Archived - The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and The Northeastern Quebec Agreement 1998 Annual Report

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Date: 2000 
ISBN: 0-662-64002-0
QS- Q036-005-BB-A1

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Table of Contents

Minister's Foreword

It gives me great pleasure to present the 1998 annual report on the implementation of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA) and the Northeastern Quebec Agreement (NEQA) in my capacity as the Minister responsible for coordinating these activities. This report also accounts for funding made available to the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi under federal programs. It was prepared in accordance with the James Bay and Northern Quebec Native Claims Settlement Act.

On January 7, 1998, the Government of Canada officially announced a major and significant change in its relationship with the Aboriginal people of this country by launching "Gathering Strength - Canada's Aboriginal Action Plan," in response to the report of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. This commitment supports the approach that the government has been taking to implement its obligations under the JBNQA and the NEQA. Significant progress was made during 1998 in implementing these agreements.

On June 3, 1998, the Cree-Canada Round Table was inaugurated. This important event brought together federal ministers and Cree leaders to promote discussion, define and maintain a new relationship between the James Bay Cree Nation and Canada and advance the implementation of the JBNQA. Accomplishments during 1998 include the signing of a mufti-year tripartite agreement on regional policing services, adjustments to the Cree Operations and Maintenance Agreement and the construction of fire halls in Cree communities, including the provision of proper training. Discussions are under way regarding the construction of an access road to Waskaganish, the purchase of lire fighting equipment and funding for three associations, Trappers, Arts and Crafts, and Outfitting and Tourism.

Progress has also been made with regard to the 1990 Implementation Agreement with the Inuit. In July 1998, Canada and Makivik Corporation signed a 10-year agreement to build marine transportation facilities in Nunavik; the agreement will help promote economic development and generate jobs in the region as well as offer long-term training and development opportunities in the communities. The Makivik Corporation, Quebec and Canada continued negotiations regarding a political accord for the creation of a Nunavik commission.

The year 1998 marks the twentieth anniversary of the signing of the NEQA with the Naskapi. Over the past twenty years, the Naskapi have acquired significant local administrative and decision-making authority. With regard to the NEQA Implementation Agreement, a five-year agreement on capital funding for Kawawachikamach is imminent. A number of projects to develop and improve local infrastructure have been carried out to promote health and security for the Naskapi population.

On the eve of the 21st century, there seems to be a new spirit of optimism in the relationship between the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi and the Government of Canada. The Government of Canada intends to focus its efforts on establishing new partnership links, and finding practical, equitable and comprehensive solutions that respect our obligations under the agreements.

The Honourable Robert D. Nault, P.C., M.P.
Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development

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The James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement (JBNQA) was signed on November 11, 1975 by the Cree and Inuit peoples of Quebec, the governments of Canada and Quebec, the James Bay Development Corporation, the James Bay Energy Corporation and Hydro- Quebec. Three years later, on January 31, 1978, the Naskapi of Schefferville signed a similar agreement, the Northeastern Quebec Agreement (NEQA).

The JBNQA and NEQA are the first comprehensive land claim treaties signed in modern times by Canada and Aboriginal people. The agreements include self-government components and lay the foundations for a new relaionship between the Cree, the Inuit and the Naskapi and the Government of Canada.

The territory covered by the JBNQA and NEQA is comprised of more than 1,000,000 square kilometres of land in Quebec between the 48th and 62nd parallels. It was once part of a larger federal territory known as Rupert's Land.

A century ago, the Parliament of Canada transferred two vast stretches of Rupert's Land to Quebec, with Quebec's consent. The first transfer took place in 1898 and Quebec's borders were extended northward to the 52nd parallel. The second transfer occurred in 1912 and Quebec's borders were extended northward again as far as Hudson Strait and the 52nd parallel and eastward as far as Labrador. The 1912 Quebec Boundaries Extension Act carried certain obligations for the Quebec government, including the obligation to reach an agreement on land-related issues with the Aboriginal inhabitants. However, discussions regarding these matters would not begin until more than 60 years later.

