Archived - Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee - Annual Report 2002-2003
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Published under the authority of the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development
PDF Version (1.89MB, 42 Pages)
- Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
- 1. Summary of Agreement Provisions
- 2. Specific Issues
- 3. Inuvialuit Regional Corporation
- 4. Arbitration Board
- 5. Inuvialuit Wildlife Management Structures
- 6. Joint Implementing Bodies
- 7. Government of the Northwest Territories
- 8. Yukon Government
- 9. Government of Canada
- Appendix 1: Map of the Inuvialuit Settlement Region
- Appendix 2: Schedule of Capital Transfer Payments
- Appendix 3: Cumulative Costs of Implementation 1984-1985 to 2002-2003
- Appendix 4: Membership of Implementing Bodies (as of March 31, 2003)
The Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee (IFA ICC) is pleased to provide its fifth annual report on the implementation of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement (IFA) (1984). This report covers the fiscal year from April 1, 2002 to March 31, 2003.
The IFA ICC was formally reconstituted on May 11, 1999, and consists of senior representatives from each of the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation (IRC), the Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC), and the governments of the Northwest Territories, Yukon and Canada. Additionally, each member of the IFA ICC has an alternate member who may participate on the Committee in the member's absence. Committee members have agreed to reach decisions unanimously and serve as a forum where parties can raise issues and voice their concerns.
The IFA ICC monitors the ongoing obligations of the parties pursuant to the IFA and resolves issues arising with respect to the implementation of the Agreement. This annual report describes achievements and developments during the year. Information is contributed by various federal and territorial departments, the IRC, IGC and other stakeholders to the Agreement.
Progress is being achieved within a relationship defined by mutual respect and a commitment to fulfill the obligations set out in the Agreement.
Original signed by:
Government of the Northwest Territories
Inuvialuit Game Council
Inuvialuit Regional Corporation
Government of Canada
Glossary of Acronyms and Abbreviations
|AHRDA||Aboriginal Human Resources Development Agreement|
|APG||Aboriginal Pipeline Group|
|ARC||Arctigas Route Corporation|
|BSIMPI||Beaufort Sea Integrated Management Planning Initiative|
|CAPP||Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers|
|CEDO||Community Economic Development Organization|
|CHAP||Community Harvesters Assistance Program|
|CIMP||Cumulative Impact Management Program|
|COSEWIC||Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada|
|CWS||Canadian Wildlife Service|
|DBR||Darnley Bay Resources (Limited)|
|DEW||Distant Early Warning|
|DFO||Department of Fisheries and Oceans|
|ECE||(Department of) Education, Culture and Employment (NWT)|
|EIRB||Environmental Impact Review Board|
|EIS||Environmental Impact Statement|
|EISC||Environmental Impact Screening Committee|
|FJMC||Fisheries Joint Management Committee|
|HRDC||Human Resources Development Canada|
|HTC||Hunters and Trappers Committee|
|ICG||Inuvialuit Corporate Group|
|IDC||Inuvialuit Development Corporation|
|IFA||Inuvialuit Final Agreement|
|IFA ICC||Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee|
|IGC||Inuvialuit Game Council|
|IIC||Inuvialuit Investment Corporation|
|ILA||Inuvialuit Land Administration|
|ILC||Inuvialuit Land Corporation|
|INAC||Indian and Northern Affairs Canada|
|IPC||Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation|
|IRC||Inuvialuit Regional Corporation|
|ISR||Inuvialuit Settlement Region|
|ITK||Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami|
|MVEIRB||Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact Review Board|
|NEB||National Energy Board|
|NHS||National Historic Site|
|PWGSC||Public Works and Government Services Canada|
|PW&S||Public Works and Services, (NWT)|
|RAC||Research Advisory Council|
|RWED||(Department of) Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development, (NWT)|
|WMAC-NS||Wildlife Management Advisory Council - North Slope|
|WMAC-NWT||Wildlife Management Advisory Council - Northwest Territories|
- The Inuvialuit Corporate Group (ICG) made a $3.6 million after tax profit in 2002 and paid $1.3 million to 3,282 beneficiaries in May.
- The Inuvialuit Land Administration (ILA) made over $2.4 million in revenue from land use permits, long-term leases and concession agreements.
- The Inuvialuit Development Corporation (IDC) delivered all time record levels of revenue of $189 million and after-tax profits of $6.1 million.
- Supported by federal, territorial, private sector and in-house funding, over $5 million in community development programs were delivered by the Inuvialuit Regional Corporation's (IRC's) Community Development Division in the fields of language and culture, early childhood development, Aboriginal health, economic development, human resource development, education, wellness and youth.
- The Northern Pipeline Environmental Impact Assessment and Regulatory Chairs' Committee completed the Cooperation Plan for Environmental Impact Assessment and Regulatory Review of a Northern Gas Pipeline Project. This group represents the various regulatory and environmental assessment bodies that will deal with an application to build a Mackenzie Valley natural gas pipeline.
- A draft agreement was reached which allows the Environmental Impact Review Board (EIRB), Mackenzie Valley Environmental Impact Review Board (MVEIRB) and Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency to participate on a joint review panel for the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline.
- Working in cooperation with the IGC, the Fisheries Joint Management Committee (FJMC), Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) and the Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP), the IRC participated in the Beaufort Sea Integrated Management Planning Initiative (BSIMPI) to assess the desirability of establishing a marine protected area under the Canada Oceans Act that would provide formal protection to three areas identified as sensitive beluga habitat in the Mackenzie River Estuary.
- The Environmental Impact Screening Committee (EISC) referred two projects to the EIRB for public review: Commander Resources' Proposed Diamond Exploration Program, Victoria Island, Northwest Territories (NWT) and the WesternGeco Mackenzie Delta River Seismic Program 2002.
- The IRC, and the governments of the Northwest Territories and Canada reached an agreement on the longstanding package of IFA amendments. This includes an amendment regarding participation cost funding for Inuvialuit members on the EISC, EIRB, Wildlife Management Advisory Council NWT (WMAC-NWT) and Wildlife Management Advisory Council North Slope (WMAC-NS).
- Review of the Qikiqtaruk (Herschel Island) Park Management Plan continued during the year, and approval is anticipated in early 2004.
- Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) provided additional funding to the Joint Secretariat, EISC and EIRB to deal with the increased workload related to oil and gas activity in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region (ISR), and to participate in the Northern Pipeline Environmental Impact Assessment and Regulatory Chairs' Committee/Working Group.
- The Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, the Premier of the NWT and leaders of the NWT regional Aboriginal organizations (known collectively as the Aboriginal Summit) began discussions on a framework agreement for the negotiation of the devolution of federal responsibilities over land and water resources in the NWT.
1. Summary of Agreement Provisions
The IFA was brought into force and effect by the Western Arctic (Inuvialuit) Claims Settlement Act in 1984.
1.1 Land Ownership
The Agreement provides Inuvialuit with fee simple absolute title to approximately 91,000 square kilometres (35,000 square miles) of land in the Western Arctic (NWT). This area includes approximately 13,000 square kilometres (5,000 square miles) on which Inuvialuit have title to surface and subsurface rights. The ISR includes the North Slope of the Yukon Territory, the eastern half of the Beaufort Sea and the associated mainland, part of the Arctic Ocean, Banks Island, much of the western part of Victoria Island and some of the Parry Islands (see map, Appendix 1).
1.2 Eligibility and Enrolment
An enrolment authority composed of one federal government and two Inuvialuit representatives was initially established to enroll those who were entitled to be registered as beneficiaries of the Agreement. Ongoing enrolment is now a responsibility of the IRC.
1.3 Financial Compensation
Under the provisions of the IFA, the Inuvialuit received a total of $152 million over 14 years. The Agreement also provided for onetime payments, made in 1984, of $7.5 million to a fund to assist Inuvialuit in social development and $10 million to the Economic Enhancement Fund.
1.4 Economic Measures
Section 16 of the IFA addresses economic development in the ISR. Its broad objectives are to support Inuvialuit participation in the northern Canadian economy and the integration of Inuvialuit into Canadian society through development of an adequate level of economic self-reliance and a solid economic base. Since 1984, the Economic Enhancement Fund and compensation payments have helped Inuvialuit become more actively involved in the local economy and make long-term investments that will provide a solid base for future development.
1.5 Inuvialuit Corporations
Established under subsection 6(1) of the IFA, the IRC holds the overall responsibility for managing the affairs of its corporate subsidiaries and achieving the goals outlined in the IFA. Its ongoing functions and formal obligations are to:
- implement the land claim agreement;
- fulfill the role of institutional representative of Inuvialuit; and
- be the parent corporation to, and monitor of, the Inuvialuit Corporate Group.
The IRC is directly controlled by the six community corporations in the ISR through their elected chairs. The directors of the community corporations elect the chair of the IRC. The chair of the IRC and the chairs of the six community corporations comprise the IRC Board.
The Inuvialuit Land Corporation (ILC) owns and holds responsibility for Inuvialuit lands received under the IFA. The IDC, Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation (IPC) and Inuvialuit Investment Corporation (IIC) are responsible for carrying on business activities and investing settlement funds on behalf of Inuvialuit.
1.6 Wildlife and Environmental Co-Management
Inuvialuit have extensive wildlife harvesting rights in the ISR. They also have a mechanism for settling their claims against developers for actual harvest losses and for compensation or remedial measures as required.
The Agreement established structures to ensure Inuvialuit participation in wildlife management, conservation and environmental protection in the ISR. These structures include community-based Inuvialuit hunters and trappers committees (HTCs) and the IGC consists of members from each HTC.
The Agreement also established five joint bodies that have equal government and Inuvialuit representation.
- The EISC determines whether proposed developments require detailed environmental impact assessments.
- The EIRB carries out public reviews of development proposals deemed necessary by the EISC.
- the FJMC advises the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans Canada on matters relating to fisheries and marine mammals in the ISR.
- the WMAC-NWT advises government and other appropriate bodies on wildlife conservation matters in the NWT portion of the settlement region.
- the WMAC-NS advises government and other appropriate bodies on wildlife conservation matters in the Yukon North Slope.
The Joint Secretariat, located in Inuvik, was subsequently created to provide technical and administrative support to the four joint bodies and the IGC.
1.7 Arbitration Board
The Arbitration Board was established under section 18 of the IFA. See Section 4 for further details on its activities.
2. Specific Issues
2.1 Resource Development in the Mackenzie
In 2002-2003, a consortium of four gas producers (Conoco, ExxonMobil, Imperial Oil and Shell) with gas holdings in the Mackenzie Delta and the Aboriginal Pipeline Group (APG) studied the feasibility of constructing a standalone 1,300 kilometre natural gas pipeline to deliver gas from the Delta to southern Canada. The line, estimated to cost $4 billion to $5 billion, would have an initial capacity of 1.2 billion cubic feet per day with the potential to increase capacity to 1.9 billion cubic feet per day.
The Mackenzie Valley Gas Project Producers and the APG planned to file a preliminary information package in January 2003; however, the filing was delayed as the APG completed negotiations on the $80 million the Group is required to contribute to the project definition phase. The potential of a pipeline has significantly increased resource development activities in the ISR.
Another proposal was promoted by an American consortium called the Arctigas Route Corporation (ARC) and the Northern Route Gas Pipeline Consortium (ARC's Aboriginal partner). ARC initially studied the feasibility of a route from Prudeau Bay in Alaska across the top of Yukon and then down the Mackenzie Valley to Alberta. A third pipeline along the Alaska Highway through Alaska and Yukon is also being considered, but has little effect on the resource activity in the ISR.
As of March 31, 2003, no project had been formally proposed.
The potential development of Mackenzie Delta gas reserves and the construction of a pipeline to connect these, and possibly other reserves in Alaska, through the Mackenzie Valley to the south will trigger a number of environmental assessment and regulatory processes. The authorities with environmental impact assessment and regulatory mandates which require a public hearing (the agencies) prepared for their potential involvement in these developments. Even though no application had been submitted, the agencies worked to coordinate planning to ensure their roles are clearly defined and understood by all, and that mandates can be exercised in a manner that avoids duplication.
The Cooperation Plan for Environmental Impact Assessment and Regulatory Review of an Northern Gas Pipeline Project, developed by the Northern Pipeline Environmental Impact Assessment and Regulatory Chairs' Committee, outlines potential methods of cooperation, and provides clarity and certainty of process and timing for the public and for potential applicants. The Plan recognizes that each environmental impact assessment authority and regulator operates independently with a legislative mandate to assess the proposed pipeline development and to make recommendations and take decisions. The Plan in no way prejudges or pre-approves any potential project that may be proposed, nor does the approach prejudge the decisions to be made by any authority or bind any authority to a certain course of action.
In designing the process, the agencies were guided by the following principles:
- desire for the agencies to co-operate;
- need for a "made in the north" process;
- flexibility to consider a variety of development scenarios;
- enhanced public participation in the project review; and
- need to consider fully the potential impacts before project decisions are taken.
The objectives of the Plan include:
- enhancing efficiency and effectiveness;
- improving certainty and clarity in the environmental impact assessment and regulatory process; and
- ensuring compliance with existing legislation and comprehensive land claim agreements.
The work outlined in the preparation phase of the Plan, including the development of agreements, preparation of consolidated information requirements and plans for shared technical resources, has been effectively completed.
Co-Management Board Involvement
Activities of Inuvialuit co-management boards regarding pipeline preparedness include:
- participation in the work of the Chairs' Committee Working Group to develop the Cooperation Plan and the Regulators' Agreement for Coordination of the Regulatory Review of a Northern Gas Development and Pipeline Project;
- consultation and educational activities with representatives of various oil and gas companies and pipeline groups; and
- signing of a draft agreement by the IGC which allows for Inuvialuit participation on the EIRB and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency for a joint panel review of the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline.
- In late 2002, the Mackenzie Gas Project Producers completed their preliminary information package in anticipation of the completion of financial arrangements of their partner, the APG. It is expected that the information package will be filed with the regulatory authorities in the summer of 2003.
- The Plan for Public Involvement, which outlines the opportunities for public involvement at various stages of the review, will be released as part of the response of the Chairs' Committee to the tabling of the preliminary information package. The Chairs' Committee is establishing the Northern Gas Project Secretariat to serve the four panels responsible for holding public hearings in the NWT: the Joint Review Panel (the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency, the EIRB and EIRB), National Energy Board (NEB), Mackenzie Valley Land and Water Board and NWT Water Board.
