Archived - Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee - Annual Report 2000 - 2001
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Table of Contents
- Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
- Summary of Agreement Provisions
- Inuvialuit Regional Corporation
- Arbitration Board
- Inuvialuit Wildlife Management Structures
- Joint Implementing Bodies
- Government of the Northwest Territories
- Yukon Government
- Government of Canada
- Appendix 1: Map of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region
- Appendix 2: Schedule of Capital Transfer Payments
- Appendix 3: Cumulative Costs of Implementation 1984-1985 to 2000-2001
- Appendix 4: Membership of Implementing Bodies (as of March 31, 2001)
The Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee (IFA ICC) is pleased to provide its third annual report on the implementation of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) (1984). This report covers the fiscal year from April 1, 2000 to March 31, 2001.
The IFA ICC was formally reconstituted on May 11, 1999, and comprises a senior representative from the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC), the Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC), the Government of the Northwest Territories (GNWT), the Yukon Government (YG) and the Government of Canada. Additionally, each member of the IFA ICC has an appointed alternate member who may participate on the IFA ICC in the member's absence. The Committee has agreed to reach decisions unanimously among the relevant parties and serves as a forum where parties can raise issues and voice their concerns.
The role of the IFA ICC is to monitor the ongoing obligations of the parties pursuant to the IFA and resolve issues arising with respect to the implementation of the IFA. This annual report describes achievements and developments during the year. Information is contributed by various federal and territorial departments, the IRC, the IGC and other stakeholders to the Agreement.
Progress is being achieved within a relationship defined by mutual respect and a commitment to fulfil the obligations set out in the Agreement.
- Inuvialuit Corporate Group realized an aftertax
income of $52.5 million in 2000. Profits
from 1999 were shared with all beneficiaries
through a $568,258 disbursement in May made
under the terms of Inuvialuit Corporate Group's
distribution policy, resulting in each beneficiary
receiving a payment of $184.98.
- In February, the Inuvialuit oil and gas rights
on Inuvialuit lands near the communities of
Aklavik, Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk were offered
to industry through an open bid process. Leases
with a total cash payment of $75.5 million were
accepted by the IRC and ratified by the respective
- An investment of $21,450,000 was made in the
Inuvialuit heritage fund. The moneys came
from the Inuvialuit Land Corporation through
the payments made on the grant of petroleum
and natural gas concessions on Inuvialuit
- The Northwest Territories (NWT) Aboriginal
Pipeline Group was established by Aboriginal
organizations along the proposed Mackenzie
Valley pipeline route to allow collaborative
work and pursuit of collective interests on the
proposed development. The IRC chaired this
group and provided professional support.
- Comprehensive cooperation and benefits
agreements were negotiated by the IRC with oil
and gas companies exploring for natural gas
within the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR).
These agreements will ensure the full participation
of Inuvialuit beneficiaries in all oil and
gas employment, training and business opportunities
in the ISR.
- Working closely with the Paulatuk Community
Corporation and Paulatuk Development
Corporation, the IRC's Community Economic
Development Office arranged for the construction
of a $4 million Parks Canada visitors'
centre, community store and hotel complex.
- The IRC doubled its human resources and land
management staff in response to the massive
increase in workload from the return of oil
gas exploration to the region.
- The IRC/Gwich'in Tribal Council selfgovernment
negotiations advanced strongly
throughout the year with the majority of sub
agreements concluded and an agreement-inprinciple
(AIP) anticipated before the end
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC)
entered into discussions with representatives
of the Aboriginal Summit of the NWT, of which
the IRC is a member, and with the GNWT to
seek consensus on how to advance the devolution
to the NWT of federal legislative powers,
programs and responsibilities for management
of land, waters and natural resources (onshore)
in the NWT.
- Fifty-three applications were received for
use of Inuvialuit lands ranging from diamond
and hydrocarbon exploration, to environmental
clean-ups, to residential leases.
- The Sachs Harbour Climate Change Project
involving the Sachs Harbour Hunters and
Trappers Committee, the IGC, the Joint
Secretariat and the International Institute
for Sustainable Development was completed.
The community of Sachs Harbour was featured
in a video on global warming produced by
the International Institute for Sustainable
Development, entitled Inuit Observations on
- The Sixth Yukon North Slope Conference was
held as per the terms of the IFA, and brought
together beneficiaries, government and industry
to discuss wildlife management on Yukon's
North Slope. The theme for this 2000-2001
conference was "The Challenge of Change."
- The Wildlife Management Advisory Council-
NWT released final revised versions of the
six community conservation plans.
- The Wildlife Management Advisory Council-
North Slope prepared the draft Yukon North
Slope Research Guide, a component of the
Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research and
Monitoring Plan, as a resource document for
both researchers and communities.
- Activities related to the management of the
muskox population on the Yukon North Slope
included the drafting of the Muskox Management
Plan for the Yukon North Slope and a meeting
between Alaskan and Canadian representatives
to discuss the management of muskox across
the Alaska and Yukon North Slope.
- The Environmental Impact Screening Committee
screened 41 project descriptions, including
developments associated with research (17),
hydrocarbon exploration (15), mineral exploration
(3) clean-up of Distant Early Warning
(DEW) sites (1), film production (1), tourism
(1) an application for a private land lease (1),
Parks Canada national parks management document
(1) and relocation of a water-gauging
station (1). The Committee determined that 37
of the developments would have no significant
negative impact. None of the project descriptions
was deemed to have the potential for
significant negative impact. Four project
descriptions were found to be deficient.
- A joint project was initiated by the
Environmental Impact Screening Committee
and the Environmental Impact Review Board to
develop cumulative assessment guidelines for
use by the Committee, Board and developers.
- Environmental Impact Review Board recommendations
stemming from its public environmental
review of the Kuññek Resource
Development Corporation's proposal
"Revitalization of the Western Arctic Reindeer
Herd" were forwarded on December 1, 2000 to
the relevant government authorities competent
to authorize the development.
- The position of Hunters and Trappers Committee
(HTC) administrative support officer was
established by the Joint Secretariat to address
the increasing need for support at the community
- The draft Co-management Plan for Caribou,
Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Snow Geese and Small
Herbivores on Banks Island, ISR, NWT was recommended
by the Sachs Harbour Hunters and
Trappers Committee, Wildlife Management
Advisory Committee-NWT and the IGC. The
Plan will be available in early summer 2001.
- The YG finalized the preliminary scoping document
related to amending the Yukon Wildlife Act
regulations. The scoping document was
provided to the IGC in December 2000.
- A public review of the Herschel Island Territorial
Park Management Plan was undertaken by the
Yukon Department of Renewable Resources.
Following public meetings in April 2001, it is
expected the final Plan will be distributed
- The Integrated Fisheries Management Plan for the Inconnu of the Lower Mackenzie River, a management plan for shared fish populations, was signed.
The IFA was brought into force and effect by the Western Arctic (Inuvialuit) Claims Settlement Act in 1984.
1.1 Land Ownership
The Agreement provides the Inuvialuit with fee simple absolute title to about 91,000 square kilometres of land in the Western Arctic (NWT). This area includes approximately 13,000 square kilometres on which the Inuvialuit have title to surface and subsurface rights. The Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR) includes the North Slope of Yukon, the eastern half of the Beaufort Sea and the associated mainland, part of the Arctic Ocean, Banks Island, much of the western part of Victoria Island and some of the Parry Islands (see map, Appendix 1).
1.2 Eligibility and Enrolment
An enrolment authority composed of one federal government and two Inuvialuit representatives was initially established to enroll those who were entitled to be registered as beneficiaries of the Agreement. Ongoing enrolment authority is now a responsibility of the IRC.
1.3 Financial Compensation
Under the provisions of the IFA, the Inuvialuit received a total of $152 million over 14 years, ending in 1997. The Agreement also provided for one-time payments, made in 1984, of $7.5 million to a fund to assist the Inuvialuit in social development and $10 million to the Economic Enhancement Fund.
1.4 Economic Measures
Section 16 of the IFA addresses economic development in the ISR. Its broad objectives are focussed on Inuvialuit participation in the northern Canadian economy and the integration of Inuvialuit into Canadian society through development of an adequate level of economic self-reliance and a solid economic base. Since 1984, the Economic Enhancement Fund and compensation payments have helped the Inuvialuit become more actively involved in the local economy and make long-term investments that will provide a solid base for future development.
1.5 Inuvialuit Corporations
Under subsection 6(1) of the IFA, the IRC holds overall responsibility for managing the affairs of its corporate subsidiaries and achieving the goals outlined in the IFA. Its ongoing functions and formal obligations are:
- implement the land claim agreement;
- fulfil the role of institutional representative of
the Inuvialuit; and
- be the parent corporation to, and monitor of, the Inuvialuit Corporate Group.
The IRC is directly controlled by the six community corporations in the ISR through their elected chairs. The directors of the community corporations elect the chair of the IRC. The chair of the IRC and the chairs of the six community corporations comprise the IRC Board.
The Inuvialuit Land Corporation (ILC) owns and holds responsibility for Inuvialuit lands received under the IFA. The Inuvialuit Development Corporation (IDC), Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation (IPC) and Inuvialuit Investment Corporation (IIC) carry on business activities and invest settlement funds on behalf of the Inuvialuit.
1.6 Wildlife and Environmental Co-management
Within the ISR, the Inuvialuit have extensive wildlife harvesting rights. They also have a mechanism for settling their claims against developers for actual harvest losses and for providing compensation or remedial measures as required.
The Agreement established structures to ensure Inuvialuit participation in wildlife management, conservation and environmental protection in the ISR. These structures include communitybased Inuvialuit Hunters and Trappers Committees and the IGC which has representation from each HTC.
The Agreement also established five joint advisory bodies that have equal government and Inuvialuit representation.
- The Environmental Impact Screening
Committee (EISC) assesses whether proposed
developments require detailed environmental
- The Environmental Impact Review Board
(EIRB) carries out public reviews of development
proposals deemed necessary by the EISC.
- The Fisheries Joint Management Committee
(FJMC) advises the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans on matters relating to fisheries and marine mammals in the ISR.
- The Wildlife Management Advisory Council - NWT (WMAC-NWT) advises government and other appropriate bodies on wildlife conservation
matters in the NWT portion of the settlement region.
- The Wildlife Management Advisory Council- North Slope (WMAC-NS) advises government and other appropriate bodies on wildlife conservation matters in the Yukon North Slope.
A joint secretariat was subsequently created to provide technical and administrative support to four of the five joint advisory bodies. The WMAC-NS receives implementation funding which is administered through the YG for administration and operations.
1.7 Arbitration Board
The Arbitration Board was established under section 18 of the IFA to provide a mechanism to arbitrate disputes between the Inuvialuit and the governments of Canada, the Northwest Territories or Yukon, as well as between the Inuvialuit and industry. The Arbitration Board has three members appointed by the Government of Canada, including designations by the governments of the Northwest Territories and Yukon. Industry, represented by the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), and the Inuvialuit each appoint three members to the Board. The chair and vice-chair are appointed by the Government of Canada with the concurrence of the Inuvialuit and industry.
The year 2000 was one of opportunity, challenge and growth throughout the Inuvialuit Corporate Group with the impacts of large-scale natural gas exploration were felt throughout all Inuvialuit communities [Note 1]. The IRC played a major role in representing and advancing Inuvialuit interests on a broad range of national, territorial and community initiatives. Heavy demands were placed on the political leadership and staff of all members of the corporate group with the sacrifice of personal time and energy the norm rather than the exception.
Financially, 2000 was a very successful year for the corporate group with a year-end after-tax income of $52.5 million. Under the terms of the IRC's distribution policy, these profits will be shared with all beneficiaries over 18 years of age in May 2001. This represents a very significant increase from 1999 where profits of $5.6 million resulted in a $568,258 disbursement of $184.98 to each beneficiary in May 2000. In large part, the increase in profits between 1999 and 2000 can be attributed to the significant revenue from oil and gas concession payments.