The inhabitants of these northern lands, which are barren but incredibly diverse in terms of climate and resources, are Indian and Inuit peoples with significantly different cultures, methods of social organization and languages. The Cree, the Inuit and the Naskapi follow a traditional way of life in which they harvest a large number of wildlife and marine resources and earn their living by hunting, fishing and trapping. When the Quebec government launched its hydroelectric power development activities in Northern Quebec, the land claims and other claims of the Aboriginal people living on these lands had not yet been settled. In 1972, the Quebec Cree and Inuit went to court in order to halt the hydroelectric work.

In November 1973, Judge Albert Malouf of the Quebec Superior Court ordered that all work be stopped immediately, in particular because Quebec had not yet fulfilled its obligation under the 1912 Act. In 1974, the Quebec Court of Appeal reversed Judge Malouf's decision, but in late 1973, the par-ties had already begun negotiations to reach a final agreement. These negotiations culminated in the signing of the JBNQA in 1975.

As at June 30, 1998, 21,418 people were beneficiaries of the agreements, including 12,389 Cree in nine communities, 8,318 Inuit in 14 northern municipalities and 711 Naskapi in a single community.

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Map of Cree, Inuit and Naskapi Communities in Quebec

Map of Cree, Inuit and Naskapi Communities in Quebec

Map Legend

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Principal Provisions of the JBNQA and the NEQA

Under the terms of the James Bay and Northern Quebec Agreement and the Northeastern Quebec Agreement, Aboriginal communities of the region have exchanged their rights and territorial interests for other rights and benefits, as specified in the agreements.

The JBNQA and NEQA define the land regime applicable to the Cree, the Inuit and the Naskapi, as well as their rights in many areas, such as resource management, economic development, policing and administration of justice, health and social services and environmental protection.

In terms of compensation, the Cree received $133,815,678 (including $19,447,615 from the Government of Canada) and the Inuit received $91,184,322 (including $13,272,384 from the Government of Canada) for a total of $225 million under the JBNQA and the Naskapi received $9 million (including $1,310,010 from the Government of Canada) under the NEQA.

In addition, a sum of $2,809,773 (including $1,226,943 from the Government of Canada) was provided to the Cree under section 25.1.15 of the JBNQA and a sum of $525,428 was provided by the Government of Canada to the Inuit under sections 25.1.16 and 3 of the Complementary Agreement No. 2 (JBNQA).

The Cree, Inuit and Naskapi are also entitled to a range of services and programs to which the federal and provincial governments contribute annually. The following additional lump-sum payments have also been provided as a result of the signing of specific agreements, most of which are associated with complementary agreements to the JBNQA:

Funds provided by Canada




Funds provided by Quebec*



* Including the James Bay Energy Corporation and Hydro-Québec.


Under the JBNQA and NEQA, a land regime was instituted in the territory covered by the agreements. It divides the territory into three categories (I, II and III) of lands and specifies the total land area in each: over 14,000 square kilometres of territory are category I lands, 150,000 square kilometres are category II lands and 1,000,000 square kilometres are category III lands. It also specifies the rights pertaining to each category, many of which are for the exclusive benefit of the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi.

Category I lands, where the villages are located, are set aside exclusively for the Aboriginal communities that are signatories to the two agreements. Cree and Naskapi Category I lands are further subdivided into categories IA and IB: "A" for lands under the jurisdiction of Canada, and "B" for those under that of Quebec. Category IA and IA-N lands (N standing for Naskapi lands) falling under federal jurisdiction are governed by local Aboriginal administrations, as defined in the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act. Category IB and IB-N lands under Quebec jurisdiction are governed by corporations composed exclusively of Aboriginals. Inuit lands fall under provincial jurisdiction and are governed by public corporations composed mainly of Inuit.

Category II lands, usually located around the villages, come under provincial jurisdiction but the Aboriginal people participate in the management of hunting, fishing and trapping and the development of outfitting operations. They also have exclusive hunting, fishing and trapping rights on these lands.