3. Inuvialuit Regional Corporation
Throughout 2002, the IRC focussed its time and effort in advancing a broad range of issues related to Inuvialuit education, health, social wellbeing and economic security. Having considered the findings of the 2001 public review of section 16 of the IFA (economic measures), the IRC developed an extensive response with 26 specific recommendations for consideration by the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development and the premiers of the NWT and Yukon. In large part, the response outlined the need for significant and extensive changes to the NWT education system, preschool intervention strategies and the development of a coordinated economic strategy for the ISR. The IRC response will form a platform for joint discussion and decision making by the IRC, INAC and the governments of the Northwest Territories and Yukon.
Moving ahead from the challenging world events of the previous year, the Inuvialuit Corporate Group made a $3.6 million after-tax profit during 2002, led by all-time record revenues and profits from the IDC.
Following revision of the IRC Distribution Policy in April 2002 to reduce fluctuations in payments to beneficiaries by establishing a minimum distribution, $1,312,000 was paid to 3,282 beneficiaries in May 2002 ($400 to each beneficiary).
Continued low interest rates throughout 2002 brought considerable pressure on the ability of several Inuvialuit trust funds to maintain payments at historical levels. While existing surpluses allowed payments from the Inuvialuit Harvesters Assistance Fund and the Inuvialuit Education Foundation to be maintained at previous levels, the increasing number of beneficiaries eligible for elders' payments brought the Inuvialuit Social Development Fund to the point where reductions had to be made if the fund was to remain intact. Following extensive and difficult discussions at both Board and community levels, it was decided that the necessary reduction in expenditures would be achieved through increasing the eligibility age for the $500 elders' Christmas payment from 50 to 60 years while retaining the onetime elders' payment of $2,500 on reaching 50 years of age.
3.1 Use of Inuvialuit Lands
The ILA received 54 applications for the use of Inuvialuit lands during 2002. This resulted in over $2.4 million in revenue from land use activities, long-term leases and concession agreements. Oil and gas activity on Inuvialuit lands was sharply reduced from the previous year. Seismic programs were conducted by Encana, and access across Inuvialuit lands was provided to PetroCanada in support of its drilling program in the Parson's Lake area. Access was also provided to COLT KBR to conduct geotechnical investigation activities in preparation for a Mackenzie Valley natural gas pipeline.
Several major initiatives were completed or advanced by ILA staff during the year. These included:
- delivery of an environmental monitoring upgrading program to 19 beneficiaries from Inuvik (4), Tuktoyaktuk (14) and Aklavik (1);
- remediation of contaminated soil at Shell's staging site north of Aklavik;
- clean-up of the old Army Camp near Kittigaazuit;
- finalization of a memorandum of understanding with the federal government (through INAC) to share information and costs in the development of a granular resources management plan for the ISR;
- negotiation of lands to be obtained from the Government of the Northwest Territories and INAC in exchange for Inuvialuit lands taken up by community airports and municipal infrastructure, such as sewage lagoons and garbage dumps;
- removal of IFA Annex "R" reservations on the Distant Early Warning (DEW) Line and other sites;
- ongoing meetings with the Husky Lakes Management Plan Advisory Committee toward the finalization of a Husky Lakes management plan;
- completion of year two of the DEW Line clean-up at Clinton Point, removal of the polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) paint-contaminated materials at Shingle Point, additional clean-up at Cape Parry, and initiation of the 25year monitoring program; and
- presentation to the IRC Board of the draft revised ILA Rules and Procedures for community and user consultation.
In response to concerns from the community of Paulatuk regarding the lack of activity on the Darnley Bay Concession and other financial issues, the IRC Board moved to advise the holder of the concession – Darnley Bay Resources Limited (DBR) – of the specific conditions that must be met to retain the concession.
In preparation for a Mackenzie Valley pipeline, the ILA chief commissioner and chief land administrator participated in ongoing discussions and meetings regarding the development of the Cooperation Plan.
3.2 Business Subsidiaries
In 2002, the IDC delivered all time record revenues of $189 million and after-tax profits of $6.1 million. This represented a significant increase from the previous year with after-tax profits of $836,000.
Almost half of the IDC's profits flowed from oil and gas activities, the strongest performing asset in this group being the Akita Equtak drilling rig operation. The IDC is well positioned to benefit from a Mackenzie Valley pipeline and the increased level of exploration, development and production activities that will result when this project moves ahead.
The Norterra Group of Companies, which 50 percent owned by the IDC and 50 percent owned by Nunasi Corporation (the development corporation of the Eastern Arctic Inuit), reported increased profitability over the previous year. Air Norterra concluded a commercial agreement with Air Canada that resolved past differences and signalled future cooperation between the two airlines. Northern Transportation Company Ltd., despite reduced oil and gas exploration, continued to be a significant contributor to the Group.
The IDC's construction and manufacturing interests (Dowland Contracting and Weldco Beales) ended 2002 with strengthened operating systems, enthusiastic management and solid order books.
By year-end, the IDC had developed new vision and mission statements, and a strategic business plan to guide its journey toward "business excellence" within the next five years.
The IIC found 2002 challenging, although faring better than most institutional and retail investors, the IIC's performance was hampered by volatile market conditions and low interest rates. The net result was a year-end loss of $1.6 million, although this was a significant improvement from the $3.6 million loss of the previous year. During the stock market declines over the past two years, the IIC maintained a relatively high proportion of cash and a lower proportion of equities within the bounds of its Statement of Investment Policies and Goals. This helped cushion the decline in stock values in its investment portfolio.
The IPC continued to hold a significant investment portfolio in preparation for anticipated oil and gas investment opportunities on Inuvialuit lands. As with other investment funds, the world investment market created difficulties for the IPC. At year-end, the IPC reported a loss of $300,000 compared to a 2001 loss of $100,000. In September 2002, the Board was shocked and saddened by the sudden and unexpected passing of the IPC Chair Douglas (Dougie) Irish. Dougie's unwavering dedication to IPC, his broad experience in the hydrocarbon industry, his calm and balanced manner and his positive attitude will be greatly missed.
Despite strong revenues from the use of Inuvialuit lands throughout 2002, the ILC realized a loss of $1 million at year-end. This resulted from the inability of DBR to pay its outstanding debts to the ILC, the impairment of the value of DBR stock held by the IIC and reduced revenues from the IIC investment portfolio.
3.3 Regional Initiatives
Working in co-operation with the IGC, FJMC, DFO and CAPP, the IRC participated in the BSIMPI to assess the desirability of establishing a marine protected area under the Canada Oceans Act that would provide formal protection to three areas identified as sensitive beluga habitat in the Mackenzie River Estuary.
Despite a delay in the formal signing of the Inuvialuit/Gwich'in Self-Government Agreement-in-Principle to address concerns expressed by the Gwich'in chiefs, negotiations continued throughout 2002 with major emphasis placed on building community capacity, developing constitutions at community and regional levels, communicating the contents of the Agreement to stakeholders and completing the chapters on the remaining subject matters.
The ongoing efforts of the IRC and IGC to have a higher level of Inuvialuit representation on the NWT Water Board and to have the operations of the Board moved from Yellowknife to Inuvik met with considerable success during 2002 with Inuvialuit now occupying three of the seven seats on the Board and direction by the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development to have options identified for the relocation of the Board's activities.
Throughout 2002, several discussions were held with INAC to clarify the payment of royalties from the Ikhil natural gas project. There are significant differences of opinion between the IRC and INAC on this issue and the IRC will be taking the matter to arbitration in the year ahead.
3.4 Territorial and National Affairs
In chairing and providing administrative and technical support to the APG, the IRC continued to play a major role in advancing Aboriginal ownership in a future Mackenzie Valley Pipeline. Working with the Aboriginal leadership along the proposed pipeline route, the APG identified the necessary source of equity financing to ensure its participation.
The IRC continued to press the federal government to provide core funding to the Corporation and to community corporations comparable to that provided to First Nations across Canada. Two federal reviews assessed the level of funding provided to Aboriginal provincial/territorial organizations and to regional and tribal councils. There is growing recognition within INAC of the current inequity and the need to identify an appropriate means of rectifying this concern.
Despite clearly articulated concerns by the IRC and IGC regarding duplication and overlapping jurisdiction in the development of the Yukon Environmental and Socioeconomic Assessment Act, the Government of Canada moved to pass this legislation without addressing these issues. The IRC will monitor the implementation of this Act and may pursue its concerns through the legislative process.
Working through the IFA ICC and Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami (ITK), the IRC responded to the concerns of beneficiaries regarding the need for a national identification card comparable to that provided to Registered Indians by the Government of Canada. Extensive consultation has taken place across all Inuit regions in Canada, a comprehensive discussion paper has been developed, and there is now strong support for this initiative at the national level.
Discussions on a range of new health-related initiatives with Health Canada occupied the IRC and other ITK members; two of the issues being the development of an acceptable consent form for Inuit to ensure the ongoing provision of the Non-Insured Health Benefits Program from the Government of Canada and the establishment of the National Aboriginal Health Organization.
At both national and international levels, the IRC provided input and support to the efforts of ITK and the Inuit Circumpolar Conference to promote the identification and protection of Inuit intellectual property rights. The IRC also supported the need to address increasing concerns over climate change, contaminants and toxic threats to Arctic communities.
During the year the IRC worked with other members of the ITK Board on the challenging goal of providing a voice to Pauktuutit and the National Inuit Youth Council on national Inuit issues while retaining the overriding authority and direction of the four Inuit claim regions.
3.5 Community Development
In a joint effort to ensure a more tailored approach by the federal government in the provision of Aboriginal-specific programs to the Inuit of Canada, the Community Development Division of the IRC worked closely with ITK and the other Inuit regions in the development of an Inuit action plan with the Government of Canada. The core principle of the plan advocates an Inuit-specific approach to the development, funding and implementation of federally funded programs to Canada's Inuit. Priorities within this process include income and employment, education and training, health, housing and language.
Other major initiatives pursued through ITK included efforts to get mental health and suicide prevention recognized as a health priority by the federal government and the development of an Inuit health renewal process. Papers and recommendations were developed and provided to Health Canada to improve access and quality of health programs and services, health outcomes and Inuit control of health programs and services. The ultimate goal of the health renewal process is to improve the current status of Inuit health through increased participation in their own health care.
The Division worked closely with the Northern Secretariat of Health Canada in the development of a direct funding agreement that would see federal funding for the Brighter Futures, Canada Prenatal Nutrition, Aboriginal Head Start and Healthy Childrens' Programs flow directly from Health Canada to the IRC rather than through the Government of Northwest Territories. By removing an additional administrative layer, regional priorities could be advanced and additional funding would be freed up to provide direct support to community-level programs.
With the financial support of federal and territorial governments, corporations, foundations and the Inuvialuit Corporate Group, the Community Development Division coordinated the provision of over $5 million in community development programs in the fields of language and culture, early childhood development, Aboriginal health, economic development, human resource development, education, wellness and youth.
Working closely with communities and regional training partners, the Human Resources section of the Community Development Division provided financial support to a broad range of training programs including service rigs, licensed practical nursing, natural resources technology, heavy-duty equipment operator, camp cooking, driver education, introduction to welding, oil and gas-related safety courses, computer training, office administration, native artisan and university access.
Although greatly reduced from the previous year, employment opportunities related to natural gas exploration were maximized through close liaison with industry, Inuvialuit businesses and community employment officers. Human resources staff visited work sites with industry representatives to meet with Inuvialuit contractors, and identify barriers to Inuvialuit employment and areas where the IRC should focus its training funds during the coming year.
In 2002, the Inuvialuit Education Foundation provided over $300,000 in support and incentives to Inuvialuit students through postsecondary supplementary funding, scholarships, tutoring programs, student incentive trips, part-time studies and summer language camps. The number of Inuvialuit students accessing the Foundation's programs has more than doubled over the past three years. Combined with continued low interest rates, ongoing funding of these programs at existing levels of support is becoming increasingly difficult.
Over $800,000 in community wellness funding supported programs in all communities with a focus on child development, injury prevention, healthy babies, community mental health and solvent abuse. The program was geared toward children from up to six years of age. Youth centres in both Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk received $50,000.
Early childhood development programs were supported in all Inuvialuit communities with $1 million provided through Aboriginal Head Start, the Healthy Children's Initiative, Inuit Child Care, Workplace Education, the Muttart Foundation, the IRC and the Health Promotions Program. Early childhood development staff provided extensive and ongoing program development and operational support to community early childhood centres. A major step in the training of community child development program staff was achieved through participation in the Early Childhood Development Certificate Program by staff from all early childhood centres.
The Inuvialuit Cultural Resource Centre supported an extensive and broad range of culture and language projects throughout 2002 with over $500,000 provided through INAC, the NWT Department of Education, Culture and Employment (ECE), Heritage Canada, the Beaufort Delta Education Council, DFO and the NWT Literacy Council. Initiatives included the production of education materials, support of language programs at early childhood centres, and for Inuvialuit drummers and dancers, and the development of the Kittigaaryuit Site Management Plan and centre resource catalogue.
With the slowdown in oil and gas activity in the region during the past year, the Inuvialuit Community Economic Development Organization (CEDO) focussed its efforts on specific projects and initiatives. Key among these were the Sachs Harbour muskox project, the return of administrative control of the Aklavik Business Corporation to the community and playing a key role in the national review of the CEDO program.
The division was also active in the development and delivery of several Aboriginal health-related programs throughout the year. These included community and urban Aboriginal diabetes, the First Nations and Inuit Home and Community Care Program, HIV/hepatitis C prevention and a fetal alcohol syndrome/fetal alcohol effect program.
In reviewing the activities of the IRC and its business subsidiaries over the past year, the Board determined that not all beneficiary wishes could be satisfied all the time; the IRC focusses its resources where they can provide the greatest benefit to the most beneficiaries over the long term.
In setting priorities for each year, the Board draws heavily on the collective advice and direction of beneficiaries both within and outside the settlement region, at the same time responding to the pressures and impacts of the outside world. Most of all, IRC activities must contribute to the achievement of the core objectives clearly outlined in the IFA.
In the year ahead, the IRC hopes to provide beneficiaries with increased opportunities in several fields of economic activity, and advance several programs and initiatives that will assist and support community efforts to address the serious social concerns that impact every aspect of Inuvialuit daily life.
4. Arbitration Board
The Arbitration Board provides a mechanism to arbitrate disputes between Inuvialuit and the governments of Canada, the Northwest Territories and Yukon, as well as between Inuvialuit and industry. The Arbitration Board has three members appointed by the Government of Canada, including designates of the governments of Northwest Territories and Yukon. Industry, represented by CAPP, and Inuvialuit each appoint three members to the Board. The chair and the vice-chair are appointed by the Government of Canada, and must be acceptable to industry (as defined by the Agreement).