2.1 Inuvialuit Lands
The IRC recognized that a window of opportunity was opening for oil and gas exploration in the ISR and that the time was right to put Inuvialuit oil and gas rights out to bid. In February 2000, following extensive work by the IRC Oil & Gas Working Group, Inuvialuit lands near the communities of Aklavik, Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk were offered to industry through an open bid process. Bids with a total cash payment of $75.5 million were accepted by the IRC and ratified by the respective community corporations. On August 1, 2000, concessions were signed with Chevron Canada Resources for the Inuvik #1 and #2 blocks, with Petro Canada for the Tuktoyaktuk #2 block and with Anderson Resources for the Tuktoyaktuk #3 block. All concessions are for an initial 10-year term with two five-year renewals. They include a mandatory work program, the option for Inuvialuit buy-in on discoveries, royalty payments and the guarantee of employment, training and business opportunities for Inuvialuit beneficiaries.
With the increased management responsibilities resulting from these concessions and other exploration activities on Inuvialuit 7(1)(b) lands, more Inuvialuit Land Administration (ILA) staff were required to handle the additional workload. One casual and two full-time positions were added, two in Tuktoyaktuk and one in Inuvik. The need for environmental monitoring on all exploration projects resulted in a significant number of employment opportunities for beneficiaries throughout the winter season. Two-week courses in Tuktoyaktuk and Aklavik provided 44 beneficiaries with training in environmental monitoring with the majority of these obtaining employment with either the ILA or seismic program contractors.
There were 53 applications for use of, or access to, Inuvialuit lands during 2000. Over $2.6 million was raised through land use permits, leases and other land use payments. The larger of these included exploration activities by Darnley Bay Resources in the Paulatuk area, 2D and 3D seismic programs in the Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk areas, and the bio-remediation of hydrocarboncontaminated soil at Saviktok Point on the east side of Tuktoyaktuk Harbour.
Significant advances were made in resolving the long-standing issue of the disposal of materials coated with polychlorinated biphenyl amended paint from abandoned Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line sites. The Department of National Defence will start with the removal of the materials temporarily stored at Shingle Point to southern Canada during the summer of 2001. The ILA also participated extensively in the review of specifications and risk assessment elements ofDEW Line clean-up operations at Komakuk Beach, Shingle Point and Clinton Point.
2.2 Inuvialuit Business Corporations
Inuvialuit Development Corporation
The IDC's consolidated profits of $1.7 million surpassed the $1.6 million of the previous year.
Inuvialuit Environmental & Geotechnical Inc. had an excellent year and benefited directly from increased exploration activity in the region. It promises to be a significant contributor to the profitability of the IDC in coming years.
Pan Arctic Inuit Logistics, which with Atco Frontec is responsible for the operation and maintenance of the North Warning System, continued to provide good cash returns to the IDC. This venture, comprising the four Inuit groups in Canada, is being restructured to provide for greater participation by the Inuit partners.
The past year brought a new focus to the IDC as it positioned itself to take advantage of emerging opportunities in the ISR and elsewhere in the NWT.
- The IDC committed more than $25 million to
three arctic drilling rigs with Akita Drilling.
The first rig, built for Petro Canada, began
drilling in the first quarter of 2001.
- The IDC made significant investments in Arctic
Oil and Gas Services, a company that supplies
camps and catering to the oil and gas industry
in the Mackenzie Delta.
- Inuvialuit Northern Logistics was incorporated
to get oil and gas equipment from anywhere in
the world to Inuvik.
- Inuvialuit Oilfield Services Inc. has been
established with Schlumberger Canada to provide
reservoir development, evaluation, and
management products and services to the oil
and gas industry in the region.
- The IDC acquired a majority interest in Dowland Contracting Ltd.
- In December, the Yellowknife Super 8 Hotel opened for business.
These companies will be large generators of income and cash in 2001 and beyond.
The year brought significant changes to NorTerra, the IDC's largest investment, with new leadership and a renewed northern focus. The human resources and career development office was moved from Edmonton to Yellowknife to better serve NorTerra's shareholders.
Among the NorTerra operating companies, North Transportation Company Ltd. experienced increased profitability from an active oil and gas sector. Weldco-Beales, a major manufacturer of attachments for heavy equipment, produced higher than budgeted profits. This was the result of the robust United States market and the acquisition of Weldco USA. Air NorTerra had a transitional year with considerable effort directed at adjusting to the changes resulting from the Air Canada takeover of Canadian Airlines. Air NorTerra remained profitable but high fuel costs, increases in operations contract costs and flight code problems in the fourth quarter reduced the expected level of profitability. SRI Homes profit margins tracked closely to budget. Subsequent to year-end, SRI Homes was sold.
The IDC has laid the foundation for a higher level of profitability with new businesses focussed on the opportunities at home and older businesses revitalized by the developing economy.
Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation
The NWT monitored its existing business interests and ensured the security of its significant investment portfolio for future opportunities. Despite limited activity, the NWT realized a modest profit of $600,000 during the year. This compared favourably with 1999 losses of $4.1 million and 1998 losses of $5.2 million. The NWT's business operations were limited to the Ikhil joint venture and Inuvik Gas Ltd. The NWT owns a third interest in these operations. The Ikhil joint venture delivers natural gas from the wells at Ikhil, 50 kilometres north of Inuvik, to the Northwest Territories Power Corporation in Inuvik and to Inuvik Gas Ltd. Inuvik Gas Ltd. owns and operates the natural gas distribution system in Inuvik. As 2000 was the first full year of these operations, a full cash flow was not yet realized, and a small loss was incurred due to the amortization of capital costs.
The company has a significant portfolio of marketable securities managed by the IIC,, which realized over $2.0 million in 2000, contributing all the earnings for the company.
The short-term strategy of the company is to operate the Ikhil and Inuvik gas facilities and hold the marketable securities pending an opportunity to participate in discoveries on Inuvialuit lands within the next one to five years.
Inuvialuit Investment Corporation
Income from the IIC, performed well ahead of budgeted projections with a profit of $6.5 million and an improvement over 1999 of $500,000.The increased earnings reflect gains on the sale of securities from the portfolio as managers repositioned the mix of investments in the course of exercising their mandate.
The market value of the Corporation's assets declined slightly to $140 million at the end of 2000. After good growth through the first three quarters of the year, equity markets in North America and abroad declined in the final quarter. As a result, the portfolio managed an overall return of only 4.9% for the year. The reduction in holdings of Nortel Networks shares before the sharp fall in October helped avoid the larger drop in value experienced by many funds. Continuing uncertainty in the markets, particularly relating to technology and telecommunications stocks and the slowdown of the United States economy, indicates further declines through 2001.
The Board continued to monitor closely the performance of the portfolio managers and took action to replace RT Capital Management with Aurion Capital Management and McLean Budden.
A significant event for the IIC, following year-end was the addition of assets totalling $21,450,000. These funds represent the fulfilment of the commitment to restore the heritage fund to the level it would have been at, had it grown at the targeted rate from the beginning. The funds came from the ILC through the payments made on the grant of petroleum and natural gas concessions on Inuvialuit lands. This investment in the heritage fund will ensure these proceeds will be preserved and available to work for future generations of Inuvialuit.
2.3 Community and Beneficiary Support
In meeting the challenges associated with the expansion of oil and gas exploration within the ISR, the IRC Board approved six new staff positions in the spring. This resulted in doubling the employment and training division, establishing a central information clearing house and, a manager of cooperation and benefits agreements, and hiring additional ILA staff.
The IRC's efforts to ensure the full participation of Inuvialuit beneficiaries on all oil and gas employment, training and business opportunities met with considerable success through the negotiation of comprehensive cooperation and benefits agreements with oil and gas companies exploring for natural gas within the ISR. After a long and extensive consultation process, new Inuvialuit business eligibility criteria were approved by the IRC Board in September. Supplemented by a review of all existing Inuvialuit businesses, these criteria will ensure all businesses on the Inuvialuit businesses list have an acceptable level of Inuvialuit involvement and are not shams or fronts for non-beneficiaries. The maintenance of this list will be an ongoing priority for the IRC.
Several initiatives were taken during 2000 to ensure beneficiaries were provided with information on the fast-changing economic environment within the ISR.
- A workshop attended by 42 directors in Inuvik
in early February provided an overview of oil
and gas activities, including a future natural gas
pipeline. The details of the oil and gas concessions
on Inuvialuit 7(1)(a) lands were presented
as well as an update on Beaufort Delta selfgovernment
negotiations. A presentation on
corporate governance and understanding
financial statements was made by
- Meetings were held throughout the year with
the Inuvialuit business community to obtain
their input and advice on oil and gas related
business matters. Employment and training,
and contracting sub-committees were established
with representatives from the IRC,
communities and industry to advance
ongoing issues related to natural gas economic
- Throughout the year, beneficiaries were provided with printed information on both oil and gas, and regular Inuvialuit Corporate Group activities through IRC newsletters and information memorandums to community corporations. This flow of information has now been supplemented by a dedicated ISR oil and gas newsletter.
Two major community economic projects were strongly supported by the IRC through the efforts of the Community Economic Development Organization (CEDO) and other IRC staff.
- Working closely with Paulatuk Community
Corporation and Paulatuk Development
Corporation, construction of a $4 million Parks
Canada office and visitors centre, store and
hotel complex began in the summer.
- Following a successful commercial muskox harvest near Sachs Harbour in the fall of 1999, the CEDO office made major strides in product development and marketing, research and business plan development which would ensure the ongoing economic success of this emerging industry.
2.4 Community Development Division
The Community Development Division (CDD) continued to tailor its programs to reflect the priorities outlined in the IRC business plan. The CDD was actively involved with the Inuit Tapirisat of Canada (ITC) in accessing funds from the Government of Canada to implement new health related programs and develop an Inuit-specific approach to all federal health initiatives. The CDD also established a strong Inuvialuit presence on territorial and national health committees, ensuring long-term benefits to the overall health of Inuvialuit living in the ISR, as well as in urban centres outside the region.
At the same time, the IRC continued to participate in developing an Inuit Action Plan between the Inuit and the Government of Canada. Priorities focussed on income and employment, education and training, health, housing and language. The core principle of the plan advocates an Inuitspecific approach to all federal programs, policies and initiatives.
Inuvialuit have been invited to participate in national policy and program development exercises for various national programs, including the First Nations and Inuit Mental Health Framework, the First Nations and Inuit Canada Prenatal Nutrition Program, the Fetal Alcohol Syndrome/Fetal Alcohol Effects National Framework, the Home and Community Care Program, the Aboriginal Diabetes Initiative, injury prevention and health data/information systems.
Inuvialuit Human Resources
The total amount spent on employment and training initiatives exceeded $1.4 million. Major projects supported this year included year one of the Natural Resources Technology Program, the Criminal Justice Program, adult basic education (through the NWT Training Centre), the University College Entrance Program, and Career in Trades and Technology. The Computer Based Training Program, continued to be offered to beneficiaries.
Oil and gas employment opportunities within the ISR increased the number of beneficiaries seeking assistance from the human resource office. Employment and training officers worked directly with industry to coordinate recruitment tours to find potential Inuvialuit employees.
Efforts were made to bring together all regional agencies whose interests or programs had an impact on employment and training in the ISR.This is becoming more formalized through involvement and membership on the Regional Training Committee.
Inuvialuit Education Foundation
The Inuvialuit Education Foundation provides incentives to Inuvialuit to continue their studies at all levels of education. This support is provided in five specific areas: tutoring, post-secondary supplementary funding, scholarships, student incentive trips and the Summer Camps Program. A review of current programs has been conducted which will result in recommendations to the IRC Board for changes and improvements for 2001.
Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre
The Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre continued its efforts in the revitalization of Inuvialuktun by financially supporting language camps in all six communities. The Centre also made funding available to all communities for local language programming. Highlights of the year included the trip Paulatuk's youth drummers and dancers made to the World's Fair in Germany, the performance of Aklavik's drummers and dancers in Barrow, Alaska, the publication of the Siglit dictionary and a book entitled Reindeer Days Remembered, a contribution to Pauktuutit in the production of a video on fetal alcohol syndrome.
Child Development Centres
With funds from the Government of Canada and the GNWT, the Inuvialuit Child Care Program continued to work with each community in the ISR. The regional office provided administration, support and training to the programs in each community. Funding provided by the Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre has enabled each program to hire an Inuvialuktun speaking staff member.