Category III lands are Quebec public lands where Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples may hunt and fish. However, Aboriginal people exercise certain rights on these lands under the agreements. They have exclusive rights to the harvesting of certain aquatic species and fur-bearing animals; they participate in the administration and development of the territory; and enjoy, until the year 2015, a right of refusal in the event of applications to set up or transfer new outfitting operations. The Aboriginal people must, however, relinquish this right for 30 per-cent of transfers or new outfitting operations proposed by non-Aboriginal people.

Land Area (km2) for Category I and II defined by the JBNQA in 1975 and the NEQA in 1978, by beneficiary group
  Category I Lands Category II Lands Category III Lands
Cree IA* 3,295.39      
  IB 1,992.98     Cree, Inuit and
Naskapi exercise
Native harvesting
rights in category
III Lands
  IB special 252.96    
    5,541.33   68,790.39
Inuit I 8,152.01   81,596.58
Naskapi IA-N 41.92      
  IB-N 284.90    II-N    4,144.00  
Total   14,020.16   154,530.97 910,711**

Sources: Federal lands: Government of Canada, Natural Resources Canada, Legal Surveys Division, Quebec Client Liaison Unit

Provincial lands: Gouvernement du Québec, Ministère des Ressources naturelles, Direction de l'enregistrement et du morcellement

Category III lands: as defined in Section 1, Annex 1 of the Complementary Agreement No. 1, JBNQA.

* Following acceptance by the Government of Canada from the Government of Quebec, expected in early 1999, of the final transfer of Category IA lands, the Cree IA lands will cover 3,299.6 km2.

** Ministère du Conseil exécutif Secrétariat aux affaires autochtones

Environmental and Social Protection

Both the JBNQA and the NEQA provide for consultative bodies to advise governments on policies and regulations that may have an impact on the environment and the social conditions of Aboriginal communities.

For this purpose, two committees have been set up under the JBNQA: the James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment for the area south of the 55th parallel and the Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee for the area north of that parallel. Each committee includes representatives from Aboriginal communities in the territory and from the two levels of government.

The JBNQA also establishes evaluation procedures for development proposals. The Cree participate in the evaluation of projects affecting lands below the 55th parallel, whereas to the north of the 55th parallel it is the Inuit who participate in these evaluations. The federal administrator - appointed by the Governor in Council - is responsible for the evaluation process for projects under federal government jurisdiction. For matters under provincial jurisdiction, a provincial administrator is appointed by the Quebec government. Projects in Category I Cree lands come under the authority of the local Cree administrator.

The NEQA includes similar provisions assuring the Naskapi of participation in the environmental and social protection of the territory covered by that agreement.

Economic Development

Compensation funds paid under the agreements by the governments of Quebec and Canada and by Hydro-Québec are administered by three organizations. The Cree Board of Compensation, the Makivik Corporation and the Naskapi Development Corporation handle the funding of projects for the economic development of their respective communities in Northern Quebec.

In addition, under the agreements, the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi continue to benefit, in the same way as other Aboriginal peoples, from the economic development programs offered by the governments.


The JBNQA provided for the establishment of the Cree School Board and the Kativik School Board. Both of these boards, which operate under Quebec's jurisdiction, possess special powers and ensure that educational programs are culturally relevant to the communities.

Under the NEQA, educational services for the Naskapi are provided for by a school created to fulfill the needs of the Naskapi community. The Eastern Quebec Regional School Board is responsible for its general administration. In addition, the Naskapi Education Committee was set up to perform the same advisory functions as those assigned to school committees under the Education Act at the time, and now known as the Education Act for the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi Native Persons.

The JBNQA and the NEQA established that Canada and Quebec would contribute to the funding of these institutions on the basis of annual operating and capital budgets approved by each. The proportion to be contributed by Canada was set at 75 percent of the approved budgets of the Cree School Board and the Naskapi school, and 25 percent of the approved budgets of the Kativik School Board.