No meetings were held in 2002-2003; however, the Board undertook an educational and community awareness effort during the year. The Board continued to receive arbitration requests on a more regular basis. At year end, two arbitrations were pending.
5. Inuvialuit Wildlife Management Structures
5.1 Inuvialuit Game Council
The Inuvialuit Game Council (IGC) represents the collective Inuvialuit interest in wildlife and derives its mandate from subsection 14(74) of the Inuvialuit Final Agreement. The IGC works in parallel with the IRC to implement the Agreement. It is responsible for upholding and administering Inuvialuit harvesting rights recognized under the Agreement. The Council also represents the Inuvialuit in all matters related to renewable resource management in the ISR.
The IGC appoints Inuvialuit representatives to all the joint wildlife and environmental co-management bodies established under the IFA. With the consent of the IGC, the governments of Canada, Northwest Territories and Yukon appoint the chairs for the co-management bodies. In addition to its responsibilities under the IFA, the IGC acts as the regional representative of Inuvialuit hunters, trappers and fishers, and holds a seat on the IFA ICC.
The IGC is made up of a director and an alternate from each of the six HTCs. The chair is elected by the six IGC directors.
Many older pieces of government legislation do not reflect the harvesting rights of Inuvialuit as established in the IFA. Although the Agreement supercedes existing and future legislation, the IGC is consulted to ensure that when legislation is being written or amended, it is consistent with the Agreement. The IGC provided ongoing input to various territorial and national acts and regulations, including continued work with the Government of the Northwest Territories on drafting revisions to the NWT Wildlife Act. The IGC was also in consultation with the governments of Yukon and Canada regarding concerns about the possible duplication of environmental impact screening on Yukon's North Slope under the Yukon Environmental Socioeconomic Assessment Act.
Considerable time was spent meeting with oil and gas company representatives and consultants regarding proposed projects and the wildlife and environmental management processes under the IFA. With the anticipated increase in the pace of oil and gas activities, communities expressed concerns about their capacity to deal with multiple seismic projects at the same time. The HTCs identified the need for more assistance to enable them to comment to the EISC on the many project submissions, and the need for training programs for more wildlife monitors who assist seismic crews to avoid bear dens, muskrat push-ups, traplines and other sensitive wildlife and harvesting areas. With the addition of two technical support positions, the Community Support Unit for the six ISR communities of Aklavik, Inuvik, Holman, Paulatuk, Sachs Harbour and Tuktoyaktuk was completed.
The assessment of the cumulative impacts of all the exploration activity in the Mackenzie Delta is a priority of the IGC and other co-management boards. Topics discussed by these bodies included thresholds, wildlife research gaps and the prioritization of research to address these gaps. The IGC participated in two initiatives: the Cumulative Effects Assessment and Management Framework Steering Committee, which is developing a cumulative effects assessment and management framework for the entire NWT, and the Cumulative Impact Management Program (CIMP) Working Group for the Mackenzie Valley.
5.2 Hunters and Trappers Committees
Subsection 14(75) of the Agreement provides for the creation of the HTCs. An HTC has been established in each of the six Inuvialuit communities of Inuvik, Aklavik, Tuktoyaktuk, Holman, Paulatuk and Sachs Harbour. Administrative and operational costs of the HTCs are the responsibility of the Government of the Northwest Territories.
Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee
Due to the high turnover of staff at both the Aklavik HTC and the Aklavik Community Corporation, the two organizations amalgamated their staff.
Aklavik HTC activities included the following:
- work with co-management bodies, both territorial governments, oil and gas exploration companies and Aklavik HTC beneficiaries;
- participation in the Westside Charr Working Group with DFO and the FJMC;
- various studies including the annual beluga whale monitoring program, the recording of aircraft flights in the Shingle and West White fish areas, and index netting;
- purchase and distribution of caribou meat to elders in Aklavik; and
- distribution of the Community Harvesters Assistance Program (CHAP) funding to members.
The Aklavik HTC set up its own company, Nigluk, to deal primarily with hiring wildlife monitors. The Committee is hopeful more work will be available in the next oil and gas season. Fewer wildlife monitors, shelter crews and survey assistants were hired by companies this year.
Olokhaktomiut (Holman) Hunters and Trappers Committee
Olokhaktomiut HTC activities included:
- application to DFO for an experimental licence for commercial fishing;
- two special meetings with Commander Resources Ltd. to discuss the proposed diamond exploration program on Victoria Island, NWT (revised application was approved at the second meeting);
- review and subsequent rejection by the Olokhaktomiut HTC Board of the application from Falconbridge Limited to conduct mineral exploration at Minto Inlet;
- approval of the charr monitoring program at Fish Lake;
- meeting with INAC on the CIMP;
- receipt of 19 tanned sealskins from the Department of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development (RWED) of the NWT;
- tanning and donation of 50 sealskins to community sewing groups, followed by the purchase of an additional 50 sealskins;
- selection of students for the Big Game Guiding Course, with seven completing the course;
- letter and petition to INAC advocating the non-approval of the proposed diamond exploration program at Prince Albert Sound; and
- request to DFO for water quality testing at Kagloryuak Lake.
Inuvik Hunters and Trappers Committee
The Inuvik HTC met monthly to deal with ongoing issues and land use applications, and to provide general information and assistance to its members, corporate bodies and oil and gas companies. Other activities included:
- wildlife monitoring;
- implementation of the fish study;
- convening the annual general meeting; and
- distribution of geese to residents of Inuvik.
Paulatuk Hunters and Trappers Committee
Paulatuk HTC activities included:
- a contract with DFO for the beluga monitoring program and harvest data collection;
- a charr monitor program, which recorded a total charr catch of 889 from August 1 to 28, 2002;
- distribution of a portion of the CHAP program funding to harvesters;
- seal tagging in the Cape Parry area;
- approval of the polar bear memorandum of understanding between the Aklavik HTC, Inuvik HTC, Paulatuk HTC, Tuktoyaktuk HTC, the IGC, WMAC-NWT and RWED (memorandum not signed by all the parties during the year);
- attendance at the grizzly bear and wildlife research gaps workshops;
- distribution of alternate site fishing funding to local harvesters;
- a trapper training workshop;
- polar bear sports hunt in January 2003, with a resulting success rate for polar bears taken of 90 percent; and
- continued work on a charr management plan.
Sachs Harbour Hunters and Trappers Committee
Sachs Harbour HTC activities included:
- a baseline charr study agreement with DFO;
- a request to DFO for an environmental assessment of the Johnson Point area regarding a potential oil leak;
- a decision to privatize polar bear sports hunts; and
- a motion to advocate for the removal of World Wildlife Fund commercials featuring polar bears, and a subsequent request to the IGC for its support on this issue.
Tuktoyaktuk Hunters and Trappers Committee
Tuktoyaktuk HTC activities included:
- meetings with WesternGeco to discuss the proposed summer seismic project down the Mackenzie Valley and with Leader Fishing to discuss the exploratory fishery proposal;
- a trout monitoring project at Husky Lakes in April and May 2002;
- a beluga whale monitoring program;
- a Husky Lakes assessment research project;
- meetings with DFO to discuss the Beaufort Sea Integrated Management Plan Initiative which will have Zone 1(A) in the Beluga Management Plan classified as a marine protected area;
- attendance at a cooperative workshop on the CIMP sponsored by Petro Canada, and a wildlife research workshop in Inuvik;
- meeting with the Mackenzie Gas Producers to discuss the use of traditional knowledge during community consultation meetings for the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline. This was followed by a workshop on this subject in February 2003; and
- attendance on the FJMC community tour.
6. Joint Implementing Bodies
6.1 Fisheries Joint Management Committee
Under subsection 14(61) of the IFA, the FJMC provides advice to the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans Canada on all matters affecting fisheries and the management of fish and marine mammals found in the ISR. The FJMC works closely with government agencies, renewable resource user groups in Inuvialuit communities and other renewable resource boards in Canada and Alaska that oversee common migratory stocks.
Implementation funds to support the Committee's operations, provided through a contribution agreement with DFO totalled $449,900.
Consultation and Planning
In keeping with the co-management philosophy of the IFA, consultation with local HTCs, the IGC, DFO and other government agencies formed an important part of the Committee's activities. The FJMC held five regular meetings, six teleconferences and public meetings in Aklavik, Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk to discuss with local hunters and fishers, issues of concern related to fish and marine mammals, and research priorities for the ISR. One regular meeting was held in Winnipeg at DFO's Freshwater Institute to facilitate information exchange and project planning with the Department's scientific and management staff. The process by which the FJMC sets its research priorities and develops a work plan is unique among Inuvialuit joint implementing bodies. Community meetings in November, discussions with scientific staff at the Freshwater Institute in January and planning sessions in March are the essential elements in the Committee's annual work plan and budgeting cycle for the next fiscal year.
After almost three years of development, the FJMC Strategic Plan, formerly titled the FJMC Vision Statement is in press. The Plan is intended to direct the FJMC's activities for the first decade of the new millennium. This important document contains a set of guiding principles, a clear vision for the future of fish and marine mammal management in the Beaufort Delta region of Canada's Western Arctic, and a set of milestones for the next decade.
Research and Monitoring
The FJMC was active in numerous research, monitoring and management programs in 2002-2003. Thirty-one projects were conducted through joint efforts between the FJMC and DFO.
Support continued for charr monitoring projects in Paulatuk and Holman that provide information for existing community-based charr fishing plans for the Hornaday and Kuujua rivers near Paulatuk and Holman respectively. Also in support of the Hornaday plan, the Committee continued to contribute to a baseline water quality and quantity monitoring project for that river system.
The FJMC continued to support the West Side Working Group in its efforts to develop a community-driven integrated fishing plan for the Yukon North Slope and West Side rivers from the Big Fish River west to Fish Creek near the Alaskan border. The Working Group was established in 2000-2001 and includes representatives from the Aklavik HTC and Elders Committee, the FJMC, DFO and Parks Canada. The Working Group continued to assemble critical scientific and traditional knowledge on North Slope fisheries that will form the foundation of the developing management plan. The traditional knowledge study completed in 2001-2002 was finalized for publication.
Support of a multiyear program to assess the ecology and fisheries resources of Husky and Sitidgi lakes was an ongoing priority. These lakes support important local subsistence and recreational fisheries. In coming years, the Committee anticipates growing pressures associated with accelerating hydrocarbon development on surrounding lands and increased public access through seasonal ice roads and a proposed all-weather road to Tuktoyaktuk.
The FJMC continued to allocate funds in support of a satellite telemetry program to monitor the movements of ringed seals. The multiyear tagging program in the Cape Parry area near Paulatuk continued. The Committee also contributed to an ongoing project designed to monitor the reproductive status and condition of ringed seals in Amundsen Gulf.
The quality of country foods also continued to be a significant concern for the communities. In addition to the allocation of funds for research involving the collection of samples from harvested marine mammals (including ringed seals and beluga) for contaminant and disease analysis, the Committee organized and facilitated a workshop focussing on the increase in mercury levels in beluga whales in the Western Arctic. The workshop was held in October 2002 at the Freshwater Institute in Winnipeg. A group of 20 professionals from a variety of fields discussed possible reasons for these increased levels and proposed possible future research to further the understanding of the primary factors involved.
In addition to annual research project funding, the Committee supported long-term harvest monitoring programs that provide essential harvest data required by the Committee and DFO biologists for making sound management decisions
- In cooperation with the HTCs, the FJMC delivered the Beluga Harvest Monitoring Program. Local Inuvialuit whale monitors employed by HTCs are stationed in each of the active whaling camps within the ISR. They collect biological information from each harvested whale. Committee staff provided training, program and logistic support, coordination of special sample collections, and data collation. Monitors also keep track of aircraft traffic over whale camps and submit detailed incident reports in cases where aircraft may have harassed or disturbed whales and harvesters. At season's end, these harassment incident reports were turned over to DFO Conservation and Protection for follow-up with air charter companies as required.
- Following the cancellation of the Inuvialuit Harvest Study, the Committee continued its support of the collection of Inuvialuit subsistence fisheries harvest data by DFO in 2002-2003.
In accordance with section 14(64) of the IFA, the Committee continued with the Private Lands Sport Fishing Registry. Recreational anglers fishing within the ISR were not surveyed in 2002-2003, but plans are underway to conduct the survey again in 2003-2004. Data collected in 2000 and 2001 were analyzed during the year, and a technical report is to be completed. The promotional campaign initiated in 2001-2002 to educate the fishing public was continued with the renewal of large wall displays at major air and road travel gateways into the ISR. This included wall maps identifying private lands distributed to all fishing licence vendors and HTCs in the region, reprinting and distributing information brochures to vendors and HTCs, and advertising in NWT Explorers Guide / Guide to Hunting & Fishing in the Northwest Territories and the Beaufort Delta Attractions Guide.
To facilitate the distribution of information related to research within the ISR, the FJMC Technical Report series is being reactivated. Recent projects funded by the Committee, beginning with the Possible Impacts on Overwintering Fish of Trucking Granular Materials Over Lake and River Ice in the Mackenzie Delta Area, will be published and distributed, as well as posted on the Committee's Web site.
The FJMC continued to be well positioned to provide sound advice on issues related to accelerating oil and gas industry activities in the ISR. The Committee and staff have been regular participants in community and agency consultations by industry. Before every screening meeting, the Committee continues to review all proposals before the EISC that have the potential to impact on fish, marine mammals, and aquatic habitat in the ISR, including those related to oil and gas.
To follow up on a successful informal meeting between field level biologists and regulators from the Northwest Territories, Yukon and Alaska that was initiated by the FJMC and DFO in 2002, FJMC members and staff participated in the second Canada/Alaska Oil and Gas Environmental Regulators Gathering, held in Fairbanks March 1920, 2003. The gathering was expanded to include wildlife and other regulatory agencies from the Northwest Territories and Yukon and their counterparts in Alaska. In addition, some of those attending participated in a tour of several oil production facilities on the North Slope of Alaska.
The Committee was also directly involved with the EIRB public review of the WesternGeco Mackenzie Delta Marine 2D Seismic Program 2002. This Program has potential impact on fish harvesting in the Mackenzie Delta. The Committee enlisted the services of a technical expert to ensure that any potential impact of the Program on Inuvialuit harvests would be mitigated, and any concerns would be investigated.