The IRC goal in delivering staff training is to secure consistent, quality employees who have an understanding of early childhood growth and development with knowledge of the best practices for programming for children and the community. As this is an ongoing process, the regional training coordinator continued to focus on the delivery of training and support for all members of the Inuvialuit Child Development Program staff. Highlights included the annual National Association for the Education of Young Children meeting in Sitka, Alaska, the brain development workshop in Edmonton and an early childhood conference in Yellowknife.
Community Wellness Programs
Community Wellness continued to access funds from Brighter Futures, the Canadian Prenatal Nutrition Program and the Urban Multi-Purpose Aboriginal Youth Centres. Brighter Futures requires a community plan at the beginning of each year as the major goal is to provide longterm planning and to begin the evaluation of community wellness programs.
A regional youth coordinator position was established to work with the smaller communities by meeting with local youth groups and providing assistance if required.
2.5 Territorial and National Affairs
Despite increasing demands from the oil and gas industry, the IRC maintained a strong presence within national and international Inuit organizations and ensured Inuvialuit interests were represented in all territorial and federal initiatives that might affect Inuvialuit rights or lifestyle. The more significant of these included the Species at Risk legislation development, integrated management and marine protected areas under the Oceans Act, protected areas strategies, the Yukon Development Assessment Process (YDAP) and the coordination of regulatory processes.
The IRC maintained communication with federal ministers throughout the year, pursuing and moving several outstanding issues forward. Included in these efforts were the core funding of Inuvialuit organizations, the provision of Inuvialuit identification cards, the establishment of the ISR Water Board, the clean-up of contaminated sites within the ISR and the direct flow of Aboriginal-specific funding from the Government of Canada to the Inuvialuit. These and other issues were advanced by the IRC and the IGC throughout the year at regular IFA ICC meetings with representatives of the governments of the NWT, Yukon and Canada.
Self-government negotiations proceeded at a steady pace guided by the strong coordination and negotiating efforts of the Beaufort Delta self-government negotiations office. After over four years of effort, the majority of sub agreements have been concluded. It is anticipated that an agreement-in-principle (AIP) will be reached by the summer or fall of 2001. This will occur only after detailed presentations have been held in each Inuvialuit community and approval given to the AIP by the boards of community corporations and the IRC.
In looking forward to the possibility of a Mackenzie Valley pipeline, the IRC recognized the need for the major Aboriginal organizations along the likely pipeline route to work together to identify and pursue their collective economic interests. This goal has been advanced through the establishment of the NWT Aboriginal Pipeline Group. By chairing and providing professional support to this organization, the IRC has played a very significant role in advancing this unique economic opportunity for the NWT Aboriginal community.
2.6 The Year Ahead
The IFA has given the Inuvialuit the means to ensure they will be full participants in the many economic opportunities which have begun and, if the Mackenzie Valley pipeline becomes a reality, will continue for decades into the future. The IRC and the business members of the Inuvialuit Corporate Group have worked diligently to provide beneficiaries with employment, training and business opportunities where ever oil and gas industry conducts its activities in the ISR. This will continue as one of the IRC's primary goals for 2001 and beyond.
The IRC will also play an active role in ensuring the social impacts associated with economic benefits are recognized and given adequate attention by the IRC and governments.
The Arbitration Board convened one meeting in March 2001. The purpose of this meeting was three-fold and included the introduction of new members to the Board, the final approval of the Inuvialuit Arbitration Tribunal Rules of Procedure, and receipt of expert advice from outside counsel. This counsel advised on the role of the arbitrator and the function of the Board as a quasi-judicial, unbiased and fair body.
4.1 Inuvialuit Game Council
The IGC represents the collective Inuvialuit interests in wildlife. It derives its mandate from subsection 14(74) of the IFA. The IGC works in parallel with the IRC to implement the IFA. The IGC is responsible for upholding and administering Inuvialuit harvesting rights recognized under the IFA. The Council also has the mandate to represent the Inuvialuit in all matters related to renewable resource management in the ISR.
The IGC appoints Inuvialuit representatives to all the joint wildlife and environmental comanagement bodies established under the IFA and, with the consent of the IGC , the Government of Canada selects the chairpersons for these groups. In addition to its responsibilities under the IFA, the IGC acts as the regional representative of Inuvialuit hunters, trappers and fishers.
The IGC is made up of a director and an alternate from each of the six HTCs. The chair is elected by the six IGC directors.
Many older pieces of government legislation do not reflect the harvesting rights of the Inuvialuit, which are established in the IFA. The IGC provided ongoing input into various territorial and federal acts and regulations to ensure consistency with the IFA. This included:
- representation on the Wildlife Act Aboriginal
Advisory Group to provide input into the
amendments to the NWT Wildlife Act;
- representation on the Species At Risk Act
Aboriginal Working Group; and
- consultation with the governments of Yukon
and Canada regarding concerns about the possible
duplication of environmental impact
screening on Yukon's North Slope under the
One highlight of the year was the Sixth Yukon North Slope Conference. Under the terms of the IFA, this conference is held every three years for beneficiaries, government and industry to discuss wildlife management on Yukon's North Slope. The theme in 2000-2001 was The Challenge of Change. Attendees discussed some changes that have taken place on the North Slope since the signing of the IFA, as well as current and future challenges. A review of the Berger Inquiry and post-IFA periods was particularly relevant due to the current increase in oil and gas exploration activities in the Beaufort Delta.
The IGC and the HTCs met with oil and gas company representatives and consultants regarding proposed projects and the wildlife and environmental management processes under the IFA. The pace of oil and gas activities increased dramatically during the year, and is expected to continue at this rate over the next few years. This has created concerns in the communities as to whether they have the capacity to deal with many seismic projects at the same time. The HTCs identified the need for more assistance to enable them to comment to the EISC on these project submissions, and for more training programs for additional wildlife monitors who work in the field helping seismic crews avoid bear dens, muskrat push-ups, trap lines and other sensitive wildlife and harvesting areas.
One area of discussion by the IGC and the comanagement bodies is how to assess the cumulative impacts of this exploration activity in the delta. The Council participated on the steering committee working on the Cumulative Environmental Assessment and Management Framework (CEAMF) for the NWT and the Mackenzie Valley Cumulative Impact Monitoring Program Working Group. Discussions to deal with the cumulative effects within the ISR have focussed on thresholds, wildlife research gaps and prioritizing research to address these gaps.
The roles of the IGC , co-management bodies and HTCs in wildlife and environmental management under the IFA were discussed at the Joint Secretariat roles and responsibilities workshop. Topics included respective mandates under the IFA, how to avoid duplication of effort and how to make the most efficient use of time and resources.
The impacts of global warming are expected to occur earlier in the year and be more extreme in the circumpolar north, with effects such as less multi-year sea ice, rising sea levels and melting permafrost. The community of Sachs Harbour was featured in a video produced during the year, Inuit Observations on Climate Change. Residents spoke about the impacts already seen in and around their community. The video was produced by the International Institute for Sustainable Development (IISD).
The IGC 's activities were reported in articles in the new Joint Secretariat newsletter, the JS Bulletin, which is sent to beneficiaries twice a year.
4.2 Hunters and Trappers Committees
Subsection 14(75) of the Agreement provides for the creation of HTCs. An HTC has been established in each of the six Inuvialuit communities (Inuvik, Aklavik, Tuktoyaktuk, Holman, Paulatuk and Sachs Harbour). Administrative and operational costs of the HTCs are the responsibility of the GNWT.
Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Aklavik HTC's activities included the following.
- Members worked with the Department of
Fisheries and Oceans and the FJMC to establish
the West Side Charr Working Group. They also
are participating with DFO in a three-year
- The successful annual Beluga Whale Monitoring
Program was conducted in the summer, although
the harvest was very low. The monitors had
additional responsibilities to record aircraft
flights in the Shingle and West Whitefish areas.
Two community members conducted index net
- The HTC was involved in various management
plans, including the proposed muskox management
- Board members and one youth selected to participate
attended the Sixth Yukon North Slope
Conference in Whitehorse.
- Work continued on the documentation of traditional
knowledge as a result of concerns that
the implanted species of muskox interferes
with caribou. The finalized documentation will
be sent to interested parties including the IGC .
An objective is to use this document as a tool
in the proposed muskox gathering in the spring
- Caribou from Tuktoyaktuk was distributed to
widows and single families. Due to the increasing
demand by community members, assistance
will be sought from the local Community
Corporation and the Elders' Committee.
- A request was made to Shell Canada to investigate the West Channel as a clean-up site.
Olokhaktomiut (Holman) Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Olokhaktomiut HTC activities included the following.
- Members assisted with charr monitoring, seal
monitoring and seal tagging.
- Members participated in the caribou survey,
and sport hunts for muskox, caribou and polar
- The HTC took part in the Tahiryuak Lake Charr
Project and the Fish Lake Charr Project.
- Assistance was given to 10 harvesters through the Community Harvesters Assistance Program (CHAP).
Inuvik Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Inuvik HTC met monthly to deal with ongoing issues, land-use applications, and general information and assistance to the public, corporate bodies and oil and gas companies. Other activities included the following.
- The HTC obtained approval of a $10,680 proposal
to Brighter Futures for the Trapper
Training Land Skills Program. Three instructors
were hired, each bringing three students
out on the land for 10 days.
- A proposal was submitted to Brighter Futures
for the annual caribou harvest. The requested
amount of $7,637.90 was approved. Ten hunters
and four students were selected for the harvest.
The Department of Resources, Wildlife and
Economic Development (RWED) of the GNWT
paid an additional $50 per caribou to the
hunters for samples.
- Eleven of 30 applications were approved under
the Inuvialuit Harvesters Assistance Program
(IHAP) at a total cost of $48,000.
- Eighty percent of the interviews for the Inuvialuit
Harvest Study (IHS) were completed.
- The Inuvik HTC resource person attended the
Beluga Monitor Workshop and visited with the
whale monitors at East Whitefish Station.
- Gas, 26 pails of muktuk and some dried fish
were distributed to Elders and families in need.
- Eighteen wildlife monitors were hired.
Paulatuk Hunters and Trappers Committee
Paulatuk HTC activities included the following.
- Members coordinated the Charr Monitor
Project and the Beluga Whale Monitoring
Program. Recommendations on the beluga
monitoring were sent to the FJMC.
- Interviews were conducted with community
members with respect to RWED's Wolverine/
Grizzly Bear Local Knowledge Project;
- Gas was distributed to caribou harvesters
through CHAP funding.
- Seven people were assisted under IHAP.
Sachs Harbour Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Sachs Harbour HTC activities included the following.
- The HTC requested (and received approval for)
a land use permit for snow geese habitat work,
snow geese banding to survey non-game birds
and radio marking of King Eider ducks.
- Assistance through IHAP was given to ten harvesters
for capital equipment and one harvester
- Members reviewed the video footage on climate
change in Sachs Harbour before its release to
the public. Two persons were hired to conduct a
survey on the project, and one translator was
hired from the community.
- Six Norway Island population polar bear tags
and eight North Beaufort polar bear tags were
allocated to the Banks Island Big Game Hunt
- Biological samples were collected for RWED.
- Assistance to 27 persons with CHAP funding
- Approval was given to the Northern Contaminants
Program application to study contaminants in
- Members distributed meat from nine caribou to those in need in the community.
Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Tuktoyaktuk HTC activities included the following.
- Members met with Gulf Canada regarding seismic
work in the summer.
- Members attended the Beluga Monitoring
Workshop. The Beluga Whale Monitoring
Program was completed.
- Harvest information was collected for the IHS.
- CHAP funding was distributed through a onetime
payment of $100 for whaling and caribou hunting, and a one-time payment of $150 for polar bear hunting (subject to availability of
- The HTC participated in consultation meetings
with Chevron, Anderson Exploration, Shell,
Explor Data Ltd., and Anderson Resources.
- A meeting was held with Petro Canada to discuss
the quarry licence applications for Devil's
Lake and Swimming Point.
- Members attended the self-government workshop.
5.1 Fisheries Joint Management Committee
Under subsection 14(61) of the IFA, theFJMCprovides advice to the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans on all matters affecting fisheries and the management of fish and marine mammals found in the ISR . The FJMC works closely with government agencies, renewable resource user groups in the Inuvialuit communities and other renewable resource boards in Canada and Alaska that oversee common migratory stocks
Implementation funds to support the Committee's operations, provided through a contribution agreement with DFO, totalled $341,900. A second contribution agreement for $90,000 provided support to the IHS.
