiaries.
Nelson Head Canadian Landmark
A decision was taken not to proceed with the establishment of a landmark at Nelson Head. This decision was communicated to IRC.
The MOU with DND for the clean-up of the BAR-1 DEW Line site at Komakuk Beach was signed by Parks Canada. The first year of cleanup was completed successfully in 1999 and planning for a second year is under way.
8.5 Public Works and Government Services Canada
Pursuant to section 16(18) of the IFA, PWGSC continued to provide opportunities to bid on government contracts by advertising procurement opportunities on the government electronic tendering system (GETS) and by notifying all claimant groups of procurement of goods, services and construction destined for the IFA.
Assistance and information on the procurement process were provided as requested, as well as information on contracts.Whenever practical and consistent with sound procurement management, evaluation criteria were included in tenders to maximize socio-economic opportunities for claimant groups.
8.6 Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
On March 9, the Government of Canada announced an MOU between EIRB and the Minister of DOE concerning Approvals for Substitution of Process. The MOU outlines how the environmental assessment process of EIRB may be substituted for a panel review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.
The MOU details the process and steps each party should follow in the event EIRB requests such a substitution. Project-specific agreements will be concluded by both parties on a case-by-case basis whenever they deem it appropriate. The MOU respects both the environmental assessment requirements established by EIRB under the IFA and those for panel review and substitution of process as set out in the Act. It is consistent with the federal government's intention to develop and support environmental assessment regimes under various land claim settlements. This harmonization arrangement will benefit the Inuvialuit, Canada and the private sector by reducing uncertainty and unnecessary duplication.
8.7 Human Resources Development Canada
HRDC has an obligation to support the IFA and the Inuvialuit's selfgovernment aspirations through its existing programming, the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Strategy, and to maintain an ongoing regular dialogue with the Inuvialuit with respect to their operations and activities under the Strategy.
The AHRDA negotiated between HRDC and the Inuvialuit is a five year (1999–2004) contribution agreement through the Strategy that enables the Inuvialuit to design and deliver Strategy programs and services to their communities. Annual funding totals $1,946,737 which includes $297,000 in funding for the Inuvik Works project.
HRDC officials in the NWT communicate with Inuvialuit AHRDA officials frequently to discuss operational issues, clarify and define various clauses of the AHDA and provide advice on implementing aspects of the Agreement. A Human Resources Centre of Canada (HRCC) office is located in Inuvik which provides employers and job-seekers information on available programs and services provided by HRCC and HRDC.
8.8 Department of National Defence
Canadian Forces Northern Area Headquarters communicated frequently with IRC and local communities, as required, in advance of Junior Canadian Ranger, cadet and southern-based Canadian military-unit training exercises.
Most exercises performed were in the form of Ranger patrols, Junior Ranger programs and cadet corps activities. Current strengths are as follows:
Each patrol conducts Ranger training annually. Each exercise lasts two weeks and consists of a training phase within the local community followed by a four-day exercise in the local area. Training is focused on Ranger skills, training skills and life skills. Exercises are conducted in different areas each year. For 1999–2000, the following Ranger exercises were scheduled:
8.9 Natural Resources Canada
Pursuant to section 7(7) of the IFA, Canada has completed all surveying activities for Inuvialuit lands through the activities of Natural Resources Canada. The final activity, the adjustment area survey, was carried out and the plan recorded in the Canada Lands Surveys Records. The plan is registered with the Land Titles Office, GNWT. The Inuvialuit may now convey the excess area and request certificate of title for their lands.
Appendix 1 - Map of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region
Financial Compensation Schedule of Capital Transfer Payments
Annex N of the IFA outlines the capital transfer payments which were made to the Inuvialuit on the last business day prior to December 31 of each of the following years and in the following amounts:
Cumulative Costs of Implementation 1984–1985 to 1999–2000
* These funds represent funds allocated for implementation purposes, as actual expenditure figures are not available.
Appendix 4 - Membership of Implementing Bodies as of March 31, 2000
Inuvialuit Regional Corporation Board
Inuvialuit Land Administration Commission
Inuvialuit Development Corporation Board
Inuvialuit Investment Corporation Board
Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee
Inuvialuit Game Council
Fisheries Joint Management Committee
Wildlife Management Advisory Council - NWT
Wildlife Management Advisory Council - North Slope
Environmental Impact Screening Committee
Environmental Impact Review Board
Joint Secretariat, Inuvialuit Renewable Resource
*Joint Secretariat provides secretariat services to IGC, FJMC, WMAC-NWT, EISC, EIRB. The secretariat for WMAC-NS is located in Whitehorse: (Aileen Horler, secretary).
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