Beluga Management and Pilot Marine Protected Areas
The FJMC continued its support of the BSIMPI in cooperation with DFO. This multi-stakeholder initiative is facilitated through a working group that includes representatives from the FJMC, DFO, IGC, IRC, INAC and CAPP, who conducted community consultations through 2002-2003 to determine support for a pilot marine protected area under the Oceans Act.
Emerging Commercial Fisheries
In response to increasing interest by business entities from outside the region in developing commercial fisheries in the Beaufort Sea, the Committee continued to work closely with DFO and the IGC to lay the foundations for a regionally managed, sustainable commercial fisheries in the Beaufort Sea that will benefit Inuvialuit economically while not adversely affecting traditional subsistence harvesting activities.
Species at Risk Legislation
With the Species at Risk Act given royal assent on December 12, 2002, the Committee began to take a more active role in ensuring Inuvialuit involvement in the protection of endangered fish and marine mammal species. The FJMC will continue to work with the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) to better define the FJMC's role in the federal assessment process for endangered species under the FJMC's jurisdiction. The FJMC participated in the preliminary stages of reassessment of several species, including the fourhorn sculpin, beluga whale and pighead prickleback.
The FJMC continued to develop its existing Web site ‹www.fjmc.ca › as a means to better inform the public, government and industry about the Committee and fisheries co-management in the ISR. A variety of FJMC reports and other materials are available on the site for downloading by interested parties. The FJMC reaches Inuvialuit beneficiaries within the ISR through its annual ISR community tour and through regular contributions to the Joint Secretariat-Inuvialuit Renewable Resource Committee's newsletter – the JS Common Ground. The newsletter is distributed to every registered Inuvialuit beneficiary each summer and winter.
Student Mentoring Program and Inuvialuit Youth
The Student Mentoring Program of the FJMC returned for its sixth successful season in 2002-2003. Activities included:
- hosting four students (four from Inuvik with three completing the term);
- developing new work placement partnerships (including DFO, Parks Canada, United States Fish and Wildlife Service, RWED, Kavik AXYS and Inuvialuit Environmental & Geotechnical);
- continued funding relationships with ECE, the IRC and Enbridge Inc.;
- completing the Boot Lake aquatic science training module featuring a new study manual developed by DFO;
- participating in a regional career fair, Career Quest 2002, with past mentoring student, accompanied by Joint Secretariat staff, available to answer questions about the mentoring program from junior and senior high school students from around the Beaufort Delta Region; and
- participating in a community tour to Holman, Paulatuk and Sachs Harbour, organized by the ECE division in Inuvik to recruit new students for the 2003-2004 Program. This tour involved representatives from the ECE, Aurora College, the Beaufort Delta Self Government and the Canadian military. Presentations were given to local high school students, as well as to the general public. The FJMC Mentoring Program is offered in partnership with DFO and is designed to encourage Inuvialuit youth to finish high school and continue with their studies in the sciences so they can become the ISR's future resource managers and biologists.
6.2 Wildlife Management Advisory Council Northwest Territories
Established under subsection 14(45) of the Agreement, the WMAC-NWT's mandate is to advise the appropriate ministers on all matters relating to wildlife policy and the management, regulation, research, enforcement and administration of wildlife, habitat and harvesting for the Western Arctic Region. The Council prepares conservation and management plans and determines and recommends harvestable quotas. The Council also reviews and advises the appropriate governments on existing or proposed wildlife legislation and any proposed Canadian position for international purposes that affects wildlife in the Region. The Council's geographic area of jurisdiction is that part of the ISR contained within the NWT. It comprises three members appointed by Inuvialuit, two appointed by the Government of the Northwest Territories, one member appointed by the Government of Canada and a chair. The chair is appointed by the Government of the Northwest Territories with the consent of Inuvialuit and the Government of Canada.
The Council focusses on the conservation of terrestrial wildlife species, including polar bears and birds, and provides a forum for all wildlife matters pertaining to the Western Arctic Region. It works closely with the IGC, HTCs, government agencies responsible for wildlife management in the ISR and the other co-management bodies established by the IFA.
Community Conservation Plans
The WMAC-NWT, pursuant to its responsibility for conservation and management plans under article 14(60)(b) of the IFA, takes the lead in the development and revision of community conservation plans. There were no revisions in 2002-2003. The office fulfills requests for paper and CDROM copies of the plans, in addition to directing people to the Web site where they are available for download.
Amendments to By-laws
The following amendments were completed in the regulations under the NWT Wildlife Act, which resulted in changes to the HTCs' by-laws:
- change the marten trapping season from November 1 to October 1;
- change the muskox sport hunting season in zone I/MX/06 from October 1 April 30 to September 15 April 30; and
- combine muskox zones I/MX/03 and I/MX/04 on Victoria Island into one zone.
Harvesting of Wildlife
In its regularly scheduled meeting in December 2002, the WMAC-NWT made no recommendations to change existing quotas for those species under quota in the ISR.
The Council recommended to the Minister of Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development that the grizzly bear season in zones I/GB/04 and I/GB/05 near Tuktoyaktuk be changed to September 15 May 31 for all hunters.
Commercial Harvesting of Wildlife
In March 2003, the IRC and the community of Sachs Harbour conducted a federally approved commercial harvest of muskox for meat and qiviut (wool). One hundred and one (101) muskox were harvested. Methods to improve the meat quality were tested again this year.
Legislation Affecting Wildlife Management
During the year, the WMAC-NWT provided comments in the review of the Canada-wide ranks for all butterflies and on the status reports for the following listed species: grizzly bears, woodland caribou, Ross's gull, polar bears, the anatum peregrine falcon and wolverines.
Discussions on the territorial Species at Risk Act were postponed while work is underway on revisions to the NWT Wildlife Act. The Council chair was involved in NWT Wildlife Act meetings between the IGC, the RWED deputy minister and territorial government staff. These discussions on the process for integrating land claim provisions into the Act will continue.
Wildlife research is essential to enable the WMAC-NWT to make decisions and recommendations on conservation and quotas. Wildlife research in the ISR is supported primarily by IFA implementation funds, as well as regular RWED and Canadian Wildlife Service (CWS) expenditures, and in-kind support. The CWS and RWED propose research programs and priorities for the ISR based on continuing consultation with the HTCs. These proposals are considered by the WMAC-NWT, which set priorities for IFA-funded research each year, and advises the agencies and the IGC of its decisions. It also reviews and advises on wildlife research proposed by other agencies and supported by other funds. In 2002-2003, the Council again reviewed several wildlife and habitat research proposals from the oil and gas industry in support of proposed natural gas gathering systems and pipelines. Inuvialuit knowledge directs and assists in wildlife research in several ways. The consultation process between RWED, the CWS and the HTCs assists in setting priorities regarding what research needs to be done and how best to do it. Such consultation must take place before the WMAC-NWT approves any research project to ensure that research is conducted in a manner satisfactory to the HTCs. The Council considers the development, design, conduct and interpretation of research on the basis of both Inuvialuit and scientific knowledge.
The WMAC-NWT approved a broad range of IFA-funded wildlife research projects in 2002-2003. Total implementation funds allocated from RWED were $882,000 (including a 2001-2002 carryover for 20 projects) and involved the following areas:
- polar bears – distribution, seasonal movements and population ecology for the South Beaufort population, early winter/late winter distribution on west Richards Island, management agreements/by-law review;
- grizzly bears – harvest and problem occurrence monitoring, local knowledge on bear sightings/denning areas/etc., population estimates for the eastern ISR, impacts of seismic exploration on denning bears;
- muskox – productivity and recruitment on Banks Island, herd health/condition and monitoring of commercial harvest at Banks Island, late winter body condition on Banks and Northwest Victoria islands, and mainland NWT and North Slope herd genetics;
- caribou – harvest data collection, population survey for Cape Bathurst herd, Bluenose-West and Cape Bathurst productivity/recruitment survey and range use/movements tracking, productivity of Peary caribou on Banks, Northwest Victoria and Melville islands, Banks Island Peary caribou range use, and late winter body condition of Peary caribou on Banks and Northwest Victoria islands;
- Dall's Sheep – muskoxen lungworm infection assessment; and
- habitat data from vegetation classification.
Total implementation funds allocated from the CWS were $191,500 (including a 2001-2002 carryover for seven projects) and involved the following areas:
- snow geese-banding on the mainland and Banks Island to determine what proportion of the harvest is from each area and the habitat effects on Banks Island from snow geese;
- gas development - effects on tundra swans in the Mackenzie Delta (using field research and traditional knowledge);
- murres - population assessment at Cape Parry Bird Sanctuary;
- Pacific common eiders - locations of moulting, fall staging and wintering areas;
- harvest data collection; and
- analysis and write-up of existing data sets.
The WMAC-NWT also supported, in principle, other research in the ISR proposed by RWED and the CWS, which was funded solely from non-implementation sources.
Members of the WMAC-NWT attended 26 meetings, workshops and conferences throughout the year to assist the Council in adequately and knowledgeably fulfilling its mandate. As well, several project-specific meetings with oil and gas companies were attended in aid of WMAC-NWT comments on development applications submitted to the EISC.
The Council continued to advise the EISC with respect to relevant development submissions, conveying concerns regarding impacts on wildlife and habitat. The WMAC-NWT also continued to assess nongovernment funded wildlife research proposals and submit comments to the permitting agencies prior to decisions. With respect to studies gathering data for oil and gas production and transmission, the Council stressed the need for consultation with the WMAC-NWT, RWED and the CWS to integrate them into existing government programs as much as possible and allow for comments on the data methods and draft reports.
The Council was a registered participant in the Commander Resources' environmental impact review of the proposed diamond exploration program on Victoria Island. Comments were provided on the potential impacts of the program, and a board member attended the public hearing in Holman on behalf of the Council.
6.3 Wildlife Management Advisory Council North Slope
The WMAC-NS is the Yukon counterpart of the WMAC-NWT and was established under subsection 12(46) of the Agreement. The Council provides advice to the appropriate federal or territorial ministers, on all matters relating to wildlife policy and the management, regulation and administration of wildlife, habitat and harvesting for the Yukon North Slope. The Council determines and recommends appropriate quotas for Inuvialuit harvesting of game in the North Slope and advises on measures required to protect habitat. The Council also provides advice on issues pertaining to the North Slope to the Porcupine Caribou Management Board, Yukon Land Use Planning Commission, EISC, EIRB and other groups.
The following is a summary of some of the major WMAC-NS activities.
Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan
As one element of the special conservation regime it established, the IFA requires the preparation of a Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan. The Plan is to provide direction to long-term wildlife conservation management consistent with the goals of the IFA. During 2002-2003, volume 2 of the Plan (goals and actions) was completed. This volume can be found on the Council's Web site ‹www.taiga.net/wmac/wcandmplans.htm›. A hard copy edition of the Plan is in production.
One component of this Plan is a detailed report on the status of 34 wildlife species found on the North Slope (volume 3). Recognizing that the reports are based primarily on scientific research, the Council, working in partnership with the Aklavik HTC, initiated a project to collect local information on 22 selected species. Interviews were conducted in Aklavik over a two-week period in the spring. People who are active on the land were asked to provide information on range, condition, habitat and population size. A public meeting was also held to get additional information. A full report summarizing the results of the project is being prepared.
The Council continued its work to develop a management plan for the Canadian North Slope muskox population. A revised version was distributed for review to interested parties and comments are being incorporated. The chair also presented the plan to members of the Yukon Fish and Wildlife Management Board. Once the plan is complete, the WMAC-NS will be able to recommend a sustainable harvest quota for Inuvialuit residents of Aklavik.
The WMAC-NS supported and recommended funding for a muskox satellite and tracking project conducted by the Yukon Government and Parks Canada. The Council also recommended funding for a population survey and composition count.
The WMAC-NS, in conjunction with Environment Canada, coordinated the Eighth Annual Gathering of the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Cooperative www.taiga.net/coop. The Council recommended funding for the seventh year of the Coop's Community Monitoring Program. The objective is to record observations, on an annual basis, of changes to the environment using local community experts and interviewers.
IFA-Funded Wildlife Research
The WMAC-NS receives proposals for IFA implementation funded research projects related to wildlife management and ecological monitoring on the Yukon North Slope consistent with the goals of the IFA and the provisions contained in section 12. Once reviewed and discussed, the Council makes its recommendations, as appropriate, to support projects and, if required, will also recommend that projects receive funding support from Parks Canada, the Yukon Government and the CWS. Recommendations are based on research priorities identified in or by the Yukon North Slope Long-Term Research Plan, Porcupine Caribou Management Plan, ISR Grizzly Bear Management Plan, meetings with the Aklavik HTC, the Aklavik HTC research priority list, community consultation at public meetings in Aklavik and research priorities identified at the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Cooperative annual gatherings.
The Council monitors the progress of all recommended projects by requesting presentations and final reports from all agencies that receive funding. Projects recommended by the WMAC-NS and conducted in 2002-2003 included:
- muskox ecology studies (population count, survey and satellite collar program);
- the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Coop Community-Based Monitoring Program;
- the reproductive ecology of tundra swans in the Mackenzie Delta Region;
- experimental infections of Dall's sheep with muskox lungworm;
- Aklavik harvest data collection;
- Porcupine caribou satellite and conventional radio collaring programs;
- breeding bird distribution and habitat association on the Yukon North Slope;
- Firth River water flow and water quality monitoring, and weather and permafrost monitoring in Ivvavik National Park; and
- vegetation and climate change monitoring on Herschel Island.
Grizzly Bear Management
The management of grizzly bears in the ISR was the focus of a two and a half day workshop in Inuvik that was attended by several Council members and the chair. Other participants included representatives from each HTC and the WMAC-NWT, IGC, the governments of Yukon and the Northwest Territories, and Parks Canada. The workshop was held to provide participants with an opportunity to discuss issues and concerns related to the determination and distribution of harvest quotas, as well as the assessment of grizzly bear populations. The goals and objectives of the ISR Grizzly Bear Management Plan for the next five years were also considered. The objective of the workshop was to develop ideas and recommendations for the future management of grizzly bears that could be taken back to the communities, and to the WMAC-NS, WMAC-NWT and IGC for further consideration.
Species at Risk
The WMAC-NS continued to monitor the development of the federal Species at Risk Act (Bill C5). The Council reviewed and provided comments to COSEWIC on species being assessed within the region. The chair participated in preparations for a meeting between the members of COSEWIC and representatives of wildlife management boards across Canada to discuss how they could work together on species assessments in the range jurisdictions of the boards. The WMAC-NS was also active in the development of a legislated process for addressing species at risk in Yukon.