Consultation and Planning
In keeping with the co-management philosophy of the IFA, consultation with local HTCs, the IGC and DFO, and other government agencies formed an important part of the Committee's activities. In addition to holding five regular meetings, one special workshop on hydrocarbon development in the ISR and six teleconferences, the Committee held public meetings in Inuvik, Aklavik and Tuktoyaktut to discuss with hunters and fishers, concerns related to fish and marine mammals, and research priorities for the ISR .One regular meeting was held in Winnipeg at DFO's Freshwater Institute to facilitate an information exchange and project planning with the Department's scientific and management staff.The process by which theFJMC sets research priorities and develops a work plan is unique among Inuvialuit co-management bodies.Community meetings in November, discussions with scientific staff at the Freshwater Institute in February and Committee planning sessions in February and March all comprise the essential elements in the Committee's annual work plan and budgeting cycle. The Committee is developing a vision statement that will stand as a strategic plan over the next decade.
Research and Monitoring
The Committee was active in numerous monitoring and research activities. A total of 24 projects were conducted through joint efforts of the FJMCand DFO. The Charr Monitoring Projects in Paulatuk and Holman were continued. These provide information for existing community based charr fishing plans which have been implemented for the Hornaday and Kuujua rivers near Paulatuk and Holman respectively.In support of the Hornaday River plan, the Committee continued to contribute to a baseline water quality and quantity monitor project for the river system. TheFJMC allocated funds to set up and support a working group that will develop a new community-based fishing plan covering numerous fish species and a range of North Slope/West Side rivers from the Big Fish River west to the Fish Creek near the Alaskan border.
This West Side Working Group includes representatives from the Aklavik HTC, theFJMC, DFO and Parks Canada. At its first meeting held in Aklavik in January, terms of reference for the group were developed.
In recognition of the importance of coregonids to subsistence fishers in the Beaufort Delta, the Committee contributed to a traditional knowledge project to identify spawning areas within the ISR and supported early-stage public consultations required for the development of a future broad whitefish integrated fisheries management plan.
In accordance with subsection 14(64)c of the IFA, the Committee initiated its first annual survey of spring-summer sport fishing catches in the ISR to provide needed information which will facilitate better management of fish stocks in the region. Over 400 recreational anglers who purchased a GNWT sport fishing licence within the region were invited to take part in the mailed survey. Additional data gathered from this survey will be used to develop an education program for next year to improve the public's understanding of, and compliance with, theFJMC's sport fishing registry for Inuvialuit private lands.
For the second year, theFJMC supported a satellite telemetry program to monitor the movements of ringed seals tagged in the vicinity of Holman. The Committee also contributed to an ongoing project designed to monitor the reproductive status and condition of ringed seals. The quality of country foods continues to be a significant concern for the communities. This year, the Committee allocated funds for research involving the collection of samples from harvested marine mammals for contaminant and disease analysis.
In addition to annual research project funding, the Committee continued to support two longrunning projects that provide essential subsistence harvest data required for sound management decisions. In cooperation with the HTCs, the Committee sponsored the beluga harvest monitoring program. Local Inuvialuit whale monitors employed by the HTCs were stationed in each active whaling camp within the ISR . They collected biological information from each harvested whale. Committee staff provided training, program and logistic support, coordination of special sample collection, and data collation. The Committee also continued as supporting partner for the IHS, along with various federal and territorial government agencies.
TheFJMC was positioned to provide sound advice on issues related to the return of the oil and gas industry to the ISR . In preparation for the resurgence of hydrocarbon exploration and development in the Beaufort Delta, theFJMC hosted a workshop in August on natural gas development in the ISR . Committee members and key DFO staff received an industry perspective on development scenarios and a review of environmental concerns associated with on and offshore developments. The Committee and its staff have been regular participants in pre- submission community and agency consultations by industry. The FJMC tightened its screening procedures for the review of all proposals before the EISC that have the potential to affect fish, marine mammals and aquatic habitat in the ISR . TheFJMC's Beluga Management Plan (third printing, 1998) was amended in 2001 to clarify guidelines concerning industry activities within critical beluga management zones where subsistence whaling activities occur. Finally the Committee continued to lobby DFO actively to take steps (i.e., staffing, program development) to improve preparations for the accelerating development in the region.
Other Management Issues
The Committee actively participated in DFO's regional advisory process to develop the Eastern Beaufort Sea Beluga stock status report (2000) and prepared a joint submission with other Inuvialuit co-management bodies for presentation to the Standing Committee on Environment and Sustainable Development in Ottawa on Bill C-5 (Species at Risk legislation).
The FJMC continued to develop its existing Web site as a means to better inform the public, government and industry about the FJMCand fisheries co-management in the ISR . A variety ofFJMC reports and other materials are available on the site for downloading by interested parties.
The FJMC was a regular contributor of a news brief to the Joint Secretariat newsletter - the JS Bulletin. A summary report from last year's very successful Beaufort Sea 2000 Conference, Renewable Resources for Our Children, was released this year.
Student Mentoring Program
To increase the number of Inuvialuit beneficiaries involved in the technical aspects of fish and marine mammal management in the ISR , the Committee continued its Student Mentoring Program which is now in its fourth year. Through the support of DFO staff in Inuvik and Winnipeg, as well as with financial assistance from the GNWT , the IRC, and Enbridge Inc., four students participated in office and field projects around the ISR , Hay River and in Winnipeg.
5.2 Wildlife Management Advisory Council - Northwest Territories
Established under subsection 14(45) of the Agreement, WMAC-NWT's mandate is to advise the appropriate ministers on all matters relating to wildlife policy and the management, regulation, research, enforcement and administration of wildlife, habitat and harvesting for the Western Arctic Region. It is the responsibility of the Council to prepare conservation and management plans and to determine and recommend harvestable quotas. The Council also reviews and advises the appropriate governments on existing or proposed wildlife legislation and any proposed Canadian position for international purposes that affects wildlife in the Western Arctic Region. The Council's geographic area of jurisdiction consists of that part of the ISR contained within the NWT. Its membership comprises three members appointed by the Inuvialuit, two members appointed by the GNWT , one member appointed by the Government of Canada and a chair. The chair is appointed by the GNWT with the consent of the Inuvialuit and the Government of Canada.
The Council focusses on the conservation of terrestrial wildlife species, including polar bears and birds. It works closely with the IGC, the HTCs, government agencies responsible for wildlife management in the ISR and the other co-management bodies established by the IFA.
Community Conservation Plans
WMAC-NWT released the final revised versions of the six community conservation plans. The plans and geospatial data are available in paper format, CD-ROM and on the Web site .
Species Management Plans
The process to develop management plans involves close consultation between the wildlife management agencies and the HTCs, with the Council providing direction and coordination. The Council approves and recommends management plans, often in association with resource management boards in adjacent land claim regions where species are of mutual concern. Due to other commitments, a number of species management plans remained outstanding at year end. The Co-Management Plan for Caribou, Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Snow Geese and Small Herbivores on Banks Island, ISR , NWT and the Bluenose Caribou Management Plan were close to public distribution.
Work continued on a co-management plan for the fur industry, in cooperation with the Gwich'in Renewable Resources Board (GRRB) and on the draft Co-management Plan for Caribou, Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Eiders and Small Herbivores on Northwest Victoria Island, ISR , NWT.
Quotas for Wildlife Harvesting
In December 2000, WMAC-NWT recommended that there be no change to existing quotas for species under quota in the ISR .
Commercial Harvesting of Wildlife
There was no large-scale commercial harvest of muskox on Banks Island or Northwest Victoria Island.
Legislation Affecting Wildlife Management
In accordance with subsection 14(60)(f) of the IFA, WMAC-NWT was an active participant in the review of the proposed federal Species at Risk legislation which was reintroduced into Parliament. At the territorial level, the Council monitored the progress of the review of the NWT Wildlife Act and the development of new Species at Risk legislation. It will participate fully in these initiatives as the consultation processes accelerate.
Wildlife research is essential to enable WMAC-NWT to make decisions and recommendations on conservation and quotas. Wildlife research in the ISR is supported primarily by IFA implementation funds, as well as regular RWED and Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) expenditures and in-kind support. RWED and the CWS propose research programs and priorities for the ISR based on continuing consultation with the HTCs. WMAC-NWT considers these proposals, sets priorities for IFA-funded research each year, and advises the agencies and the IGC of its decisions. It also reviews and advises on wildlife research proposed by other agencies and supported by other funds.
Inuvialuit knowledge directs and informs wildlife research in several ways. The consultation process between RWED , the CWS and the HTCs assists in setting priorities regarding what research needs to be done and how best to do it. WMAC-NWT requires that such consultation take place before approving any research project and also requires assurance that research is conducted in a manner satisfactory to the HTCs. The Council considers the development, design, conduct and interpretation of research on the basis of both Inuvialuit and scientific knowledge.
WMAC-NWT approved the following wildlife research projects with implementation funds provided to RWED :
Arctic Islands Peary Caribou, Muskox, Arctic Wolf
- Peary Caribou, Muskox and Arctic wolf -
Banks/Northwest Victoria Island: Population
- Muskox - Banks Island: Survey and Pathology
of Abomasal Parasites;
- Peary Caribou and Muskox - Banks/Northwest
Victoria Island: Late Winter Assessment of
Range and Body Condition;
- Peary Caribou: Banks Island Range Use; and
- Peary Caribou: Northwest Victoria Island Range Use.
- Numbers and Distribution of Caribou on
- Diet and Parasites of Caribou on Calving
- Diet and Forage Quality; and
Cape Bathurst Caribou
- Numbers and Distribution of Caribou on
Calving Grounds; and
- Diet and Parasites of Caribou on Calving Grounds.
- Paulatuk Local Knowledge Project;
- Harvest monitoring; and
- Richardson Mountains Grizzly Bear Reproductive Rates and Cub Survival.
Implementation funds were allocated to the CWS for the following projects:
- The IHS;
- Use of satellite telemetry to locate King Eider
moulting and wintering Area;
- Monitoring of Snow Geese Habitat on Banks
- Impact of Harvest on Snow Goose Populations;
- Analysis and Write-up of Existing Data Sets.
A significant increase in oil and gas interests in the ISR has resulted in a corresponding demand on the resources of regulatory bodies and government agencies. WMAC-NWT continued to review applications received by the EISC, many of which included oil and gas exploration activities. It was also kept informed of these activities through frequent information sessions conducted by the various oil and gas companies.
WMAC-NWT members attended 11 meetings, workshops and conferences throughout the year to assist the Council in adequately and knowledgeably fulfilling its mandate. As well, numerous information meetings with exploration companies, natural gas producers and pipeline feasibility assessors were attended which provided an opportunity for industry to update the co-management bodies about the current status of activity in the region and for industry to learn more about the regulatory process.
The Council continued to advise the EISC with respect to selected development procedures. It conveyed its general concerns to the EISC regarding the impacts on wildlife and habitat due to hydrocarbon development. The Council was a registered participant in the review of Kuññek Resource Development Corporation's application for the Revitalization of the Western Arctic Reindeer Herd, before the EIRBand provided ongoing advice to the Board.
5.3 Wildlife Management Advisory Council - North Slope
WMAC-NSis the Yukon counterpart of WMACNWT and was established under subsection 12(46) of the Agreement. The Council provides advice to the appropriate federal or territorial minister, on all matters relating to wildlife policy and the management, regulation and administration of wildlife, habitat and harvesting for the Yukon North Slope. The Council determines and recommends appropriate quotas for Inuvialuit harvesting of game in the North Slope and advises on measures required to protect habitat that are critical for wildlife or harvesting. The Council also provides advice on issues pertaining to the North Slope to the Porcupine Caribou Management Board, Yukon Land Use Planning Commission, the EISC, the EIRB and other groups.
The following is a summary of some major areas of WMAC-NSactivities.
Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan
The process of reviewing and updating the draft of Volume 2 of the Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan continued. Objectives and actions were assessed to ensure they reflect current conditions on the Yukon North Slope. In addition, Parks Canada's Ivvavik National Park Ecosystem Management Plan was integrated into the Plan.