Hunting, Fishing and Trapping

The Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Coordinating Committee was created under the JBNQA and is comprised of government and Aboriginal experts. Federal representatives are from the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development (DIAND), Environment Canada and Fisheries and Oceans Canada. The Coordinating Committee's role is to study, manage and, in certain cases, monitor and regulate the hunting, fishing and trapping regime. In most matters, the Coordinating Committee plays an advisory role for the Quebec and Canadian governments. It must also make recommendations to the two levels of government. It holds annual meetings in the northern communities to explain its activities and consult with local people about its mandate and broad objectives. Sub-committees, also made up of Aboriginal and government representatives, have been formed to deal with specific issues such as big game, parks, fishing, outfitting operations, marketing of caribou meat and land use.

Local and Regional Administrations

Since 1984, the Cree communities and the Naskapi community have been incorporated. They have local administrations with the power to adopt by-laws concerning public order, environmental protection, taxation for local purposes, roads and transportation, local business and the use of lands and resources. Two additional bodies - the Cree Board of Compensation and the Cree Regional Authority (CRA) - were set up under Quebec legislation.

The Inuit communities of Nunavik, located above the 55th parallel, are incorporated as municipalities under Quebec legislation. The Kativik Regional Government is their regional structure, and the Makivik Corporation was set up to protect the interests of the Inuit with regard to the implementation of the JBNQA. Both organizations were established under Quebec legislation.

Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act

In 1984, the Parliament of Canada passed the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act to implement JBNQA and NEQA provisions regarding local government for the communities. This Act supersedes the Indian Act, except for matters pertaining to Indian status. It institutes a form of self-government and establishes the land management system for Category IA (Cree) and IA-N lands (Naskapi).

Cree-Naskapi Land Registry

The setting up and operation of a registry of rights and interests pertaining to Category IA and IA-N lands and buildings on those lands is provided for under the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act. The Land Registry System, which reports to DIAND, includes the Central Land Registry Office and the Cree and Naskapi local offices.

Cree-Naskapi Commission

The Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act also provided for the establishment of the Cree-Naskapi Commission (CNC), whose role is to investigate disputes concerning the Act's application. It must also produce biennial reports on the application of the Act, following hearings. These reports are submitted to the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development to be tabled in Parliament. The Cree-Naskapi Commission is made up of no more than three commissioners appointed by the Governor in Council, on the recommendation of the Cree Regional Authority and the Naskapi community.

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Background Summary of JBNQA and NEQA Implementation

The process of implementing the JBNQA and the NEQA has taken longer and has become more complex than anticipated.

In 1981, the House of Commons Standing Committee on Indian Affairs and Northern Development urged the federal government to address outstanding issues related to the JBNQA. After a departmental report, the Tait Report, was submitted in 1982, the federal government introduced a series of measures to address JBNQA implementation-related problems.

In June 1986, the federal Cabinet approved a process for fulfilling, government obligations under the JBNQA and the NEQA. A federal negotiator, Mr. Andrew Croll, was appointed in order to direct this process.

In September 1990, the federal government signed the JBNQA Implementation Agreement with the Inuit and the NEQA Implementation Agreement with the Naskapi Band of Quebec. These agreements released the federal government from certain obligations under the JBNQA and NEQA. In return, the federal government paid a one-time grant of $22.8 million to the Inuit and $1.7 million to the Naskapi.

The government made other commitments with these communities. Many activities have been launched within the framework of the agreements as a result. Various working groups and procedures have been established, including procedures for settling disputes and the establishment of a JBNQA Implementation Forum with the Inuit. In 1990, DIAND also established the James Bay Implementation Office.

Discussions between the federal government and the James Bay Cree Nation regarding JBNQA implementation continued. In May 1992, the federal government signed an agreement providing for the building of a village for the Oujé-Bougoumou Cree and the setting up of a fund for the community's economic and social development. Having agreed that the Cree-Canada relationship was in need of rejuvenation and reform, the Government of Canada and the Cree Nation entered into a set of discussions and negotiations to renew and define this relationship and pursue the process of meeting their respective responsibilities under the JBNQA, the Constitution and the laws of Canada. To facilitate discussions between the federal ministers and the leaders of the James Bay Cree Nation in the context of these shared objectives, the parties agreed to establish a Round Table, bringing together the federal ministers concerned and the leaders of the James Bay Cree Nation. The Cree-Canada Round Table came into existence in 1998.