Herschel Island Territorial Park
The Council continued to support the review of the Herschel Island Territorial Park Management Plan. The Plan, originally completed in 1991, is being updated by the Yukon Government to reflect the increase in visitor numbers and other management issues not addressed in the original version. As part of this review, the Council hosted a workshop in Whitehorse that brought Council members together with representatives from the Tourism, Heritage, Parks and Wildlife branches of the Yukon Government to discuss and redraft the contents of the Plan.
Council members spent several days on Herschel Island in July. Members were able to learn more about the research projects underway on the Island and to see how the Territorial Park is operated. The Council held a one-day meeting while on the Island that included a review of the proposed revisions to the Park's Management Plan.
The Council recommended funding for vegetation and climate monitoring studies on the Island, which were then continued during the summer of 2002.
Parks Canada and Ivvavik National Park
The WMAC-NS continued to work in partnership with Parks Canada on issues related to wildlife research, management and ecological monitoring in Ivvavik National Park. The Council recommended the revised Ivvavik National Park of Canada Management Plan to the Minister of Heritage Canada. The revisions to the Plan are directed to ensuring that the management of Ivvavik National Park is responsive to issues and challenges associated with ecosystem conservation, climate change and potential industrial disturbances. They also reflect a renewed commitment to optimize the current and potential economic benefits associated with the establishment of the Park, particularly as they may affect Inuvialuit interests and rights as provided for in the IFA.
The Council recommended funding for Firth River water flow monitoring, weather and permafrost monitoring, and Firth River water quality monitoring to be conducted in Ivvavik National Park. Parks Canada provided the logistic support that made it possible for Council members to spend a week travelling on the North Slope during the summer.
Aklavik Hunters and Trappers Committee
The WMAC-NS worked closely with the Aklavik HTC to ensure that the needs and concerns of the Aklavik Inuvialuit were addressed in the Council's decisions and actions. Through public meetings and meetings with the HTC's Board of Directors, the WMAC-NS provided information and exchanged ideas on the management of wildlife on the Yukon North Slope. The Council met with the Aklavik HTC Board twice during the year.
The WMAC-NS maintained its Web site at www.taiga.net/wmac. The site has information on the Council and its activities, including term reports, newsletters, fact sheets, species status reports and links to related sites. The second volume of the Yukon North Slope Wildlife Conservation and Management Plan was added to the site. The Council continued to produce a newsletter, Wildlife Watch, to inform user communities of its activities and provide updates on issues of community interest.
The Council produced a series of fact sheets that summarize information on the history, biology and uses of North Slope muskox. The fact sheets are available on the Council's Web Site. A school unit, with activities suitable for all grade levels, was also developed to assist teachers in providing school children with information on muskox.
The Council held meetings in Whitehorse, Aklavik, Inuvik and on Herschel Island. It also hosted a community meeting in Aklavik.
Council members attended a number of workshops and conferences during the year including the Arctic Borderlands Ecological Knowledge Cooperative Eighth Annual Gathering (Whitehorse), Yukon Species at Risk Workshop (Whitehorse), the Joint Secretariat Board of Directors meeting (Whitehorse), the ISR Grizzly Bear Workshop (Inuvik), the Oil And Gas Issues Workshop Pembina Institute (Calgary), the Herschel Island Park Management Plan Workshop (Whitehorse), the Alaska/Canada Oil & Gas Environmental Regulators meeting (Fairbanks, Alaska) and IGC meetings (Holman, Inuvik, Whitehorse). The chair also attended a meeting in Edmonton at which all agencies that receive IFA implementation funding presented their funding requirements for the next five-year period to INAC representatives.
6.4 Environmental Impact Screening Committee
Section 11 of the IFA requires the screening of any proposed development of consequence to the ISR that is likely to cause a negative environmental impact. Subsection 11(3) of the Agreement established the EISC to conduct this process. The Committee screens all proposed developments of consequence on Crown lands within the ISR, and also on Inuvialuit lands on request from the Inuvialuit. If the EISC decides the proposed development could have a significant negative impact on the environment or on present or future wildlife harvesting, it is referred by the Committee to the EIRB or other appropriate review bodies for an environmental impact review.
The EISC consists of seven members of which three are appointed by the IGC, and three by the Government of Canada from candidates designated by each of the governments of Canada, Yukon and the Northwest Territories. The chair is appointed by the Government of Canada with the consent of the IGC.
Forty-two project descriptions were submitted in 2002-2003, about two thirds of the number received the previous year. This decrease appeared to be directly related to the reduction in gas exploration in the ISR.
Four project descriptions were withdrawn by the proponents before completion of the screening process: a pipeline project submitted by Arctigas Resources Limited Partnership and seismic programs submitted by Shell Canada Ltd (2) and Anadarko Canada Corporation (1).
In total, the EISC screened 38 project descriptions during 2002-2003 including developments associated with hydrocarbon exploration (13, comprising two camp water permits, two aquatic seismic programs, three onshore seismic programs, four drilling programs and two geotechnical investigation programs), research (8), tourism (7), land leases for communications towers (2) or traditional camps (2), DEW Line clean-up (1), diamond exploration (1), a communication site access road (1), relocation of a reindeer corral (1), tide gauging station placement (1) and emergency shelter placement (1).
Of the proposed developments, the EISC determined that 35 would have no significant negative impact. A project description submitted by WesternGeco in April 2002 for its Mackenzie Valley 2D Seismic Program was found to be deficient. When revised and revisited in May 2002,it was deemed to have the potential for significant negative impact and was referred to the EIRB. Similarly, a project description submitted by Commander Resources Ltd. for its proposed diamond exploration on Victoria Island was at first deferred to obtain comments from the community and later found to have the potential for significant negative impact. It was referred to the EIRB in September 2002.
The screening process for 35 of the 38 submissions required less than 60 days to complete. Fifteen (39 percent) of the submissions were screened in less than 30 days from the date of receipt, requiring a resolution by the EISC to waive the standard requirement. Three submissions took more than 60 days to process, as the EISC deferred screening to obtain comments from the relevant HTC or further information from the proponent.
In addition to developments that are screened, the EISC asks to be informed of other projects that are proposed for Crown lands within the ISR, but for various reasons are exempt from the screening process. The task is undertaken so the EISC may have a broad picture of the activities being carried out within the ISR for the purposes of a cumulative impact assessment. The EISC greatly appreciated the efforts of the co-management boards and the regulatory authorities during the year, which kept the EISC apprised of such activities. At the end of 2002-2003, the ILA also agreed to notify the EISC of projects on Inuvialuit private lands.
The majority of exemptions in 2002-2003 were research projects that had gone through the IFA co-management process or were not government sponsored or funded research. Other screening exemptions may be found in Appendix C of the EISC's Operating Guidelines and Procedures, which lists all projects and the reason for exemptions.
The EISC routinely accepts presentations from developers with project descriptions before the EISC, particularly when the proposal is controversial or complex. During the year, the EISC received 10 presentations and 10 guests.
Operating Guidelines and Procedures, April September 2002
The EISC completed revisions of its Operating Guidelines and Procedures manual in September 2002. The most controversial revision was the inclusion of nongovernment sponsored or funded research on the exemptions list, which was done by the EISC following legal advice. Co-management boards were dissatisfied with this exemption, and discussions were ongoing at year end.
Other activities of the EISC included the following.
- The EISC reviewed and forwarded comments to Parks Canada on its draft Ivvavik National Park Management Plan. Comments included a request that the IFA environmental impact screening and review process be specifically mentioned and that it be clarified that nongovernment funded research is now exempt from the screening process.
- The report, A Review of Mineral Activities in the ISR,1997-2002, was completed and forwarded to the signatories of the Mineral Agreement, he assistant deputy minister, Northern Affairs Program, INAC and the chair of the IRC.
- A proposal describing the coordination of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and IFA requirements for screening and review of the proposed Devon offshore drilling project was examined and comments forwarded to the NEB.
- The EISC reviewed and forwarded comments to the EIRB regarding its draft criteria for establishing environmental standards and a developer's standard of performance in the Husky Lakes area. These comments focussed on broadening the statement of purpose to include all Inuvialuit.
- In a joint letter with the EIRB and the WMAC-NS, the EISC expressed concerns regarding the duplication of the environmental screening process on the Yukon North Slope to the standing committee examining the Yukon Environmental and Socioeconomic Assessment Act.
- The EISC reviewed and forwarded comments to the Aurora Research Institute regarding its publication, Doing Research in the Northwest Territories: A Guide to Researchers.
- During the year, EISC members attended 15 meetings, conferences or workshops.
6.5 Environmental Impact Review Board
Established under subsection 11(18) of the Agreement, the EIRB is responsible for carrying out the environmental impact assessment and public review of development projects referred to it by the EISC pursuant to the IFA. The Board recommends whether development projects should proceed and under what terms and conditions, including those regarding measures to minimize the negative impact of projects on wildlife harvesting. If wildlife compensation is an issue, it recommends limits of liability for the developer.
As the environmental impact assessment and review body for any development referred to it pursuant to the IFA, the EIRB is structured so government and Inuvialuit are represented equally. Three members are appointed by the Government of Canada, three by the IGC and a seventh member, the chair, is appointed by the Government of Canada with the consent of the IGC. Of the three members appointed by the Government of Canada, one is designated by each of the governments of Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Canada.
Goals of the IFA directly relevant to the Board's operations are to protect and preserve the Arctic wildlife, the environment and biological productivity.
The Board held three regular meetings and four teleconferences during the year.
In 2002, the EISC referred two projects to the EIRB for public review.
- Commander Resources' proposed diamond exploration, Victoria Island, was referred on September 6, 2002. The developer submitted its environmental impact statement (EIS) to the EIRB in late November. Public meetings were then held in Holman on February 5 and 6, 2003 to hear the views of the community regarding this project. The EIRB Review Panel considered all the information before it and the decision, contained in a final report, was released on February 18, 2003. The Review Panel recommended the project proceed subject to certain terms and conditions, which included mitigative and remedial measures.
- The WesternGeco Mackenzie Delta River 2D Seismic Program 2002 was referred on June 18, 2002. The developer postponed submission of an EIS to carry out research on the project during the summer of 2002. The developer then submitted its EIS, which included the research results, on January 7, 2003. Public meetings are scheduled to be held in Aklavik, Tuktoyaktuk and Inuvik in mid-April 2003.
Again this year, the EIRB worked on developing criteria for establishing acceptable environmental standards and evaluating a developers' standard of performance for the Husky Lakes area as required by section 8(1) of the IFA. The Board held a workshop in May 2002 in Inuvik which was attended by 20 interested parties. A draft of the criteria was circulated in June. Members of the EIRB travelled to Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk in August to meet with the Inuvik and Tuktoyaktuk HTCs to discuss the draft.
The Board was represented on the Northern Pipeline Environmental Impact Assessment and Regulatory Chairs' Committee and participated in the completion of the Cooperation Plan.
6.6 Joint Secretariat
The Joint Secretariat was incorporated as a society in 1986. Although it was not provided for under the IFA, the parties saw fit to establish a secretariat to provide funding, administrative and technical support services to the IGC, and the wildlife and environmental committees, councils and boards. It establishes and maintains working liaisons with Inuvialuit organizations, government, industry, the academic sector and other relevant agencies or organizations. It also performs library and data archival duties in lieu of the Research Advisory Council (RAC).
The chairs of the four co-management boards and the IGC constitute the Secretariat's members.
The Board of Directors held two regular and an annual general meeting during 2002-2003. All meetings were held in Whitehorse, Yukon.
The Secretariat hired three additional staff in 2002-2003, which provided much needed assistance to Secretariat technical staff, the IGC, other co-management bodies and the HTCs. Although the level of industry activity was slightly less this year, the northern gas project coordination activity, climate-change, cumulative effects and contaminants issues, and new government legislation kept the staff members extremely busy. The workload of the existing staff was redistributed, and feedback was provided among the Secretariat committees and boards, and the communities as represented by the HTCs.
An area critical to Secretariat activities is offshore research. To this end, Secretariat staff and the IGC chair participated in the Dewline to Sea Change workshop in Kananaskis. Staff are members of various steering committees, and have facilitated community-level research. The executive director is a member of the Canadian Climate Impacts and Adaptation Research Network's Coastal Zone and Northern committees, as well as the Program of Energy Research and Development's Northern Program. He facilitated climate-change studies by staff and students of Tampere Polytechnic (Finland) within the Western Arctic, and instructed land claims and protected areas modules for the Natural Resources Training Program of Arctic College in addition to providing tutorials and guidance to an Inuvialuit student conducting a lake climate-change project within the ISR. He also made a presentation to the International Association of Impact Assessment's Western and Northern Affiliate on sea-ice changes in the Beaufort.
Other roles and activities of the executive director included the following.
- He was a member of the northern research advisory group which assists the chair of the Environmental Studies Research Fund in prioritizing and facilitating research relevant to the oil and gas industry in the Western Arctic. Within the context of a specific Environmental Studies Research Fund initiative, he and other Secretariat staff, together with IGC and ILA staff, are members of the Technical Advisory Group, which is planning a workshop to deal with the issue of drilling waste disposal in the Western Arctic.
- The executive director was a member of the Arctic Regional Advisory Council to the Canadian Coast Guard. The Council, in addition to other meetings, convened a well-attended public meeting in Inuvik this year.
- The executive director acted as lead on an Arctic Council project via the Emergency Prevention, Preparedness and Response Working Group, which is developing a circumpolar arctic shoreline and clean-up technology manual, largely in cooperation with the United States Coast Guard and Environment Canada. This has particular relevance to the ISR.
- Together with other Secretariat staff and the FJMC, the executive director worked on developing an IFA co-management presentation to the North Atlantic Marine Mammal Commission Conference on User Knowledge and Scientific Knowledge in Iceland.
The Secretariat liaises with the IRC and other Inuit organizations such as ITK and the Inuit Circumpolar Council. This year, the liaison function was broadened to include the Aurora Research Institute, the Tampere Polytechnic and the Arctic Institute of North America. Areas of cooperation include climate change issues, research specific to these issues, contaminant research, research in general, new legislation, regulations and permitting procedures.
Throughout the year, the Joint Secretariat and the IGC held numerous meetings with the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency to deal with the comprehensive study process proposed for Devon Canada's offshore drilling program and with CAPP concerning oil and gas exploration in the ISR.
The Secretariat, other co-management boards and the IGC were increasingly involved in the development and implementation of new or revised federal and territorial legislation such the as Species at Risk Act, the amendments to the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act, and the new NWT Wildlife Act.