A revised draft of Volume 2 was distributed for review to the delegates at the Sixth Yukon North Slope Conference and to a number of other interested agencies and individuals. Comments will be assessed by the Council and incorporated as appropriate. The final version of Volume 2 is due for publication and distribution in September 2001. A status update of actions from the draft of Volume 2 was also prepared for the Sixth Yukon North Slope Conference.
Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research and Monitoring Plan
WMAC-NSprepared the draft Yukon North Slope Research Guide, a component of the Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research and Monitoring Plan, as a resource document for both researchers and communities. This Guide attempts to clarify expectations and develop common understandings that will help communities and researchers work together. It also provides information and references related to conducting research on the Yukon North Slope and adjacent areas, including the Gwich'in Settlement Area of the NWT. The draft of the Guide was distributed for review to the delegates at the 2000 Yukon North Slope Conference. The draft was also distributed to a number of additional interested agencies and individuals. The final version of the Guide will be posted on the Plan's Web site once completed in the summer of 2001.
Sixth Yukon North Slope Conference
WMAC-NSworked with the WMAC-NSin the coordination of the Sixth Yukon North Slope Conference, which was held in Whitehorse September 18-20, 2000. The theme of the conference was The Challenge of Change. Delegates spent three days learning about and discussing changes that have taken place on the North Slope over the last 25 years. Conference workshops were held in a variety of topic areas, including oil and gas development, protected areas, traditional use, ecological monitoring, climate change, tourism development and implementation of the IFA. The conference was attended by over 160 delegates, including people from communities throughout the ISR , resource managers, researchers, government, industry representatives from across Canada, and a contingent of delegates who are working on related issues in Alaska. View the proceedings of the 2000 Yukon North Slope Conference.
WMAC-NShas facilitated the preparation of, and consultation on, the draft Muskox Management Plan for the Yukon North Slope. This Plan applies the IFA's conservation principles, addresses Inuvialuit harvesting rights and meets the requirements of the Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan. One component of the Plan is a recommended harvest quota for Yukon muskox, mindful of the Alaskan harvest of a common population that ranges across the Alaska and Yukon North Slope. In recognition of the migratory behaviour and extensive range of the Yukon's muskox population, a second meeting of Alaskan and Canadian representatives was held in Anchorage to discuss the management of muskox across the Alaska and Yukon North Slope. WMAC-NSsupported and recommended funding for a muskox satellite and tracking project conducted by the YG and Parks Canada. The Council also recommended funding for a population survey and composition count.
WMAC-NS, in conjunction with Environment Canada (EC), coordinated the Sixth Annual Gathering of the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-operative, a component of the national Ecosystem Monitoring and Assessment Network. The Council recommended funding for the fifth year of the Co-op's Community Monitoring Program and for the development of ecological monitoring programs in Aklavik.
IFA-Funded Wildlife Research
WMAC-NSreceives proposals for IFA-funded research projects related to wildlife management and ecological monitoring on the Yukon North Slope consistent with the goals of the IFA and the objectives contained in section 12. Once reviewed and discussed, the Council makes its recommendations, as appropriate, to support projects and, if required, will also recommend that projects receive funding support from Parks Canada, the WMAC-NSand/or the CWS. Recommendations are based on research priorities identified in or by the Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research and Monitoring Plan, the Porcupine Caribou Management Plan, the ISR Grizzly Bear Management Plan, meetings with the Aklavik HTC, the Aklavik HTC research priority list, community consultation at public meetings in Aklavik and research priorities identified at the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Co-operative annual gatherings.
The Council monitors the progress of all recommended projects by requesting presentations and final reports from all agencies that receive funding. Projects recommended by WMAC-NS included Richardson Mountains Grizzly Bear Reproductive Rates, the Porcupine Caribou 'Adopt-a-Collar' Program, IHS - Yukon North Slope, the Community-based Monitoring Program, Muskox Ecology Studies, Reproductive Ecology of Tundra Swans in the Mackenzie Delta Region, the Analysis of Change in North Slope Wetlands and Herschel Island Vegetation Studies.
Grizzly Bear Management
The management of grizzly bears on the Yukon North Slope is of ongoing importance to the Council. WMAC-NSreconfirmed through resolution in December a total allowable harvest of 10 bears and a harvestable quota of eight bears for the Yukon North Slope. The remaining quota of two bears was transferred to the NWT portion of the Aklavik Grizzly Bear Hunting Area. WMAC-NScontinued to implement the actions identified in the Grizzly Bear Management Plan for the ISR , which was prepared by the GNWT in 1998.
Herschel Island Territorial Park Management Plan
The Council actively continued to promote a review of the Herschel Island Territorial Park Management Plan. The Plan, first completed in 1991, requires reviewing and updating to reflect the increase in visitor numbers and other issues not addressed in the original Plan. These include issues such as garbage management, the recognition of by-laws and improving economic opportunities for the Inuvialuit. The Council provided the WMAC-NSwith a detailed description of items that need to be addressed in the review,based on the Council's discussions with the Aklavik HTC, the community of Aklavik, Herschel Park Rangers and other interested parties.
Parks Canada and Ivvavik National Park
WMAC-NShas continued to work in partnership with Parks Canada on issues related to wildlife research, management and ecological monitoring in Ivvavik National Park. The Council was an active supporter of initiatives to ensure that the clean-up of the DEW-Line site at Komakuk includes the complete removal of all materials and waste. The Council worked with Parks Canada in its review of the Ivvavik National Park Ecosystem Management Plan. WMAC-NSalso worked with Parks Canada on the integration of this Plan into the Yukon North Slope Wildlife and Conservation Management Plan.
Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee
WMAC-NSworked with the Aklavik HTC in order to ensure the needs and concerns of the Aklavik Inuvialuit are addressed in the Council's decisions and actions. Through public meetings and meetings with the HTC's Board of Directors, WMAC-NSprovided information and exchanged ideas on the management of wildlife, habitat and Inuvialuit harvesting on the Yukon North Slope.
WMAC-NS maintained its Web site and continued to produce a newsletter, "Wildlife Watch", to inform user communities of the Council's activities and provide updates on issues of community interest. A large colour poster of the Yukon North Slope was also produced. This poster, a combination map and source of general information about the landscape and wildlife, was developed as an educational tool. Three Landsat images were used as the central feature, with additional photographs and text used to illustrate the regional, national and international significance of the area.
In addition to four regular meetings and a teleconference, Council members attended a number of workshops and conferences including Parks Canada consultations on the review of the Ivvavik National Park Ecosystem Management Plan, the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Cooperative Sixth Annual Gathering, the AAAS-Arctic Science Conference in Whitehorse and the Circumpolar Climate Change Conference, also in Whitehorse.
5.4 Environmental Impact Screening Committee
The IFA requires the screening of any proposed development of consequence to the ISR that is likely to cause a negative environmental impact. Subsection 11(3) of the Agreement established the EISC to conduct this process. The Committee screens all proposed developments of consequence on Crown lands within the ISR , and also on Inuvialuit lands on request from the Inuvialuit. If the EISC decides the proposed development could have a significant negative impact on the environment or on present or future wildlife harvesting, it is referred by the Committee to the EIRB or other appropriate review bodies for a public environmental impact review.
The EISC consists of seven members of which three are appointed by the IGC, and three by the Government of Canada from candidates designated by each of the governments of Canada, Yukon and the Northwest Territories. The Chair is appointed by the Government of Canada with the consent of the IGC.
The increased interest in the oil and gas industry was evident in the number of project descriptions submitted to the EISC, almost twice the number submitted in the previous fiscal year. The EISC screened 41 project descriptions, including developments associated with research (17), hydrocarbon exploration (15), mineral exploration (3) clean-up of DEW-Line sites (1), film production (1), tourism (1), application for a private land lease (1), Parks Canada National Parks management document (1) and relocation of a water-gauging station (1).
The EISC can make one of three final and binding decisions in the screening process, that the development will have no significant negative impact, that the development could have a significant negative impact, or that the development proposal has deficiencies of a nature that warrant termination of its consideration. Of the screened projects, the Committee determined that 37 would have no significant negative impact. None of the project descriptions was deemed to have the potential for significant negative impact. Four of the project descriptions were found to be deficient.
The screening process for the majority of submissions (93%) required less than 60 days to complete. Thirty-nine percent of the submissions were screened in less than the required 30 days of receipt, requiring a resolution by the EISC to waive the standard requirement. Three submissions took more than 60 days to go through the screening process after they were deferred to obtain further information from the proponent or comments from an HTC.
Presentations were received from Petro Canada Oil and Gas, Burlington Resources, Anderson Exploration, Explor Data Ltd., Chevron Canada Resources and Japex Canada Ltd.
The EISC was informed of additional projects which were proposed for the ISR but which were exempt from the screening process. These included one emergency clean-up project of an oil spill at a NorthwesTel repeater site and research projects that were exempt by virtue of having gone through the IFA co-management process with approval provided by the IGC, the relevant HTC, WMAC-NS, WMAC-NWT or the FJMC.
National Park Management Plans
The EISC considered and approved a request by Parks Canada for screening of national park management plans by the Committee.
Management of Cumulative Effects
Together with the EIRB, the EISC began discussions regarding cumulative effects assessment. This was in response to the recognition that more information would be required to assess fully whether developments, such as in the oil and gas sector, should be allowed in a given area. A joint project was initiated to develop cumulative assessment guidelines for use by the EISC, the EIRBand developers. The project was in progress at year end.
The EISC reviewed or provided input into the following initiatives:
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada's status
report on federal government obligations
under the IFA;
- The draft Ivvavik National Park Ecosystem
- The draft Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation
and Management Plan;
- An INAC project concerning the development
of a government policy on managing human
activities in caribou calving and post-calving
- The Regulatory Guide for Oil and Gas Exploration and Development in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region, a joint initiative of INAC, CAPP and the IRC.
5.5 Environmental Impact Review Board
Established under subsection 11(18) of the Agreement, the EIRB is responsible for carrying out a detailed environmental impact assessment and a public review of development projects referred to it by the EISC pursuant to the IFA. The Board recommends whether development projects should proceed and the terms and conditions. The EIRB also recommends measures to minimize the negative impact of projects on wildlife harvesting. If wildlife compensation is an issue, it recommends limits to liability for the developer.
As an environmental impact assessment and review body for any development referred to it pursuant to the IFA, the EIRB is structured so government and the Inuvialuit are represented equally. Three members are appointed by the Government of Canada, three from the IGC and a seventh member, the Chair, is selected by the Government of Canada with the consent of the IGC. Of the three members appointed by Canada, one is designated by each of the governments of Yukon, the Northwest Territories, and Canada.
The goals of the IFA directly relevant to the Board's operations are to ensure the Inuvialuit are equal and meaningful participants in the environmental impact screening and review process, and to protect and preserve the Arctic wildlife, environment and biological productivity. During the year, the EIRB was involved in the activities noted below.
Yukon Development Assessment Process
The EIRB ontinued to keep apprised of the progress of YDAP.
Kuññek Resource Development Corporation's Revitalization of the Western Arctic Reindeer Herd
The Board continued its public environmental review of the Kuññeck development proposal. Public workshops were held in Inuvik, Aklavik and Tuktoyaktuk, and interviews were conducted with former herders who had experience with reindeer herding in the Mackenzie Delta Region.
A review panel was struck following the acceptance of an environmental impact statement acceptable to the EIRB for purposes of the review. The Board's recommendations were forwarded to the relevant government authorities competent to authorize the development on December 1, 2000. The EIRB made its recommendations public on December 5, 2000.
Criteria for the Husky Lakes/Cape Bathurst Areas
The EIRB is responsible for setting criteria for establishing acceptable environmental standards for development activities and evaluating a developer's performance for the Husky Lakes/ Cape Bathurst areas. This work was ongoing during the year.
The EIRB and the EISC jointly requested clarification from the IGC and the IRC on the environmental impact screening and review process for proposed developments that occur in both the ISR and adjacent jurisdictions.
Management of Cumulative Effects
The EIRB and the EISC collaborated on an approach to address cumulative effects of developments. A project was jointly commissioned to perform a capability review of the tools presently available to the EIRB and the EISC for assessing cumulative effects, and to develop guidelines in this area.
Proposed Mackenzie Valley Pipeline
Discussions were held on the coordination processes for the environmental assessment regulatory review of a Mackenzie Valley pipeline.