Since the signing of the JBNQA and the NEQA, several federal departments and agencies have undertaken to meet the federal government's obligations under the agreements. Most of them also provide, within their respective mandates, funding for government programs to which the beneficiaries have continued access under the terms of the agreements.

The signing of the agreements has brought about many changes in the role and jurisdiction of the federal government and the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development with respect to the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi.

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Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development

In 1982, the Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development was given overall responsibility for coordinating all federal government activities related to implementation of both the JBNQA and the NEQA. To ensure that the federal government's obligations were met, the Department established the Quebec Claims Secretariat in February 1984. This organization later became known as the Northern Quebec Claims Implementation Secretariat. In 1986, the Department's Negotiations and Implementation Directorate assumed the responsibilities of the Northern Quebec Claims Implementation Secretariat, a situation which continued until the early 1990s. The James Bay Implementation Office then assumed these responsibilities:

Since the signing of the JBNQA and NEQA and the passing of legislation which established the Cree and Naskapi local administrations and the regional government for all Inuit communities; DIAND's role has evolved from that of being a direct service provider to that of negotiator of financial agreements such that these communities could deliver their own programs. The Department still provides technical expertise in many areas and participates in many land and environmental management regimes covered by the agreements.

James Bay Implementation Office

The James Bay Implementation Office (JBIO) was created in November 1990 after the federal government signed implementation agreements with the Makivik Corporation and the Naskapi Band of Quebec. The JBIO is part of the Claims Implementation Branch of DIAND and is located in Hull, Quebec.


The JBIO's responsibilities include:


The following are highlights of the JBIO's activities in 1998, by beneficiary group:




In addition to these activities in 1998, the JBIO:

1999 Outlook

Among its objectives for the 1999 calendar year, the JBIO anticipates concluding several agreements for which negotiations are already well advanced. Such agreements include:

In 1999, the JBIO also looks forward to achieving concrete results in many areas, particularly the implementation of certain JBNQA and NEQA provisions for community economic development. Over the next few months, it will promote the negotiation and implementation, in partnership with the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi, of several Gathering Strength projects, including projects to improve community health and provide training in areas required to exercise new responsibilities. This year's discussions and activities will continue so that progress in several areas, can be made and new projects initiated, such as:

Cree-Canada Round Table

In June 1998, the Cree-Canada Round Table was launched. This significant event brought Ministers and Cree leaders together to promote discussion and define and maintain a new relationship between the James Bay Cree Nation and Canada, as well as to advance the implementation of the JBNQA.

The Round Table, referred to as "Ochimawinch" or "The Leaders' Place", is a forum for cooperative dialogue designed to make the new relationship a lasting reality and to reach agreement on what the Cree and Canada consider priorities for negotiation. The focus of the first meeting was on sustainable economic and social development, healthy, secure and viable communities and environmental and social protection.

In the following months, negotiations were conducted under the leadership of the Chief Federal Negotiator, Me Michel Vennat and the Cree Negotiator, Dr. Ted Moses which led to a multiyear agreement on regional policing services, including funding for police stations. Sectoral tables are in the process of being established for such areas as environment, justice, policing and human resources.

Committee Activities

In 1998, the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee focused its attention on the principle of priority of Native harvesting in conformity with the principle of conservation and where game populations permit. Since 1995, the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee has established the annual maximum bag limit for moose in Buffer Zone No 17. In 1998, the Co-ordinating Committee set this limit at 140 moose, which must be enforced by the provincial government.

In addition, the Co-ordinating Committee has established several working groups to follow-up on issues related to the conservation of species including polar bear, beluga, muskox, wolverine and bald eagle. The Co-ordinating Committee also developed caribou management plans and frameworks for outfitters' activities in the territory covered by the agreements.

In recent years, the James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment (JBACE) has followed an action plan with two major priorities: the promotion of sustainable development of forestry resources and a review of Section 22 of the JBNQA. A further priority associated with reviewing Section 22 is the updating of envi - ronmental assessment and public consultation procedures.

In 1998, the JBACE made significant headway in its work in relation to sustainable forest resource development by drawing up a guidelines document for applying sustainable forestry management criteria and indicators on lands covered by the agreements.