7. Government of the Northwest Territories
Under the terms of the IFA, the Government of the Northwest Territories is responsible for appointing the chair and territorial government members as well as providing a secretariat for the WMAC-NWT, providing the administrative and operational costs of the IGC and the six community HTCs, designating a member and remunerating the costs to each of the EISC, EIRB and Arbitration Board, and providing the budget for the operation and maintenance of the RAC. An agreement was struck among all parties whereby RAC funding is provided to the Joint Secretariat for library services. The Government of the Northwest Territories is also responsible for providing operational funding to the Joint Secretariat, which provides technical and administrative support to the various IFA boards in the NWT.
7.1 Ministry of Aboriginal Affairs
Ministry officials worked closely with other territorial government program departments and the Joint Secretariat to promote effective administration of territorial government implementation funding by coordinating the annual funding agreement process, monitoring departmental implementation budgets, recommending funding reallocations between approved implementation tasks and ensuring the timely carryover of implementation dollars to future years. A major task in 2002-2003 was projecting the funding requirements for the next five-year implementation period. Once again, the Ministry worked closely with other departments and the Joint Secretariat to develop the NWT funding submission to the Government of Canada. The Ministry was also responsible for preparing the Government of the NWT component of this annual report.
The Ministry met with Government of Canada and IRC representatives to discuss amending the IFA with respect to participation costs for Inuvialuit appointees to the EISC, EIRB, WMAC-NWT and WMAC-NS. Agreement was reached on wording, and this amendment will be part of the overall amendment package expected to be finalized in the next fiscal year.
The Ministry continued to address the long standing issue of municipal requirements for Inuvialuit lands. Government of the NWT occupancy and use of Inuvialuit lands for municipal infrastructure purposes have been issues since the signing of the IFA. During the land selection process and in the absence of legal land surveys, the Inuvialuit-selected lands included government infrastructure, such as garbage dumps, sewage lagoons, water intake sites and related access roads. This created the problem of municipal infrastructure being situated on private Inuvialuit lands.
The territorial government has consistently advocated a land exchange to resolve this issue, and provided Inuvialuit with land quantum requirements and community maps identifying the municipal infrastructure sites. The ILA reviewed this information, provided comments, and identified possible lands for exchange. Discussions continue, and the Government of the NWT is hopeful this long outstanding issue may soon be resolved.
As a result of the land selection process, certain airport lands also became Inuvialuit lands. The 1991 Airport Transfer Agreement between the governments of Canada and the Northwest Territories commits Transport Canada to acquiring the title to the additional lands necessary for airport purposes in Sachs Harbour, Paulatuk and Holman. The Government of Canada and Inuvialuit are pursuing a land exchange to resolve this issue. Ministry officials worked very closely with the NWT Department of Transportation to ensure that NWT airport interests are protected.
The Ministry participated in two meetings with Inuvialuit, Yukon and federal government officials to discuss outstanding implementation issues. The IFA ICC has provided a positive forum for addressing and resolving outstanding implementation issues.
7.2 Resources, Wildlife and Economic Development
The Department worked closely with the IRC and Inuvialuit communities to promote Inuvialuit employment opportunities and economic self-sufficiency. During this reporting period, RWED provided significant funding to the IRC for capacity building related to the oil and gas industry. The Department also provided support to various Inuvialuit businesses for on-the-job training in the oil and gas, tourism and information technology fields. The Department provided business advice, counselling and support, and assisted Inuvialuit businesses and individuals to access financial support from various sources.
The pilot program for the new guide training program initiated in Sachs Harbour was delivered in Paulatuk and plans are underway for additional programs for Tuktoyaktuk and Holman.
The Department continued to work very closely with the appropriate Inuvialuit organizations in revising the NWT Wildlife Act that incorporates the IFA and species at risk legislation. The Department also continued to work with Inuvialuit on draft regulations for harvesting Porcupine caribou along the Dempster Highway and on a variety of other legislative amendments with respect to the harvesting of various species in the ISR.
The Department worked closely and cooperatively with the IGC, WMAC-NWT and local HTCs on all matters regarding wildlife management in the ISR. Wildlife studies were a significant part of RWED's operations with progress achieved in the following areas.
Collection of Harvest Data
The Inuvialuit Harvest Study was terminated in late winter 2001. However, RWED, DFO and the CWS maintained studies with the Sachs Harbour, Holman and Paulatuk HTCs to document the number of caribou and selected fish species harvested in these communities.
Banks Island Caribou and Muskox
Activities were directed at summarizing results of various population and habitat studies completed since 1993. Recommendations on the future population and habitat research needs will be provided during 2003-2004. During the year, RWED continued to work on the following.
- Monitor the harvest of Peary caribou, muskoxen and wolves on Banks Island.
- Determine, in collaboration with the University of Alberta, the genetic relationships of caribou on the Arctic islands. This work was completed, manuscripts were prepared for publication, and results were presented at national and international science conferences.
- Provide a habitat classification map for Banks Island and maps showing the movements of satellite radio-collared female caribou to the Sachs Harbour HTC, the WMAC-NWT and IGC on a regular basis.
- Obtain baseline data on abomasal parasites and assess their impact on the reproductive physiology of muskox, in cooperation with the universities of Saskatchewan and Fairbanks. Several publications were prepared and results were presented at national and international science conferences. The Department implemented a program to monitor annually the prevalence and intensity of infection of muskox by abomasal parasites. This work will develop a long-term database to determine changes in the prevalence and intensity of infections by these parasites as a result of climate change.
- Document, in cooperation with researchers from the Agriculture and Agro-Food Canada Research Centre, the health, condition and reproductive status of harvested animals and develop pre-mortem nutritional therapies and aging techniques to improve the quality of meat produced at large scale commercial harvests. Several publications were prepared and results were presented at national science conferences.
Northwest Victoria Island
The Department began preparations to undertake a satellite tracking study of Peary caribou on Northwest Victoria Island, with the purchase of a number of satellite collars to be deployed during the summer 2003.
Barrenground, Arctic Island and Peary Caribou Genetic Study
The Department RWED continued to work with the University of Alberta to complete studies verifying the genetic relationships between Porcupine, Cape Bathurst, Bluenose-West, Bluenose-East, Bathurst, Dolphin and Union, Minto Inlet, Banks Island and Melville Island caribou. A manuscript was prepared for publication.
Cape Bathurst and Bluenose-West Caribou
The seventh year of the satellite tracking program was completed. Maps showing the location and movements of the satellite-collared caribou were provided to the 12 user communities and wildlife co-management bodies. Movements of the Cape Bathurst and Bluenose-West caribou herds in relationship to the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline were documented. Seismic companies working in the Richards Island and lower Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula area provided partial funding for this project.
Animations displaying the movements of animals in the Cape Bathurst, Bluenose-West, Central Arctic, Porcupine, Bluenose-East, Bathurst and Dolphin and Union caribou herds were completed. These animations were incorporated into a web-based program available to the public on the RWED Web site and as a CDROM. This work was completed in cooperation with biologists in Alaska, Yukon, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut.
Working cooperatively with Parks Canada, a productivity survey was conducted to estimate the number of cows on the Cape Bathurst and Bluenose-West calving grounds and to determine the number of calves produced by these herds.
Grizzly Bears and Seismic Exploration
The Department continued to monitor the movements of grizzly bears in the Mackenzie gas project area. Global positioning system collars deployed in the fall of 2001 were recovered, and the activity and temperature sensor data were downloaded. These data will be analyzed during 2003-2004. Preparations were made to employ a University of Alberta graduate student to undertake more detailed studies to assess the potential impacts of exploration and development activity on grizzly bears in the development area.
Richardson Mountains Grizzly Bear
The Department prepared a draft report summarizing the results of the 10year productivity study completed in 2001.
Grizzly Bear Harvest
The grizzly bear harvest and problem bear occurrence/kill databases for the Inuvik Region were maintained. Reviews of quotas and harvest information for each community hunting area were presented in the annual Summary of Harvest Data for Species Under Quota in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region report prepared for the WMAC-NWT and WMAC-NS. The Department prepared posters showing the number, sex and kill sites for grizzly bears harvested during the NWT quota years 1997-1998 to 2001-2002 and sent copies to each HTC and to the IGC, WMAC-NWT and WMAC-NS.
The Department participated in a workshop to review grizzly bear management in the ISR. Subsequent to the workshop, an analysis of population and harvest data for grizzly bears in the ISR (Northwest Territories and Yukon) was completed.
Recommendations were made to increase quotas in the Northwest Territories and Yukon.
Polar Bear Population Studies
The Department continued to monitor the movements of 20 female polar bears equipped with satellite collars in April 2000. Maps showing the movements of these bears were distributed to the HTCs, IGC and WMAC-NWT on a monthly basis. Preparations were made to undertake mark-recapture studies to update estimates of the numbers of polar bears in the North and South Beaufort Sea populations. This work is being done in cooperation with the CWS and the United States Fish and Wildlife Service.
Polar Bear Harvest
The polar bear harvest and problem bear occurrence/kill databases were maintained for the Inuvik Region. Reviews of quotas and harvest information for each community were presented in the annual Summary of Harvest Data for Species Under Quota in the Inuvialuit Settlement Region report prepared for the WMAC-NWT. The Department prepared posters showing the number, sex and kill sites for polar bears harvested during the NWT quota years 1997-1998 to 2001-2002 and sent copies to each HTC, and to the IGC and WMAC-NWT. The Department also prepared the annual report submitted to the Canadian Polar Bear Technical Committee and the Inuvialuit-Inupiat polar bear commissioners.
Skulls and carcasses purchased from hunters and trappers on Banks and Northwest Victoria islands were analyzed to determine age, sex, incidence of disease, diet and general body condition. Tissue samples were also collected for future DNA and fatty acid signature analysis.
Work continued on the assessment of the prevalence of parasites in Dall's sheep in the Richardson Mountains. A survey was conducted in late August to determine population numbers, and lamb/nursery sheep ratios in several mountain blocks. These results suggest sheep numbers have continued to decline in some areas of the Richardson Mountains.
In co-operation with the Western College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Saskatchewan, RWED worked to assess the potential for transmission of muskox lungworm to Dall's sheep. This work was completed and a manuscript was prepared for publication.
Most of the ISR east of the Mackenzie Delta was surveyed in early May 2002 to estimate muskox population numbers and productivity. Results of the survey indicate muskox numbers have declined by about 50 percent since 1997.
Information Gaps Workshop
The Department and the Western Biophysical Study hosted a workshop to identify gaps in information required to manage wildlife species or habitats under NWT jurisdiction. Representatives from the HTCs, renewable resources councils and co-management boards participated in the workshop. A summary of workshop recommendations was prepared and distributed.
Plans of survey of the 7(1)(a) and 7(1)(b) Inuvialuit parcels, comprising 173 survey plan sheets, have been registered in the Land Titles Office. In addition, a plan of survey for the Wynniatt Region Adjustment Area (Annex K6 of the IFA) has been registered. Certificates of title have been issued to the ILC for all 13 Inuvialuit land parcels and to the IRC for the adjustment portion of the Wynniatt Region Adjustment Area. The plans of survey for the Annex "R" reservations were endorsed on the backs of the applicable certificates of title.
The Department's Legal Division continued to contribute to the implementation of the IFA by providing legal advice on matters, such as government usage of Inuvialuit lands, proposed land exchange and IFA amendments. Advice was also rendered on consistency of the IFA with the proposed changes to the NWT Wildlife Act.
7.4 Public Works and Services
In support of the economic measures provisions in section 16 of the IFA, and consistent with the territorial government preferential contracting policies and procedures intended to maximize local, regional and northern employment and business opportunities, the following sole source contracts were awarded by Public Works and Services (PW&S) to businesses owned by Inuvialuit beneficiaries:
- $63,000 to Inuvialuit Environmental and Geotechnical for a survey and reconnaissance at Kudlak Lake; and
- $54,000 to Dowland Contracting Ltd., to inspect and repair the fuel tank at Holman.
The following contracts were awarded by PW&S to Inuvialuit-owned businesses:
- $73,400 to Dowland Contracting Ltd. for garage renovations in Fort McPherson;
- $61,000 to Dowland Contracting Ltd. for tenant improvement renovations to territorial government leased office space in Yellowknife;
- $16,600 to L.J.'s Contracting for Water Lake decommissioning work in Fort McPherson;
- $12,000 to Dowland Contracting Ltd. for Riello burners in Tuktoyaktuk and Aklavik;
- $6,450 to Dowland Contracting Ltd. for a drain valve in Inuvik; and
- $5,800 to Dowland Contracting Ltd. for a generator for Deep Water Lake.
An additional 33 contracts totalling $941,755 were awarded in the ISR. The Department continued to maintain the following leases:
- a five-year $83,000 per annum lease with the IDC for office space in Inuvik;
- a ten-year $74,000 per annum lease with the IDC for office space in Aklavik; and
- an eight-year $123,000 per annum lease with the IDC for office space in Tuktoyaktuk.
8. Yukon Governement
The Yukon Secretariat is responsible for overseeing the Yukon Government's implementation obligations under the IFA by addressing the legislative, policy or procedural requirements to implement the IFA. It is also responsible for preparing the Yukon Government component of this annual report. Other Secretariat responsibilities include the administrative requirements related to the appointment of the chair and a Yukon Government member to the WMAC-NS, and the designation of a member and remuneration of costs to each of the EIRB, EISC and Arbitration Board. Implementation funds are managed by the Secretariat for participation on the abovementioned boards and committees, ongoing wildlife research on the Yukon North Slope, and in Herschel Island (Qikiqtaruk) Territorial Park.
8.1 Amendments to the Yukon Trapping Regulations
The Department of Environment produced a draft paper identifying possible conflicts between the Trapping Regulations and the IFA and provided the paper to the WMAC-NS and IGC in September 2002 as a starting point for discussion with the Trapping Regulations Working Group.
The first meeting of the Working Group was held January 14, 2003 in Whitehorse to discuss amendments to the Trapping Regulations. Based on the discussions of the Working Group, a draft scoping document was prepared and distributed to the Working Group for comment in February 2003.
8.2 Wildlife Programs
Porcupine Caribou Studies
The Porcupine Caribou Herd Satellite Location Program, which began in 1997, continued during the year. The Program monitors up to 10 caribou with satellite collars. The Yukon Government administers the program and deploys the collars which are purchased by cooperating agencies and organizations. The Program's Web site www.taiga.net/satellite is updated each week and maps of caribou locations are faxed out to about 30 recipients across the north. This year, "Journey North", an Internet-based educational program, began using these data to teach students from all over the world about the Porcupine caribou herd.