Plans for a conference and a workshop were initiated during the year. The conference will discuss contemporary, common issues among relevant bodies and agencies involved in environmental impact assessments in the NWT, Nunavut and Yukon. The workshop, a collaborative endeavour with the EISC, will present advances in drilling that have occurred in recent years and the environmental implications of drilling.
The EIRB reviewed or provided input into the following initiatives:
- Regulatory Guide for Oil and Gas Exploration
Development in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region,
joint initiative of INAC, CAPP and the IRC;
- Species at Risk draft legislation: the EIRB
noted that this legislation could have implications
on the environmental impact screening
and review process established under the IFA;
- a legal opinion was obtained as to whether
EIRB has the authority to undertake the various items identified within the draft Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan, Volume 2;
- the INAC project concerning the development of a government policy on managing human activities in caribou calving and post-calving
- the GRRB request for information on how traditional knowledge is used in the environmental impact review process.
5.6 Joint Secretariat
The Joint Secretariat was incorporated as a society in 1986. Although it was not provided for under the IFA, the parties established the Joint Secretariat to provide funding, administrative and technical support services to the IGC and the wildlife and environmental committees, councils and boards. It establishes and maintains working liaisons with Inuvialuit organizations, government, industry, the academic sector and other relevant agencies or organizations. It also performs library and data archival duties for the Research Advisory Council (RAC).
The chairs of the five renewable resource committees: the IGC, WMAC-NWT, the FJMC, the EIRB and the EISC, constitute the Secretariat's members and directors
The Joint Secretariat Board held two regular meetings and one annual general meeting in 2000-2001.
To address the increasing need for support at the community level, the position of the HTC administrative support officer was established. This officer works directly with the the HTC staff and assists them in carrying out financial administration and other duties. These other duties include training for HTC staff and directors, and administration of the IHAP funding on behalf of the IGC and the IRC.
The Joint Secretariat has a growing role in providing assistance for Inuvialuit training and education. In addition to the FJMC Student Mentoring Program, the Joint Secretariat provided summer work experience for three beneficiaries and initiated the Nelson Green Memorial Scholarship in conjunction with the Inuvialuit Education Foundation. Other areas of involvement include a minor role in the extension of an interactive science Web site in the schools, and participation in the Arctic College Natural Resource Training Program seminar and an elementary school science module.
The geographic information systems (GIS) specialist was instrumental in coordinating the growing GIS capacity within the region, in addition to providing GIS services to the screening and review process and to other co-management bodies. DFO funding allowed for the creation of a position to support DFO's Beaufort Sea Integrated Management Planning Initiative, enhancement of the GIS database, ongoing construction of the imagery database, maintenance of the oil and gas spacial database and cartography work for theFJMC and DFO.
Considerable effort was put into updating and maintaining the community conservation plans and providing required maps for EISC and EIRB meetings. The Joint Secretariat assisted in the coordination, preparation and implementation of various workshops and community tours for its member organizations and the ITC. Preparations were initiated for the 2001-2002 IFA roles and responsibilities workshop.
A high level of liaison was maintained with the ITC and the Inuit Circumpolar Conference primarily in areas of legislation, program delivery and international conventions. Liaison activities with the IRC related to new and existing legislation, and oil and gas developments in the ISR .
The Joint Secretariat was involved in the following activities related to oil and gas developments:
- assistance in the definition of the roles of
Inuvialuit environmental monitors and
Inuvialuit wildlife monitors within the development
- duties of the regional contaminants coordinator;
- participation in theFJMC hydrocarbon
- participation in the development of a proposal
to go to the Arctic Council for standardized
shoreline clean-up and assessment technology
in collaboration with EC;
- collaboration with the Aurora Research
Institute, INAC and EC to consider the research
needs associated with the disposal wastes
within the region;
- participation in a research data gap analysis
convened by INAC;
- participation in the Objective Level Committee
meeting of the Panel on Energy Research and
Development (INAC); and
- attendance at various meetings, including those of the IFA ICC, the Beaufort Sea Integrated Management Planning Initiative, and the Delta Gas Producers and other developers in the ISR and the Pipeline Preparedness Working Group.
The Sachs Harbour Climate Change Project which materially involved the Sachs Harbour HTC, the IGC, the Joint Secretariat and the IISD,was completed. Future work includes a synthesis paper (with the executive director of the Joint Secretariat as a co-author), and a follow-up project involving other ISR communities.
The present level of gas exploration activity, which is predicted to at least double next year, is expected to continue to tax the Joint Secretariat resources. This will be seen in screening and review, but as well as in the new area of cumulative effect assessment. Two actions relieved the existing workload during the year: the introduction of the flexible transfer agreement instrument for funding by INAC which allowed the optimization of budgets, and the provision of additional funding to hire another staff member.
Under the terms of the IFA, the GNWT is responsible for appointing the chairperson and GNWT members as well as providing a secretariat for WMAC-NWT; providing the administrative and operational costs of the IGC and the six community HTCs; designating a member to each of the EISC, the EIRB, the Arbitration Board and RAC; and providing the budget for the operation and maintenance of RAC. An agreement was struck whereby RAC funding is provided to the Joint Secretariat for library services. The GNWT is also responsible for providing operational funding to the Joint Secretariat which provides technical and administrative support to the various IFA boards.
6.1 Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs
Ministry officials worked closely with GNWT program departments and the Joint Secretariat to promote effective administration of GNWT implementation funding by coordinating the annual funding agreement process, monitoring departmental implementation budgets, recommending funding reallocations between approved implementation tasks and ensuring the timely carry-over of implementation dollars to future years. The Ministry was also responsible for preparing the GNWT component of this annual report.
Significant efforts were made by the Ministry in an attempt to resolve the long outstanding issue of municipal requirements for Inuvialuit lands. GNWT occupancy and use of Inuvialuit lands for municipal infrastructure purposes has been an issue since the signing of the IFA. During the land selection process and in the absence of legal land surveys, the Inuvialuit selected lands that included government infrastructure such as garbage dumps, sewage lagoons, water intake sites and related access roads. This created the problem of municipal infrastructure being on private Inuvialuit lands.
When the concern was identified, the GNWT requested that Canada initiate a land exchange with the Inuvialuit to resolve the issue. The Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development agreed to explore this option if the Inuvialuit and the GNWT similarly agreed. In April 2000, the Inuvialuit and the GNWT agreed to negotiate land exchanges, based on certain principles, as a means of resolving existing municipal infrastructure concerns in Sachs Harbour, Paulatuk, Tuktoyaktuk and Holman. In January 2001, the GNWT provided the Inuvialuit with land quantum requirements and community maps identifying the municipal infrastructure sites. The ILA is working with the communities to review the information and identify lands they want in exchange. The additional issue of future municipal land requirements has also arisen during these negotiations, and will be the subject of further discussions between the GNWT and the ILA.
Ministry officials attended the Sixth Yukon North Slope Conference in Whitehorse and presented an overview of implementation funding agreements and reporting requirements.
The Ministry participated in two meetings with the Inuvialuit, and government of Yukon and Canada officials to discuss outstanding implementation issues. The IFA ICC has provided a positive forum for addressing and resolving long outstanding implementation issues.
6.2 Municipal and Community Affairs
The IFA provides for the payment of sand and gravel royalties, as well as a reasonable administrative fee, for sand and gravel removed from Inuvialuit lands. Municipal and Community Affairs manages the reporting system of amounts removed and the payment of these royalties for all GNWT departments.
6.3 Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development
RWED worked closely with the IRC and the Inuvialuit communities promoting Inuvialuit employment opportunities and economic selfsufficiency. RWEDprovided business advice, counselling and support, and assisted Inuvialuit businesses and individuals to access financial support from various sources. Support was provided to community organizations and the local HTCs for youth land-based programs. As well, RWEDparticipated in the FJMC Student Placement Program and the Inuvialuit Computer Based Training Program. RWEDand other government departments developed a guide training program with participation from Inuvialuit and Gwich'in organizations. RWEDwas also an active participant in evaluating the economic measures provisions under section 16(3) of the IFA.
RWEDworked very closely with the appropriate Inuvialuit organizations in drafting changes to the new NWT Wildlife Act that incorporates the IFA and Species at Risk legislation. RWEDalso worked with the Inuvialuit to develop draft regulations for harvesting Porcupine caribou along the Dempster Highway and drafted legislation for harvesting wolves and wolverines in the ISR.
The Department also worked closely and cooperatively with the IGC, WMAC-NWT and local HTCs on all matters regarding wildlife management in the ISR . Wildlife studies were a significant part of RWED's operations with progress achieved on the following.
Inuvialuit Harvest Study
RWEDcontinued to support the IHS which was overseen by a management committee comprising the chairs of the co-management bodies and representatives from the communities and sponsoring agencies. A local working group was established to assist the manager of the study.
Banks Island Caribou and Muskox
Composition surveys were done in July to obtain calf/cow and yearling/cow ratios for caribou on Banks Island and Melville Island and muskox on the southern third of Banks Island. Samples were collected from hunter harvested caribou to determine age, diet and body condition of adult male caribou on Banks Island.
Work continued on a habitat classification map for Banks Island. Maps showing the movements of satellite-collared female caribou were provided to the Sachs Harbour HTC, WMAC-NWT and the IGC on a regular basis.
Studies were initiated in cooperation with the universities of Saskatchewan and Fairbanks to obtain baseline data on abomasal parasites and assess reproductive physiology. RWEDcollected monthly caribou and muskox fecal samples to determine the prevalence and intensity of egg output by various gastrointestinal parasites. These collections will provide information on the current levels of range contamination by abomasal parasites.
RWEDcollected samples from muskox harvested north of Aklavik and determined that the lungs from these animals were infected with sheep lungworm which is common to Dall's sheep. This was the first documentation of cross-infection of parasites from Dall's sheep to muskox. A paper summarizing these findings was submitted for publication.
Northwest Victoria Island Caribou
An attempt was made to deploy satellite collars on Minto Inlet caribou. However, no caribou were located on the Minto Inlet winter range. These collars may be deployed in the summer of 2001 following the population survey.
Melville Island Caribou
Composition surveys were completed in July to obtain calf/cow and yearling/cow ratios.
Barrenground, Arctic Island and Peary Caribou Genetic Study
Additional antler samples were collected from Melville Island Peary caribou and Bathurst Barrenground caribou for genetic analyses. These samples were analyzed and their genetic relationships to other Peary caribou and Barrenground herds were compared. A paper describing the genetic relationships of Porcupine, Cape Bathurst, Bluenose-West, Bluenose-East, Bathurst, Dolphin and Union, Minto Inlet, Banks Island and Melville Island caribou was completed and will be submitted for publication. The results of the study were presented to the communities and at the 10th Caribou Conference in Kuujjuaq, Quebec.
The fifth year of the satellite tracking program was completed. Maps showing the location and movements of the satellite-collared caribou were provided on a regular basis to the 12 user communities and wildlife co-management bodies. RWEDalso completed a photocensus, and the results of this survey will be released in early summer 2001.
Grizzly Bear Local Knowledge Study
RWEDworked with the Paulatuk HTC to document current local knowledge on grizzly bears in their area. This activity included surveying elders and people who are active on the land. The survey results will be analyzed during 2001-2002.
Richardson Mountains Grizzly Bear
Radio-collared female grizzly bears were located in June to determine their reproductive status. Collars were removed in June for females that were alone or had young which were one year or older, and in September for females with cubs of the year. The sex and age composition of the grizzly bear harvest were monitored. The GRRB and WMAC-NS assisted with project funding.
Grizzly Bear Harvests
The grizzly bear harvest and problem bear occurrence/kill databases for the Inuvik Region were maintained. Quotas and harvest information for each community hunting area were reviewed. Results of the review were presented in the annual Summary of Harvest Data for Species Under Quota in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region report prepared for WMAC-NWT and WMAC-NS. Posters showing the number, sex and kill sites for grizzly bears harvested each year during the GNWT quota years 1994-1995 to 1999-2000 were prepared and sent to each HTC, the IGC, the WMAC-NWT and the WMAC-NS.