A review of Section 22 of the JBNQA was another major component of the JBACE's activities in 1998. The JBACE intends to make the renewal of the environmental assessment procedures a key priority. At its meetings it also discussed the development of public consultation procedures. The JBACE plans to suggest major amendments to Section 22 of the JBNQA, in order to make it more current and applicable with current standards.

In 1998, the focus of Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee (KEAC) activities was the establishment of working groups to study and identify corrective measures in the following areas: landfill disposal of domestic waste, potential for using incinerators, recovery and landfill disposal of toxic waste and the cleanup of formerly active sites. The KEAC assigned priority to the cleanup of abandoned mining sites in its territory and awarded a special research contract to a group of specialists affiliated with Université Laval in Québec City.

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Summary of Federal Government Expenditures, 1993-1998

Summary of Federal Government Expenditures, 1993-1998[Note 1], 1993-1998
  1993-1994 1994-1995 1995-1996 1996-1997 1997-1998
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada 109,448,407 109,493,023 122,829,350 147,479,910
[Note 2]
[Note 3]
Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation
 [[Note 4]
38,196,909 42,289,524 43,713,641 37,865,052 36,899,544
Human Resources Development Canada 8,015,000 8,599,218 10,103,816 11,341,260 13,797,812
Health Canada 2,719,646 4,119,744 5,526,116 5,761,864 6,329,014
Solicitor General Canada 136,271 2,913,253
[Note 5]
[Note 5]
5,757,931 5,815,476
Transport Canada 1,329,870 1,452,271 986,726 2,206,666 4,115,661
Canadian Heritage 2,294,750 2,258,260 2,135,492 1,842,141 1,774,719
National Defence [Note 6] 1,986,600 1,023,000 1,074,000 840,000
Environment Canada
[Note 7]
884,540 650,527 188,898
 [Note 8]
176,740 685,059
Natural Resources Canada Canadian Forest Service 728,661 429,700 453,200 333,250 458,600
Canada Economic Development 379,119 250,367 486,261 424,291 450,489
Industry Canada 2,573,652 3,720,246 279,042
[Note 9]
881,580 445,868
Fisheries and Oceans Canada 2,533,500 1,959,100 847,169 744,470 367,205
Justice Canada 47,700 40,000 40,000 nil  92,785
TOTAL 169,288,025 180,161,833 193,363,600 215,889,155 225,329,893
Total Federal Expenditures between 1993 and 1998: $984,032,506

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Activities and Expenditures of Federal Departments and Agencies, 1996-1997

Indian and Northern Affairs Canada

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, total funding allocated by the Department of Indian Affairs and Northern Development to Cree, Inuit and Naskapi communities under the JBNQA and NEQA and federal programs amounted to $153,257,661.


The Department allocated $67,018,566 for education expenditures including the following:

Youth Employment Funding
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
Science and technology summer camps $    5,252 $ 53,143 $  1,682 $    100,077
First Nations and Inuit Co-operative Education 166,044 139,273 6,772 312,089
Summer Career Placements 234,521 130,111 8,812 373,444
Work Experience Opportunities 166,785 104,283 nil  271,068
Total $612,602 $426,810 $17,266 $1,056,678

Capital, Operations and Maintenance

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, $75,981,561 was allocated to capital, operations and maintenance and infrastructure-related projects in Cree, Inuit and Naskapi communities. The Department allocated: $27,296,458 for capital projects and $38,738,015 for operations and maintenance in Cree and Naskapi communities; $6,535,414 for housing projects in Cree communities (as per DIAND's new housing initiative); and $3,411,674 for infrastructure projects in Cree, Inuit and Naskapi communities. Expenditures allocation by beneficiary group is the following:

In addition to $6,535,414 provided under the housing agreement signed in 1997 (including $1,633,854 in grants and $4,901,500 in contributions), expenditures on capital works in Cree communities amounted to $26,342,458. This sum included $9,947,458 in grants; $15,000,000 under the agreement on essential sanitation and fire protection services in Cree communities, also signed in 1997; and expenditures totaling $1,395,000 for the following projects:

  • $600,000 in Chisasibi and $250,000 in Wemindji for safety, sanitation and health-related projects;

  • $160,000 in Waskaganish to install a remote monitoring system for the water treatment plants; $125,000 for corrective measures following three landslides at the new water supply intake; and $60,000 to erect concrete slabs and to install security fences around the propane gas cylinder storage area; and

  • $200,000 in Mistissini for wastewater treatment system infrastructure work.