In March 2003, the Yukon Government deployed 21 conventional radio collars on 10 bulls, two adult cows and nine short yearling females. These collars were purchased by Vuntut National Park, the CWS and the NWT government. Radio-collared animals are used to find the herd for the composition counts each year and for the census every two or three years.
Aklavik Harvest Data Collection
The Yukon Government began work with the Aklavik HTC to collect information on the number of caribou, moose, sheep, swans and furbearers harvested. A local person was hired through the Aklavik HTC to interview key Inuvialuit hunters in the community. This work will continue in 2003.
The Yukon Government and Parks Canada are continuing the Muskox Satellite Program. Five muskox with satellite collars were recaptured in July 2002. Four of the collars were replaced and four new muskox captured. Radio collars assist in finding groups for surveys and documenting the muskox movements. These collars will be removed at the end of the program in 2005.
The Yukon Government and Parks Canada completed another muskox population survey and composition count in April 2003. A total of 85 muskox were recorded on the coastal plain between the Alaska border and Shingle Point. Another 10 were recorded outside the survey area. This count marks the 13th muskox survey on the Yukon North Slope since 1986.
The Yukon Government funded an experimental study with the University of Saskatchewan to determine if Dall's sheep would become infected with muskox lungworm if muskox in the east were mixed with the Yukon/NWT Dall's sheep population. The study found the sheep did not become infected with the parasite.
Herschel Island Studies
The Yukon Government Parks and Regional Management continued work on Herschel Island ecological monitoring. This program documents various plant measurements and ground/permafrost temperatures using ITEX protocols, which will allow a comparison of Herschel Island with other sites in the circumpolar north.
The Yukon Government contributed to a study of ground temperatures and recent climate warming conducted by Carleton University. This study integrates well with ecological monitoring for the island.
The Yukon Government contributed significant staff time to a WMAC-NS and Aklavik HTC collaboration which involved interviewing Aklavik Inuvialuit active on the land. A 55page report describes the seasonal activities of these hunters and trappers, and their observations of changes in numbers, range, habitat and condition of many species, plus some comments on other animals and birds.
Three of the other Wildlife Program projects recommended by the WMAC-NS in 2002-2003 did not proceed. The Richardson Mountain sheep and the Richardson Mountain muskox joint planning projects did not get started this year. While the sheep project was cancelled, the funds for the muskox planning were carried over to 2003-2004. Funds were also set aside for a hunter education workshop in Aklavik. This project was also postponed until 2003-2004 as the Porcupine Caribou Management Board already had numerous education projects in Aklavik.
8.3 Qikiqtaruk (Herschel Island) Territorial Park
There were 616 visitors to the Qikiqtaruk (Herschel Island) Territorial Park during the 2002 season. Two cruise ships (249 visitors) and a coast guard icebreaker visited the island. There were more campers (including 49 rafters) as Ivvavik was closed for a week due to the large number of bears along the First River Corridor. Sixty-seven Inuvialuit also visited the island. Five park use permits were issued in 2002.
The visitor survey questionnaire for the Park continued in 2002. The main purpose is to gather accurate information on the number of park visitors. This allows managers to make informed decisions regarding visitor management and their impacts on the cultural, historical and natural resources of the Park. Visitors were asked to record their arrival mode, length of stay, number of individuals in party, country of origin, day use or overnight, perception of park, and satisfaction level along with suggestions for park improvements. Information from the surveys was collected and input into a Yukon Government data system for further analysis. These surveys are ongoing, providing information for resource management and development of information programs.
Wildlife Observations and Harvest
Eight grizzly bears and two polar bears were observed on Herschel Island this season. Between 70 and 100 caribou were on the Island in the spring, but the number had dropped to about 35 by the time the ice receded. Four muskox were also on the Island in the spring, but were gone by the end of June.
It is estimated that three grizzlies, five caribou, 327 charr and 74 herring were harvested this past year from the Island. This season's harvests on Herschel Island went very well, with only one incident involving harvesters being reported. As part of the implementation of the Bear Strategy Plan, the Aklavik HTC was informed of the incident and the concerns were to be passed on to the membership.
Qikiqtaruk (Herschel Island) Management Plan Review
The formal review of the Qikiqtaruk (Herschel Island) Territorial Park Management Plan began in June 2000. As Inuvialuit are the primary users of the Park, consultation with the IGC, Aklavik HTC and WMAC-NS has continued throughout the review phase. Consultation to allow the public and interested stakeholders an opportunity to participate in the review occurred during this period with meetings in Inuvik, Aklavik, Dawson and Whitehorse. Following the initial consultation phase, several drafts of the management plan have been prepared and circulated for comment and review.
During 2002-2003, two draft versions of the Plan were circulated, with the last review completed in November 2002. In December, the WMAC-NS held a one-day workshop to work through the outstanding issues and determine the best management strategies to adopt in the Plan. It was then redrafted to ensure the goals and objectives in the Plan reflect the intent of the IFA and capture the comanagement approach that applies to the Yukon North Slope. A second workshop will be held in 2003 to review the final draft. Once completed, the Qikiqtaruk (Herschel Island) Territorial Park Management Plan could then move forward for recommendation and approval as early as the end of the 2003-2004 fiscal year.
Herschel Island Heritage Resources
In 2002, members of the Heritage Resources Unit of Tourism and Culture carried out repairs to various windows and other building components. The crew investigated each building as part of the annual monitoring program and developed a work plan for 2003. Equipment was purchased in order to move the Northern Whaling & Trading Co. warehouse back from the water's edge in 2003. Increasingly violent fall storms in recent years have caused ice damage to the building and increased shoreline erosion at this location. A shed addition to the building had to be dismantled in 2001 for this reason.
A series of four posters depicting archaeological work and findings on the Island have been designed to enhance the interpretation of Inuvialuit occupation and use of the Island. These will be put up in the visitor welcoming area in the Community House. Discreet exterior signs were also developed, advising visitors of the sensitivity of the wetland areas and grave sites. These will be installed in 2003.
Other Park Activities
A slide show to introduce people to Herschel Island Territorial Park was held during the summer at the Visitors' Centre in Inuvik.
The rangers took part in training on the workplace hazardous materials information system and transportation of dangerous goods at Aurora College in Inuvik. They also took a swift water course in Whitehorse.
9. Governement of Canada
9.1 Indian and Northern Affairs Canada
The Implementation Branch serves as a liaison on IFA implementation issues for the co-management boards, territorial governments and other federal government departments. Its activities include:
- negotiating and monitoring the funding arrangements with various implementing bodies having obligations under the IFA and/or responsibilities pursuant to the IFA, and monitoring federal implementation activities to ensure compliance with the land claim agreement;
- processing the appointments by the governments of Canada, Yukon and the Northwest Territories to the Arbitration Board, EIRB and EISC;
- processing amendments to the IFA; and publishing the annual report of the IFA ICC.
The director general of Implementation Branch serves as the Government of Canada member to the IFA ICC, and the director of the Implementation Management Directorate is the alternate. They participated in the two meetings of the IFA ICC in April and October 2002.
During the year, activities of the Implementation Branch included:
- processing appointments of the Yukon designated member of the Arbitration Board, and the Yukon and Northwest Territories designated members to the EISC;
- in co-operation with the NWT Regional Office, provision of funding to the Joint Secretariat, EISC and EIRB for their increased workload related to oil and gas activity in the ISR, and for participation in the Northern Pipeline Environmental Impact Assessment and Regulatory Chairs' Committee/Working Group;
- initiation of discussions regarding the renewal of IFA implementation funding with the various co-management boards and implementation stakeholders; and finalizing the IFA amendment package with the IRC.
In addition, the Implementation Branch followed up on the report of the Section 16 Economic Measures Review, which was submitted to the IFA ICC in February 2002, and at year-end, was awaiting the IRC's response to the report.
Northern Affairs Program
The Program administers legislation concerning the disposition and use of Crown lands, inland waters, the offshore, non-renewable resources, and overall environmental protection within the Northwest Territories, Nunavut and Yukon.
The Northern Affairs Program administers funding provided for conducting granular (sand and gravel) inventories. With the recent increase in oil and gas exploration activities and development proposals, there was renewed concern about the overall potential of the region to meet both short-and long-erm public, community and industrial requirements for granular resources.
During 2002-2003, work continued toward establishing a joint (Canada-Inuvialuit) regional granular resources management plan that will integrate granular resource potential, inventories of granular supplies, and future granular demands with other land-related information for the ISR. In support of this initiative, a prototype Internet-based information mapping and exchange system was developed. This system follows the recommendations of the feasibility and requirements study completed the previous year, and uses the common regional base mapping for the Mackenzie Delta portions of the ISR that was also developed in 2001-2002. When completed, the full system will be used for information sharing and consultation regarding the development of the regional granular resources management plan. Completion of the granular resources management plan is planned for the next fiscal year.
A second contract initiated in 2002-2003 will update the existing geotechnical and geological borehole databases for the ISR, including the Beaufort Sea, with particular emphasis given to those delineating granular resources and identifying massive ice. This database will also be incorporated into the granular resources management plan.
Northern Oil and Gas Directorate
The Northern Oil and Gas Directorate routinely engages in environmental consultations with the IGC, representing the HTCs, prior to offering onshore and offshore lands to the oil and gas industry. Environmental information obtained from the IGC greatly assists INAC in identifying and confirming environmental sensitivities within the ISR. This information is carefully considered by the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development before offering Crown lands to industry.
As part of the consultation process, a meeting was held with the IGC on September 25, 2002 in Whitehorse to review the results of the previous year's ISR Crown lands offering, and to examine the environmental sensitivity of certain onshore and offshore lands in the next call for nominations. Subsequent to this meeting, separate discussions were held with the Aklavik and Inuvik HTCs concerning certain onshore Mackenzie Delta lands being considered for offering to the oil and gas industry.
Oil and gas exploration activities continued on the exploration licences issued by INAC in 1999 and 2002 for Crown lands in the Mackenzie Delta. These activities were undertaken in accordance with benefit plans approved under the Canada Oil and Gas Operations Act and resulted in a wide range of employment, training and business supply and service contracts for Inuvialuit and other northerners.
The Directorate, INAC NWT Regional Office and Inuvialuit representatives met twice to discuss possible ways to harmonize INAC and Inuvialuit arrangements for benefits from oil and gas activities. Discussions are continuing.
Receipt of royalty filings and the assessment of royalties on the basis of laws and regulations in force on December 31, 1983 were underway.
Additional information concerning oil and gas activities in the north can be found at the Northern Oil and Gas Directorate's Web site.
Land Administration is responsible for the administration of Crown lands, including subsurface, within the ISR. Indian and Northern Affairs regional and district staff held meetings with the ILA to discuss land management practices for land parcels where INAC is identified as the holder, but the land is under an encumbrance.
It was agreed that final inspections and a joint sign off will be done on the sites by the ILA and INAC district office. Once Land Administration has been advised on the procedure for removing the encumbrance, it will be responsible for ensuring the INAC-held parcels are processed according to the procedure. No INAC-held parcels have been jointly signed off to date.
Land Administration reviewed and provided information on a land exchange for airport land owned by Inuvialuit, which is being negotiated between Inuvialuit and Transport Canada.
The monitoring of a landfill site at Horton River is ongoing to ensure there is no change in the environmental stability of the site.
Northern Contaminants Program
The Northern Contaminants Program provided $40,000 for an Inuvialuit regional contaminants coordinator to deal with general contaminant issues within the ISR. The IRC received $2,800 to investigate contaminants from the Inuvik landfill. The Inuvialuit have representation on the NWT Contaminants Committee, which supports the attendance of the representative at meetings and national workshops.
Economic Activity Funding
The following programs provided a total of $1,706,684 to support the objectives of the economic measures chapter:
- Community Economic Development Program: $370,684 to the Inuvialuit CEDO for community-driven, economic development support;
- Major Business Projects Program: $1,076,000 to the IDC to assist with the purchase of Drilling Rig and Camp #63;
- Regional Opportunities Program: $25,000 to the IRC for an examination of the feasibility of a muskox harvest and product development;
- Resources Opportunity Program: $40,000 to the Inuvialuit CEDO to organize and host an economic development workshop;
- Resources Partnership Program: $110,000 to the IRC, which was 25 percent of the total funding provided, to examine an ownership position in the proposed Mackenzie Valley gas pipeline;
- Resources Partnership Program: $35,000 to the IRC for the development of an investment strategy, new governance model and organizational structure; and
- Resource Access Negotiations: $50,000 to the IDC for assistance to complete negotiations related to wind energy power generation for Inuvialuit communities.
On May 22, 2001, the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development, the Premier of the NWT and leaders of the NWT regional Aboriginal organizations (known collectively as the Aboriginal Summit) endorsed a memorandum of understanding in which they agreed to work toward establishing a formal process to negotiate the devolution of federal responsibilities over land and water resources in the NWT.
Discussions on a framework agreement began in the fall of 2002 following the announcement of the appointment of chief negotiators for the Aboriginal Summit, and the governments of the Northwest Territories and Canada. The IRC participated in discussions with other members of the Aboriginal Summit. Funding for the participation of the Aboriginal Summit members is provided by the NWT government and INAC.
9.2 Department of Fisheries and Oceans
Fisheries and Oceans provides support to the FJMC and is responsible for making policy and regulatory changes to accommodate Inuvialuit rights concerning the harvest, trade, transport and co-management of fish and marine mammal resources in the ISR. This year, DFO supported and promoted Inuvialuit representation in the Beaufort Sea New Emerging Fisheries Policy.
The Department also promotes the principle of cooperative management of the fisheries resources in the ISR, with full cooperation from the Inuvialuit. During the year, 27 projects were conducted through joint efforts between DFO and the FJMC. The FJMC met with the senior managers and scientists of DFO's Central and Arctic Region to review progress and plan projects.
Twenty-three projects were conducted by DFO scientists/biologists in consultation with the HTCs.
- Fish: Lower Mackenzie River coregonid index netting project, Holman Charr Fisheries Plan, Holman Fish Lake monitoring; Paulatuk Community Fishing Plan, Hornaday charr community monitoring, West Side Charr Fishing Plan, and Husky Lakes trout monitoring.
- Marine Mammals: satellite tracking of ringed seals in the Beaufort Sea, seal monitoring, Beaufort Sea beluga reproduction, beluga tracking and dive time recording, beluga jaw aging, marine mammal disease sampling, and contaminants in the beluga and ringed seal.