Polar Bear Harvest
Satellite collars were deployed on 20 female polar bears in the area between Pearse Point near Paulatuk, southern Banks Island and Cape Bathurst Peninsula. The data from these collared animals will be used to better define the boundary between the South and North Beaufort Sea polar bear populations
The polar bear harvest and problem bear occurrence/ kill databases were maintained for the Inuvik Region. Quotas and harvest information for each community were reviewed. Results of the review were presented in the annual Summary of Harvest Data for Species Under Quota in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region report prepared for WMAC-NWT and WMAC-NS. Posters showing the number, sex and kill sites for polar bears harvested each year during the GNWT quota years 1995-1996 to 1999-2000 were prepared and sent to each HTC, the IGC, WMAC-NWT and WMAC-NS.
Polar Bear Management Agreements
RWEDupdated the polar bear management agreements for the South, North and Viscount Melville populations and distributed them to the communities for review.
Skulls and carcasses purchased from hunters and trappers on Banks and Northwest Victoria Islands were analyzed to determine age, sex, incidence of disease, diet and general body condition of harvested wolves. Tissue samples were also collected for future DNA or fatty acid signature analysis.
Work continued on the assessment of the prevalence of parasites in Dall's sheep in the Richardson Mountains.
Work continued on the following management plans:
- the draft Co-management Plan for Caribou,
Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Snow Geese and Small
Herbivores on Banks Island, ISR , NWT recommended
by the Sachs Harbour HTC, the
WMAC-NWT and the IGC will be available in
early summer 2001.
- the draft Co-management Plan for Caribou,
Muskox, Arctic Wolves, Eiders and Small Herbivores
on Northwest Victoria Island, ISR , NWT;
- the draft Co-management Plan for the Fur
Industry in the Inuvik Region, NWT; and
- the draft Co-management Plan for the Bluenose Caribou Herd, NWT.
Plans of survey for the 7(1) and 7(1)(b) Inuvialuit parcels, comprising 173 survey plan sheets, were registered in the Land Titles Office. In addition, a plan of survey for the Wynniatt Region Adjustment Area (Annex K-6 of the IFA) was registered.
The Legal Division continued to contribute to the ongoing implementation of the IFA by providing legal assistance in a variety of areas, particularly land usage and access.
The Department of Renewable Resources oversees Yukon's implementation obligations under the IFA by addressing the legislative, policy or procedural requirements to implement the IFA. The Department of Renewable Resources of the YG is also responsible for administrative requirements related to the appointment of the chairperson and a Yukon member to WMAC-NS,,and the designation of a member to each of the EIRB,, the EISC and the Arbitration Board. Implementation funds are managed by the Department for participation on the abovementioned boards and committees, ongoing wildlife research on the Yukon North Slope, Qikiqtaruk (Herschel Island) Territorial Park and the Yukon North Slope Conference held every three years. The Department also manages the annual contribution agreement with WMAC-NS,.
7.1 Brochure: Hunting Along the Dempster - Inuvialuit Edition
The Department of Renewable Resources produced a series of information sheets explaining the rights and responsibilities of Aboriginal hunters on the Yukon part of the Dempster Highway. The final draft of the information sheet specific to the Inuvialuit, expected to be available for distribution by late fall 2001, incorporated comments provided by the IGC.
7.2 Amendments to the Yukon Wildlife Regulations
The Department of Renewable Resources contracted legal counsel to finalize the preliminary scoping document related to amending the Yukon Wildlife Act regulations. The scoping document was provided to the IGC in December. The IGC was encouraged to bring specific operational issues that are of concern to the Department's attention so they may be discussed in a YG-IGC working group and taken into consideration during the Department's annual regulation review.
7.3 Yukon North Slope Conference - The Challenge of Change
The YG hosted the Sixth Yukon North Slope Conference held in Whitehorse from September 18-20, 2000. The conference focussed on the changing environment of the Yukon North Slope. Workshop topics included oil and gas development, tourism development, climate change, ecological monitoring, traditional use, wildlife, coastal zone, implementation of the IFA, environmental assessment and protected areas. Conference proceedings were distributed in March. Total attendance at the conference was approximately 150 participants, about a 50% increase from the attendance at the last conference which was held in Dawson City in 1997. The conference chair was Thomas Berger, O.C., Q. C. The next Yukon North Slope Conference will be held in 2003.
7.4 Wildlife Programs
Muskox Ecology Survey
In a July telemetry flight and survey by the YG and Parks Canada, 121 muskox were counted. When the numbers from the survey are added to the 17 muskox counted from the Richardson Mountains and eight from the Porcupine River, the result is a total population count of 146 muskox in Yukon. The composition count showed a healthy number of young at 59 calves and 42 yearlings for every 100 adult cows. Due to the absence of caribou, there were no opportunities to look at muskox and caribou interactions.
Herschel Island Climate Change
To measure the increase in grass, random sites were sampled in the Arctic Willow-Dryas/Vetch community throughout the island to compare to cover values recorded in 1985. Preliminary analysis showed that Arctagrostis grass species has increased from about one percent cover in 1985 to approximately ten percent in 2000. Measurements of selected species (arctic willow, mountain avens and tussock cottongrass) are taken every year to document variations in climate and plant development.
A deep-core probe was installed to monitor the permafrost temperature. Temperature probes were placed at 1, 2, 5, 10 and 15 metres below the surface, and temperature levels were manually recorded in July and March. The two surface temperature loggers installed last year were retrieved and downloaded for repairs before being reinstalled.
Muskox Satellite Data
The five-year muskox satellite data project completed its third year. Muskox tracking by satellite collars will provide information on census and population counts. This will allow the collection of more information on age classes, sex ratios and locations of unmarked animals.
Porcupine Caribou Conventional Collaring
The Porcupine Caribou Management Program directs cooperating agencies to maintain between 60 and 100 conventional (radio) collars on selected animals in the herd. These collared animals are used to locate the herd during the annual calving, post-calving and late winter composition counts. The radio collared cows are used to establish a calf birth rate and survival one month of age.
The YG was also involved in and/or contributed implementation funds to a number of projects that were administered by other agencies including:
- the IHS (the Joint Secretariat);
- the North Richardson Grizzly Bear Project
- Muskox Management Plan Consultations (WMAC-NS,).
7.5 Qikiqtaruk (Herschel Island) Territorial Park
Two cruise ships visited Herschel Island Territorial Park during the 2000 season, bringing large numbers of people to the Island. While not all signed the guest book, those who did so totaled 378.
The 2000 season saw a change in personnel with the recruitment of a park ranger I and the secondment of a park ranger II. Park operations began in late April and ran until mid-September. Even though the new park ranger I was unable to begin work until late May, through the use of existing staff, two rangers were present in the Park at all times.
The Department of Renewable Resources worked with Parks Canada to conduct wildlife and bird surveys on Herschel Island and the surrounding area. Muskox and raptor surveys were conducted during the early part of July, and included the participation of the park rangers. The rangers continued the recording of wildlife and bird sightings, along with vegetation surveys during the operating season.
Wildlife observed on the Island included three muskox, three grizzly bears and approximately 70 caribou. No animals were harvested during the time the Park was open. Very low numbers of arctic charr were reported.
Due to the changes in park ranger personnel prior to and during the early part of the season, the Junior Park Ranger and the Elder Host programs were not held.
Yukon park staff and IRC human resources staff met in August to discuss the development of a hiring protocol to improve the hiring process. This new protocol includes an increased posting period (from two to four weeks) and wider distribution and advertising of postings throughout the communities.
The recruitment process of the senior park ranger position in Inuvik was based on the intent of the protocol. The successful candidate started work in March.
Herschel Island Management Plan Review
In late June, the Department of Renewable Resources received approval to move forward with the public review of the Herschel Island Territorial Park Management Plan. This followed the completion of the scoping document, which outlines the review process and the preliminary issues. Approval for this document was received in mid-summer and the continuation of the review resumed in the fall. This included a meeting with the Aklavik HTC, an open house in Aklavik and an information session in Inuvik.
The meeting with Aklavik HTC members was judged as an excellent forum for the exchange of issues.
Many of the operational issues arising from the review process are being addressed through the review of the overall park operations. These issues include a training strategy, hiring protocol, park operations plan, bear strategy, management of graves on the island and construction of a sod house and icehouse.
Following public meetings in April 2001, it is expected the final Plan will be distributed during 2001-2002.
8.1 Department of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
The Implementation Branch (IB) serves as a liaison on IFA implementation issues for the Inuvialuit, territorial governments and other federal government departments. Its activities include:
- negotiating and monitoring funding arrangements
with various implementing bodies having obligations under the IFA and monitoring
federal implementation activities to ensure compliance with the land claim agreement;
- processing the Canada, GNWT and YG appointments to the Arbitration Board, the EIRB and
- managing the discussions on proposed amendments
to the IFA; and
- publishing the annual implementation report of the IFA ICC.
The Director General of the IB serves as the Canada member to the IFA ICC, and the Director of the Implementation Management Directorate is the alternate.
The Branch participated in two meetings of the IFA ICC;2000-2001 marked the first year that the IB used the flexible transfer payment, to fund implementing bodies pursuant to the IFA.
During the year, activities of the IB included:
- attendance at the Sixth Yukon North Slope
- processing appointments of the Canada member
and the Chair to the EISC;
- provision of funding to the Joint Secretariat/
EISC for an additional resource person to deal with the increased seismic activity in the ISR;
- participation in the Section 16 Economic
Measures Review; and
- convening a workshop of all federal departments involved in implementation to discuss matters of common concern.
Northern Affairs Program
The Northern Affairs Program (NAP) administers legislation concerning the disposition and use of Crown lands, inland waters, the offshore, non-renewable resources and overall environmental protection within the NWT, Nunavut and Yukon.
NAP responsibilities include administering a funding agreement that supports the activities of the Joint Secretariat, the EISC and the EIRB. NAP continued to monitor the activities of these bodies to ensure effective implementation. Additional funding was provided to the EIRB to carry out an environmental impact assessment and review of a development proposal submitted by the Kuññek Resource Development Corporation entitled "Revitalization of the Western Arctic Reindeer Herd Proposal". NAP participated in the review of this project, including the public meeting in September.
NAP administers implementation funding provided for conducting granular (sand and gravel) inventories. The recent renewal of interest in the Region's hydrocarbon potential and proposals for pipeline and highway construction have necessitated reviews of granular resource demands and the overall potential of the Region to meet public, community and industrial requirements for granular resources. Work continued on two studies started in the previous year to:
- update the granular resources demand model and prepare a new forecast of future granular demands as required by the IFA ; and
- evaluate methods for determining granular resource potential using GISs and apply this to developing an understanding of granular resource values for selected lands in the ISR.
Granular resource potential, inventories of granular supplies and future granular demands will require integration with other land-related information within land information systems to develop a regional granular resources management plan for the ISR. Preliminary planning for the joint Canada-Inuvialuit management plan began. It is anticipated this plan will be completed over the next two fiscal years as new hydrocarbon and infrastructure plans evolve for the ISR.
Northern Oil and Gas Directorate
The Northern Oil and Gas Directorate routinely engages in environmental consultations with the IGC, representing the HTCs, prior to offering onshore and offshore lands to the oil and gas industry. Environmental information obtained from the IGC greatly assists INAC in identifying and confirming environmental sensitivities within the ISR. This information is carefully considered by the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development before offering Crown lands to industry.
As part of the consultation process, a meeting was held with the IGC in September. The session focussed on the results of the Northern Oil and Gas Directorate's call the previous year for nominations,the outlook of proposed winter oil and gas activity in the Mackenzie Delta and Beaufort Sea, and plans for the 2001 call for nominations. IGC representatives assisted with the confirmation of existing environmental sensitivity information and identified new relevant research. This information, such as the yearly migration route of Beluga whales from Alaska to the Beaufort Sea, has proved valuable to the Department in keeping current on data applicable to the ISR.
Oil and gas exploration activities continued on the exploration licences for Crown lands in the Mackenzie Delta issued by the Department in 1999 and 2000. These activities were under taken in accordance with benefit plans approved under the Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act and resulted in a wide range of employment, training and business supply and service contracts for Inuvialuit and other northerners.
The assessment process for royalties for the Ikhil Field, based on the laws and regulations in force on December 31, 1983, was initiated, and monthly royalty filings received. This assessment process was ongoing at year end.
Additional information concerning oil and gas activities in the north can be found at the Northern Oil and Gas Directorate's Web site .