Additional expenditures of $212,224 for community infrastructure-related projects was spent as follows:

  • $43,000 in Nemaska to improve air quality on community territory by implementing dust control measures and $22,000 to cover part of the costs of installing a septic tank in the Porcupine Trail area;

  • $31,861 in Eastmain to study the possibility of finding a new water supply source and $25,363 to decontaminate a site following the removal of old oil tanks; and

  • $90,000 for the Cree Regional Authority to purchase management software to maintain community infrastructure in eight communities.

The Department also allocated $36,097,509 to operations and maintenance in nine Cree communities

DIAND provided $3,099,450 to the Makivik Corporation for infrastructure projects as follows:

  • $3,016,000, of which $1,000,000 was provided by Transport Canada and $1,000,000 by Fisheries and Oceans Canada, to cover part of the costs of technical studies and the startup of construction of marine infrastructure. Under the 10-year (1998-2008) $30,000,000 Northern Quebec Marine Infrastructure Agreement, the three departments will each allocate $1,000,000 annually;

  • $57,500 in annual funding to the community of Chisasibi under the Inuit Housing Agreement (1996-2006), which addresses the housing needs of the area's Inuit population; and

  • $25,950 to cover part of the costs of equipment for the Nunavik Research Centre.

The Naskapi community received a capital funding grant of $954,000 (as part of the five-year capital agreement) and a capital contribution of $100,000 to rebuild part of the water supply system serving approximately 20 houses in Kawawachikamach.

The Department also allocated $2,640,506 on operations and maintenance in the Naskapi community.


Discussions on the provision of electricity supply at Waskaganish resumed only in late 1998 when a preliminary tripartite meeting between the Waskaganish community, Hydro-Québec and DIAND was held. All parties then agreed that bilateral (three-way) discussions would occur in the coming new year and the next tripartite meeting concerning the electricity transfer has been planned for the summer of 1999.

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, the Department allocated the following funds for electricity expenditures in Waskaganish:


  • Electrification: extending the power grid
$  414,437
  • Electricity system

Social Development

The Quebec government provides social assistance services for most of the communities in the territory covered by the agreements. DIAND delivers these services in the communities of Mistissini, Waswanipi and Kawawachikamach. During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, it spent $2,913,848 as follows:

$      81,966


The federal government also participates in community social development by funding initiatives promoting health and better quality of life through the National Strategy for the Integration of Persons with Disabilities (NSIPD) and the Federal Initiative on Family Violence (IFV).

Beneficiaries of these programs received the following amounts in 1997-1998:
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
NSIPD $  21,346 $  25,744 $   1,764 $  48,854
IFV 140,938 169,200 11,635 321,773
Total $162,284 $194,944 $ 13,399 $370,627

Economic Development

DIAND participates in Aboriginal economic development through direct funding of Community Economic Development Organizations (CEDOs) and other sector-based organizations. The CEDOs provide technical and financial assistance for projects in sectors of key importance to the economic development of Cree, Inuit and Naskapi communities, such as tourism and outfitting operations. These organizations also play a major role in launching new businesses aimed at strengthening local economies, expanding business opportunities and creating jobs in the communities. The Department continued to provide funding assistance during the 1997-1998 fiscal year as follows:

The Department continued to provide funding assistance during the 1997-1998 fiscal year as follows:
Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
$1,143,219 $  870,441 $   54,926 $  2,068,586

Funding allocated to the Cree included $281,880 to cover the expenditures for the operations of the Cree Trappers' Association and $35,600 for the Cree Regional Authority to hold Cree arts and crafts activities.