- Other: community harvest monitoring, harvest study Sachs Harbour, harvest study Paulatuk, harvest study Tuktoyaktuk, Husky/Sitidgi lakes assessment, FJMC/DFO summer students (three), Alaska regulatory meeting, ISR fisheries registration/sport fishing and Hornaday water gauge.
During the year, DFO contributed $874,900 in implementation funding, divided between contribution agreement funds ($449,900) and project and support funds ($425,000).
The Canadian Coast Guard provided marine communications and traffic services on Great Slave Lake, the Mackenzie River and in Western Arctic waters from May to October 2002. Its mandate is to promote the safety of life at sea, the protection of the environment, and the safe and expeditious movement of marine transportation, by providing a maritime mobile safety radio communications service that covers Canada's Arctic waters and the Mackenzie-Athabasca Waterway system.
With respect to land administration activities of the Coast Guard, there are three sites which fall within the land set aside by Order-in-Council P.C. 19791154 for a reindeer grazing reserve. These sites have no hazardous materials and pose no threat to the reindeer.
The Arctic Regional Advisory Council held a public meeting on November 6, 2002 in Inuvik. Inuvik was also the site of a tabletop exercise by Environmental Response on November 7, 2002.
9.3 Environment Canada
Environment Canada, through the CWS, is represented on the wildlife management advisory councils, which deal with all significant wildlife issues in the ISR.
In co-operation with Inuvialuit, the CWS continued to carry out a number of studies of migratory birds in the ISR. These studies will help guarantee that populations are not overharvested and the habitat on which the birds depend receives adequate protection. During the past year, studies of migratory birds focussed on the populations and habitat of snow geese, the most heavily harvested species of migratory birds in the ISR. Long-term data were analyzed and summarized for this information to be used for wildlife conservation purposes. The CWS put considerable time and effort in procuring additional funding from outside of IFA-related sources to help address the conservation issues arising in the Western Arctic.
With the increase in oil and gas exploration in the ISR, Environment Canada invested a significant amount of effort in reviewing and screening development proposals and in planning for potential environmental impacts. Several new studies have been initiated which will help deal with the impacts of gas and oil development on wildlife in the ISR.
As well as serving the fundamental purpose of protecting the environment and wildlife conservation, Environment Canada programs benefit Inuvialuit in other tangible ways. About half of the IFA-related funding and other funds obtained by Environment Canada is spent on contracts with, or payments to, Inuvialuit-owned companies, organizations or individuals.
9.4 Canadian Heritage
Parks Canada is responsible for protecting natural and cultural resources, including the wildlife populations and habitat of the three national parks in the ISR: Ivvavik National Park in the western portion of the North Slope, Aulavik National Park on Banks Island and Tuktut Nogait National Park near Paulatuk.
The Pingo (Canadian Landmark) National Historic Site (NHS) is located six kilometres south-southwest of Tuktoyaktuk. Included within its boundaries is the largest pingo in Canada and a number of others at different stages of evolution. Created over a number of years, a pingo is an ice-cored mound produced when ice grows in or below permafrost as a result of water pressure.
The agreement to create the Pingo NHS is contained in subsection 7(70) of the IFA. Legislation passed in 1996 led to the creation of the Pingo NHS. A working committee including representatives from Parks Canada and several community organizations in Tuktoyaktuk was established to guide the development and preservation of the site. This committee signed the Pingo Canadian Landmark memorandum of understanding in December 2001. During 2002-2003, priorities for implementation were identified and undertaken by all represented groups. The committee also began drafting terms of reference and a vision statement.
The ILA and INAC continued to work on transferring lands of equal value to Inuvialuit for the NHS.
National Park Regulations
Consultations were ongoing with the IGC on a public consultation process to discuss required amendments to the National Park Regulations to ensure they conform to the IFA. One focus was an amendment to allow superintendents to permit quota hunts recommended by wildlife co-management boards and approved by the Minister of Canadian Heritage.
Inuvialuit Employment Strategy and Economic Opportunities
The majority of field employees in Ivvavik National Park are Inuvialuit beneficiaries. Two wardens and two patrol persons who are beneficiaries were employed during the 2002 field season. A mentoring program was in place in the field unit which placed experienced park wardens with patrol people for training purposes. An Inuvialuit employment strategy is being incorporated into the field unit human resources plan. Two Inuvialuit employees participated in an Aboriginal leadership development program.
The Western Arctic Field Unit initiated interpreter training as a means of enhancing employment opportunities for beneficiaries and the cultural component of tourism. An initial three-day course was offered in November 2002 with a follow-up course planned for the spring of 2003.
Park Canada continued to use Inuvialuit businesses on a preferred basis in the management and operation of Ivvavik National Park and other heritage resources in the ISR.
A memorandum of understanding on the First River rafting operation continued to be revised. Operational guidelines will be removed and attached as a separate document. The memorandum of understanding includes day use opportunities in the First River valley for Inuvialuit operators, including cultural interpreters and raft guides.
Porcupine Caribou Management Board
The Western Arctic field unit allocated funds to the Porcupine Caribou Management Board for various projects.
The condition of the remediated fuel spill and landfills at Komakuk Beach in Ivvavik was monitored.
National Park Management Plan Review
The National Park Management Plan review was completed in December 2002. The WMAC-NS recommended the revised draft Plan to the Minister of Canadian Heritage and at year-end, it was en route to the Minister for approval.
Research activities completed in 2002 included:
- data collection on age, sex and distribution of Dall's sheep in wintering grounds in Ivvavik National Park;
- mapping surficial geography and glacial history in Tuktut Nogait National Park;
- an oral history study among the Paulatuk elders for Tuktut Nogait National Park;
- data collection on observations of wildlife in all three parks;
- data collection on distribution, abundance and breeding status of birds in all three parks;
- surveying the number of peregrine falcons and other species of raptors breeding in all three parks;
- surveying the abundance and distribution of breeding birds at two locations in Ivvavik National Park;
- surveying the abundance of collared and brown lemmings in one area of Aulavik;
- data collection on moose abundance and distribution in the Babbage River watershed on the Yukon North Slope;
- surveying the number and distribution of muskox in Tuktut Nogait National Park;
- surveying the population, body condition and wintering range of Peary caribou on Banks Island;
- surveying the number of non-calf and calf, body condition and wintering range of muskox on Banks Island;
- surveying the population size, productivity, recruitment, age and sex composition, distribution, movements and body condition of caribou in Tuktut Nogait National Park;
- surveying the size, age and sex composition, distribution and movements of the Porcupine caribou in Ivvavik National Park;
- monitoring possible changes to plant productivity in all three parks;
- conducting a reconnaissance monitoring for potential plant and climate change monitoring in Pingo Canadian Landmark;
- monitoring campsites to identify and track human-caused impacts to campsites, wildlife and sensitive plant species along the Firth River;
- documenting the extent and nature of human use of all three parks (e.g. number of visitors);
- monitoring weather, permafrost temperature and active layer temperature in all three parks;
- documenting and monitoring water flow in the Firth River in Ivvivik and the Hornaday River in Tuktut Nogait National Park;
- measuring changes in water levels and temperature during storms along the south-eastern Beaufort Sea coast;
- assessing the water quality of the Thomsen River in Aulavik, the Firth River in Ivvavik and the Hornaday River in Tuktut Nogait National Park;
- monitoring the condition of cultural sites along the Firth River in Ivvavik National Park;
- assessing the impact of erosion and visitor disturbance on cultural resources along the coast of Ivvavik National Park; and
- monitoring the conditions of cultural resources at Nasogaluak, M'Clure's Cache and Head Hill cultural sites in Aulavik.
Total Parks Canada spending on Inuvialuit goods and services was $224,569 in 2002-2003, with $14,684 in goods and $209,885 in services.
9.5 Public Works and Government Services Canada
Pursuant to subsection 16(18) of the IFA, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) continued to provide Inuvialuit firms with the opportunity to bid on government contracts by advertising procurement opportunities on the government electronic tendering system and by notifying all claimant groups of procurement of goods, services and construction destined for the ISR. The contracting policy with respect to the IFA requires that whenever PWGSC has a procurement opportunity which impacts on one or more of the comprehensive land claim agreements, notification is forwarded to all the claimant groups.
Assistance and information on the procurement process were provided as requested by Inuvialuit, as well as information on contracts. Whenever practical and consistent with sound procurement management, evaluation criteria were included in bid solicitations to maximize socioeconomic opportunities for Inuvialuit.
9.6 Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency
The Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency continued to work with other government departments, Inuvialuit and First Nations to develop frameworks for environmental assessment and regulatory processes for potential project developments in the NWT. In particular, the Agency actively pursued the development of agreements to harmonize three environmental assessment processes and coordinate regulatory processes in preparation for the proposed Mackenzie Valley pipeline. A draft agreement in October 2002 with Inuvialuit (as represented by the IGC) and the EIRB provides for the establishment of a single review panel process under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and the Mackenzie Valley Resource Management Act for a gas development project. This process will occur after the EIRB completes its screening and environmental assessment process. In addition, a draft agreement was negotiated between the regulators to coordinate the regulatory processes with the harmonized environmental assessment process.
9.7 Human Resources Development Canada
Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC) has an obligation to support the implementation of the IFA and Inuvialuit self-government aspirations through its existing programs and Aboriginal Human Resources Development Agreement (AHRDA), and to maintain an ongoing dialogue with the IRC with respect to its operations or activities under the AHRDA. Departmental officials in the NWT communicate with IRC officials frequently to discuss operational issues, clarify and define various clauses of the AHRDA and provide advice on implementing provisions of the agreement. A Human Resources Centre of Canada is located in Inuvik which provides employers and job seekers with information on available programs and services provided by HRDC and the Human Resources Centre.
The IRC is a signatory to the AHRDA. This five-year contribution agreement, signed in April 1999 and extending to 2004, provides funding for labour market training for Aboriginal residents of the ISR. The Agreement also provides funding for childcare initiatives to increase the supply of quality childcare services for children with working or training parents who reside in the ISR.
The Agreement enables Inuvialuit to design and deliver a full service menu of options by integrating several Aboriginal programs including labour market programming and services, capacity building, an urban Aboriginal component, youth programming, child care programs and programs for persons with disabilities. The 2002-2003 funding was $2,005,518.
Schedule of Capital Transfer Payments
Annex N of the IFA outlines the capital transfer which were made to the Inuvialuit on the last business day prior to December 31 of each of the following years and in the following amounts:
Cumulative Costs of Implementation 1984-1985 to 2002-2003
|Fiscal Year||Amount ($)|
|* Note: These represent funds allocated for implementation purposes, as actual expenditure figures are not available.|
Membership of Implementing Bodies (as of March 31, 2003)
Inuvialuit Regional Corporation Board of Directors
- Nellie Cournoyea, Chair and CEO
- Jerry Lennie First, Vice-Chair
- Patrick Gruben, Second Vice-Chair
- Donna Keogak, Secretary
- Carol D. Arey, Treasurer
- Joseph Haloksit
- Bill S. Ruben
Inuvialuit Land Administration Commission
- Albert Elias, Chief Commissioner
- William Gruben, Commissioner
- Andy Tardiff, Commissioner
Inuvialuit Development Corporation Board
- Dennie Lennie, Chair and CEO
- Wayne Gordon, Vice-Chair
- Franklin Carpenter, Secretary/Treasurer
- Fred Abbott
- Andy Carpenter
- Jackie Jacobson
- Robert Joss
Inuvialuit Investment Corporation Board
- Frank Hansen, Chair
- Evelyn Storr, Vice-Chair
- Lucy Kuptana
- Fred McKeon
- Stephan Pertschy
- Barry Wainstein
Inuvialuit Petroleum Corporation Board
- Nellie Cournoyea, Chair and CEO
- Jerry Lennie First, Vice-Chair
- Patrick Gruben, Second Vice-Chair
- Donna Keogak, Secretary
- Carol D. Arey, Treasurer
- Joseph Haluksit
- Bill S. Ruben
Inuvialuit Enrolment Committee
- Nellie Cournoyea
- Fred Bennet
- Billy Day
- Annie Goose
- Agnes Tardiff
- Stein K. Lal, Chair
- A. Ernie Pallister, Vice-Chair
- Sandra Elanik
- Tyson Pertschy
- Lena Selamio
- Nick Schultz
- Jack R. Williams
Inuvialuit Final Agreement Implementation Coordinating Committee
- Nellie Cournoyea
- Duane Smith
- Aideen Nabigon
- Allan Koprowsky
- Mark Warren
Inuvialuit Game Council
- Frank Pokiak, Chair
- Donald Aviugana
- Richard Binder
- Andy Carpenter Jr.
- Joseph Haluksit
- Ruben Ruben
- Billy Day
- Greg Green
- Charles Gruben
- Donald Inuktalik
- Margaret Kanayok
- Pat Kasook
- Darren Nasogaluak
- Larry Semmler
Fisheries Joint Management Committee
- Robert K. Bell, Chair
- Donovan Dowler, Vice-Chair
- Ron Allen
- Burton Ayles
- Stephen Charlie
- Billy Day
- Max Kotokak Sr.
- Ester Price
- Donald Inuktalik
Wildlife Management Advisory Council-NWT
- Larry Carpenter, Chair
- Frank Pokiak, Vice-Chair
- Ray Case
- Jim Hines
- Donald Inuktalik
- John Nagy
- William Day
- Tim Devine
- Ron Graf
- Kevin McCormick
- Arnold Ruben
Wildlife Management Advisory Council-North Slope
- Lindsay Staples, Chair
- Herbert Felix
- Danny C. Gordon
- Doug Larsen
- Martin Raillard
- Carol Arey
- Dorothy Cooley
- Alan Fehr
- Evelyn Storr
Environmental Impact Screening Committee
- William Klassen, Chair
- Billy Day
- Cathy Cockney
- Alex Kagalik
- Randy Lamb
- Johnny Lennie
- Frank Pokiak
Environmental Impact Review Board
- Robert Hornal, Chair
- Jack Akhiatak
- Peter Bannon
- Richard Binder
- Tom Butters
- Herbert Felix
- Andrew Williams
Joint Secretariat, Inuvialuit Renewable Resource Committees*
Board of Directors
- Duane Smith, Chair
- Bob Bell, Vice-Chair
- Larry Carpenter
- Robert Hornal
- William Klassen
- Norm Snow, Director
- Lindsay Staples
* Note: The Joint Secretariat provides services to the IGC, FJMC, WMAC NWT, EISC and EIRB. The Secretariat for the WMAC-NS is located in Whitehorse.
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