Land Administration is responsible for the administration of the surface and sub-surface of Crown lands within the ISR. Pursuant to subsection 7(72) of the IFA, Land Administration continued to work with Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) and the ILAto identify lands for exchange for the Pingo Canadian landmark site. Maps have been provided to the Inuvialuit to assist them in identifying lands that could possibly serve as exchange lands.
With regard to subsection 7(106) relating to reservations on Inuvialuit lands, work on this area has been deferred until such time as a decision has been made on how to remove reservations.
With the addition of $20,000 from the Waste Program, work continued on the removal of barbed wire from reindeer fencing. Other ongoing work concerned the dismantling of an old radio tower. The annual monitoring of the landfill site at Horton River was completed to ensure the environmental stability of the site was unchanged. The Inuvialuit were provided with $150,000 to perform engineering and cost estimates at Atkinson's Point.
Northern Contaminants Program
The NCP provided $40,000 to staff the position of Inuvialuit regional contaminants coordinator.
The NWT Contaminants Committee supported the attendance of the Inuvialuit representative at meetings and national workshops.
Economic Activity Funding
The Inuvialuit CEDO continued to be a full participant in INAC's CEDO funding program, and was the recipient of $123,561 under core funding, community-based, community driven economic development support, $50,000 under the Resources Opportunity Program, and $350,000 under the Regional Opportunity Fund.
Funding to the IDC included: $100,000 under the Resource Access Negotiations Program to negotiate a joint ventures partnership agreement for providing oilfield services to the oil and gas industry active in the Mackenzie Delta area, $40,000 under ROP to undertake a feasibility study and business plan related to establishing the Inuvialuit Northern LogisticsCompany, $30,000 under the Development Impact Zone for a human resources strategy and an oil and gas symposium, $379,000 from the Resource Partnerships Program for the Aboriginal Pipeline Working Group and $4.2 million from the Community Economic Development Program for assistance in building two drilling rigs and camps for each.
In support of the advancement of the governance capacity of Inuvialuit community corporations and associated community-level claim organizations, the IRC was provided with $165,000 from the Professional Development Program of the Gathering Strength Initiative and $183,600 from the Gathering Strength Aboriginal Representative Organization Program (through Heritage Canada).
Other funds provided to the IRC from INAC's Economic Activity Funding included:
- $16,416 from the Science and Technology Camp
Program: This program promotes science and
technology as career choices by supporting
science camps which provide Inuit youth living
in recognized communities with first-hand
experience in various science and technology
- $53,120 from Summer Student Career Placement:
This program supports opportunities for
career-related work experience and training
during the summer months for in-school Inuit
youth living in recognized communities.
- $44,175 from the Youth Work Experience Program: This program supports and promotes supervised work experience for out-of-school unemployed Inuit youth in community services, community businesses, or other work experience that will contribute to their employability in an enriching and fulfilling way.
The NWT regional office sent a representative to each of the IFA ICC meetings held during the year.
Negotiations continued on draft chapters intended to form parts of a Beaufort Delta selfgovernment AIP. The NWT Region provided research and administrative support to the chief federal negotiator in the negotiations process.
Aboriginal Summit of the NWT
INAC entered into discussions with representatives of the Aboriginal Summit of the NWT, of which the IRC is a member, and the GNWT for the purpose of seeking consensus on how to advance the devolution to the NWT of federal legislative powers, programs and responsibilities for management of land, waters and natural resources (onshore).
Federal, territorial and Aboriginal officials developed a memorandum of intent which sets out some basic principles to guide further discussions on devolution in the NWT. They will be referring the memorandum to their respective principals for approval.
An intergovernmental forum has been scheduled for the next fiscal year at which officials of the three parties will report on progress and seek guidance as to next steps in the process.
8.2 Department of Fisheries and Oceans
DFO is responsible for making policy and regulatory changes to accommodate Inuvialuit rights concerning the harvest, trade, transport and co-management of fish and marine mammal resources in the ISR, and for support to the FJMC.
DFO promotes the principle of cooperative management of the fisheries resources in the ISR, with full cooperation from the Inuvialuit.
Achievements during the year involved establishing mechanisms for the management of shared populations: the signing of the Integrated Fisheries Management Plan for the Inconnu of the Lower Mackenzie River with the Inuvialuit, Gwich'in and Sahtu land claimant groups, and participation in a Rat River charr working group with the Gwich'in.
Twenty-three projects were conducted by DFO scientists/biologists in consultation with the HTCs in a variety of topics which included coregonids, marine mammals, charr and community harvest monitoring. Five summer students were hired by the FJMC/DFO.
DFO contributed $839,500 in implementation funding, divided between contribution agreement funds ($431,900), and project and support funds ($407,600).
The Canadian Coast Guard provided the Aids to Navigation Service on the Mackenzie River in the ISR from June 1 to approximately October 10, 2000. Within the ISR, positions changed on 10 navigational aid sites. Among these was an aid site at Gjoa Haven, which falls within the 100 foot strip administered and controlled by the GNWT in Cambridge Bay. The following land administration activities occurred.
- Cancellations of two reserves (land sites) were
- New applications were submitted to the ILAfor
the continued use of 10 land sites which have
been reserved for over 10 years.
- Fourteen sites for navigational requirements had applications for reserves submitted and were pending.
There are three sites which fall within the land set aside by Order-in-Council P.C. 1979-1154 for a reindeer grazing reserve. These sites have no hazardous materials and pose no threat to the reindeer.
8.3 Environment Canada
Environment Canada (EC), through the CWS, is represented on the wildlife management advisory councils, WMAC-NWT and WMAC-NS, which deal with all significant wildlife issues in the ISR.
In cooperation with the Inuvialuit, CWS continued to carry out a number of studies of migratory birds in the ISR. These studies will help guarantee that populations are not over-harvested and the habitat on which the birds depend receives adequate protection. During the past year, studies of migratory birds focussed on the populations and habitat of snow geese, the most heavily harvested species of migratory birds in the ISR. Long-term data were analyzed and summarized for wildlife conservation purposes.
With the tremendous increase in oil and gas exploration in the ISR, EC invested a significant amount of effort in reviewing and screening development proposals and in planning for potential environmental impacts.
8.4 Canadian Heritage
Parks Canada is responsible for the protection of natural and cultural resources, including the wildlife populations and habitat of the two national parks in the ISR: Ivvavik National Park in the western portion of the North Slope and Aulavik National Park on Banks Island.
The Pingo (Canadian Landmark) National Historic Site (NHS) is located six kilometres south-southwest of Tuktoyaktuk. Included within its boundaries is the largest pingo in Canada and a number of others at different stages of evolution. Created over a number of years, a pingo is an ice-cored mound produced when ice grows in or below permafrost as a result of water pressure.
The agreement to create the Pingo NHS is contained in subsection 7(70) of the IFA. Legislation passed in 1996 led to the creation of the Pingo NHS. A working committee including epresentatives from Parks Canada and several community organizations in Tuktoyaktuk was established to guide the development and preservation of the site. This working committee continued the drafting of a management plan, which is near completion, for the Pingo NHS.
A cultural resource survey and a visitor access survey were conducted in the summer of 2000 in the NHS. INAC and the ILAcontinued to work on transferring lands of equal value to the Inuvialuit for the NHS.
National Park Regulations
Consultations are ongoing with the IGC on a public consultation process to discuss required amendments to the National Park Regulations to ensure they conform to the IFA. A draft of harvesting regulations was produced.
Inuvialuit Employment Strategy and Economic Opportunities
The majority of employees in Ivvavik National Park are Inuvialuit beneficiaries. A mentoring program was in place in the field unit which placed experienced park wardens with patrol people for training purposes. An Inuvialuit employment strategy continued to be developed by Parks Canada, and will be incorporated into the field unit human resources plan.
Parks Canada continued to use Inuvialuit businesses on a preferred basis in the management and operation of Ivvavik National Park and other heritage resources in the ISR.
Porcupine Caribou Management Board
The Western Arctic field unit allocated funds the Porcupine Caribou Management Board for various projects.
The second year of the BAR-1 DEW Line site clean-up at Komakuk Beach was completed successfully. Planning for the monitoring program was under way. The memorandum of understanding with the Department of National Defence for this clean-up was signed by Parks Canada. (Note: 2000 was the second and final year of the DEW Line clean-up at BAR-2, Shingle Point, Yukon, the next DEW Line site east of Komakuk Beach. Both projects were managed by Defence Construction Canada on behalf of the Department of National Defence.)
National Park Management Plan
The national park management plan review, which was initiated in 1999-2000, was ongoing during the year. It is expected that WMAC-NS will recommend the revised draft plan to the Minister of the Environment in the upcoming fiscal year.
8.5 Public Works and Government Services Canada
Pursuant to subsection 16(18) of the IFA, PWGSC continued to provide Inuvialuit firms with the opportunity to bid on government contracts by advertising procurement opportunities on the government electronic tendering system and by notifying all claimant groups of the procurement of goods, services and construction destined for the ISR. The contracting policy with respect to the IFA requires that whenever PWGSC has a procurement opportunity which affects one or more of the comprehensive land claim agreements, notification is forwarded to all the claimant groups.
Assistance and information on the procurement process was provided as requested by the Inuvialuit, as well as information on contracts. Whenever practical and consistent with sound procurement management, evaluation criteria were included in bid solicitations to maximize socio-economic opportunities for the Inuvialuit.
8.6 Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
The Memorandum of Understanding (MOU) between the EIRB and the Minister of the Environment concerning approvals for substitution of process outlines how the environmental assessment process of the EIRB may be substituted for a panel review under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act. The MOU respects both the environmental assessment requirements established by the EIRB under the IFA and those for panel review and substitution of process as set out in the Act. It details the process and steps each party should follow in the event the EIRBrequests such a substitution. There were no opportunities to apply this agreement during the year.
8.7 Human Resources Development Canada
The IRC is a signatory to the Aboriginal Human Resources Development Agreement (AHRDA). This five-year contribution agreement, signed in April 1999 and extending to 2004, provides funding for labour market training for Aboriginal residents of the ISR. The agreement also provides funding for child care initiatives to increase the supply of quality child care services for children with working or training parents who reside in the ISR.
AHRDA enables the Inuvialuit to design and deliver a full service menu of options by integrating several Aboriginal programs including labour market programming and services, capacity building, an urban Aboriginal component, youth programming, child care programs and programs for persons with disabilities. Annual funding totals $1,990,677.
Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC) has an obligation to support the IFA and Inuvialuit self-government aspirations through its existing programs and AHRDA, and to maintain an ongoing dialogue with the IRC with respect to its operations or activities under the AHRDA. HRDC officials in the NWT communicate with IRC officials frequently to discuss operational issues, clarify and define various clauses of the AHRDA and provide advice on implementing provisions of the agreement. A Human Resources Centre of Canada is located in Inuvik which provides employers and job seekers with information on available programs and services provided by HRDC and the Human Resources Centre.
Annex N of the IFA outlines the capital transfer payments which were made to the Inuvialuit on the last business day prior to December 31 of each of the following years and in the following amounts:
* These funds were allocated for implementation purposes, as actual expenditure figures are not available.
Inuvialuit Regional Corporation Board
Inuvialuit Land Administration Commission
Inuvialuit Development Corporation Board
Andy Carpenter Franklin Carpenter Wayne Gordon Jackie Jacobson Robert Joss Jerry Lennie
Inuvialuit Investment Corporation Board
Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation Board
Brenda Dillon Ellice Edey Jason Gordon Ernest Pokiak
Inuvialuit Enrolment Committee*
Jack R. Williams
Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee
Inuvialuit Game Council
John Lucas Jr.
Danny C. Gordon
Fisheries Joint Management Committee
Ron Allen/Stephen Charlie
Wildlife Management Advisory Council-NWT
Wildlife Management Advisory Council-North Slope
Environmental Impact Screening Committee
Environmental Impact Review Board
Joint Secretariat, Inuvialuit Renewable Resource Committees*
Board of Directors
* The Joint Secretariat provides secretariat services to the IGC, the FJMC, WMAC-NWT, the EISC and the EIRB. The secretariat for WMAC-NS is located in Whitehorse: (Aileen Horler, secretary).
- The information on the IRC and its Corporate Group section 2 is based on the calendar year 2000. (return to source paragraph)
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