During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, the Cree Regional Authority received $707,191 from the Department, including a $15,000 contribution from Environment Canada, to continue work on the Environmental Issues Inventory in Cree communities. In 1998, health and environmental risk analyses were carried out at sites where contamination had been detected the year before. Groundwater quality monitoring was carried out at waste disposal sites and contaminated sites where observation wells had been installed. New monitoring wells were also installed at other sites during the year. In addition, many waste disposal sites were closed and rehabilitated in compliance with environmental standards.

Work begun in 1997 to set up used oil storage tanks in Waskaganish and Waswanipi was completed this year.

In 1998, two chapters were added to the first edition of the Environmental Code of Practice for the Local Environment Administrator in Cree communities, published in 1997.

DIAND's Policy and Program Development branch allocated $18,475 to the Makivik Corporation to pay for their participation in the Sustainable Development Strategy for Quebec and Labrador First Nations.

In 1997-1998, $100,000 in funding was also allocated to the Makivik Corporation for projects within the framework of the federal government's Arctic Environmental Strategy. The projects, to be carried out in six Nunavik communities, involve the rehabilitation of sites where materials, barrels and various types of debris were abandoned following exploration activities in the North. The communities of Aupaluk, Kangirsujuaq, Salluit, Akulivik, Tasiujaq and Kangirsualujjuaq are participating in these projects, which will create 36 new jobs for residents.

Resource Access Negotiations

The Resource Access Negotiations Program (RAN) supports natural resources development by First Nations and Inuit by helping communities and their organizations set up business partnerships and stimulate investment in the natural resources sector.

In 1997-1998, the Department allocated $67,100 under the RAN program to the Naskapi Economic Development Corporation to help the Naskapi negotiate the setting up of business partnerships with regional mining companies.

Indian Registration

DIAND and the Cree and Naskapi communities are responsible for Indian registration records. During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, the Department provided $92,557 to the Cree and $3,968 to the Naskapi for their participation in maintaining the registry.

Cree-Naskapi Land Registry

In 1998, the Department's Central Registrar coordinated the activities of local Cree and Naskapi community registry offices.

A Cree community adopted a plan during the year to subdivide its Category IA lands to facilitate private ownership. The initiative is innovative because Cree lands have generally been held communally. The Land and Building Registry Service registered a $3,000,000 mortgage on buildings, the highest ever in terms of funding and registration of rights in the territory covered by the agreements.

The Department provided funding for two projects involving aerial photography for mapmaking purposes for the communities of Mistissini, Nemaska, Oujé-Bougoumou and Waswanipi and map manuscripts for the communities of Chisasibi, Eastmain, Waskaganish and Wemindji.

Financial Aid

The Cree Regional Authority was allocated $105,000 to carry out a study assessing Cree community firefighting needs. The study focused on infrastructure, human resources and equipment needs and training needed to maintain and deliver appropriate firefighting services.

Funding of $15,000 was also allocated to the Cree Cultural Centre to carry out a study examining the feasibility of organizing a fundraising drive to finance the building of a cultural centre in Oujé-Bougoumou.

The Makivik Corporation was provided, with $269,000 during the 1997-1998 fiscal year to assist in the operating costs of organizations set up to implement the JBNQA.

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, the Department provided $655,000 to the Cree-Naskapi Commission to fund its activities and produce the Commission's 1998 biennial report on the implementation of the Cree-Naskapi (of Quebec) Act.

DIAND also contributed funding for activities carried out under the First Nations Forestry Program administered by the Canadian Forest Service of Natural Resources Canada.

DIAND Expenditures ($), 1997-1998
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
  Education services $   46,166,057 $   12,302,345 $    1,858,525 $   60,326,927
  School Infrastructure 3,042,482 1,884,588 28,573 4,955,643
  Post-secondary Assistance 380,913 86,468 15,350 482,731
  Avataq Cultural Institute n/a  196,587 n/a  196,587
  Employment programs 612,602 426,810 17,266 1,056,678
  50,202,054 14,896,798 1,919,714 67,018,566
Capital 26,342,458 n/a  954,000 27,296,458
Operation and Maintenance 36,097,509 n/a  2,640,506 38,738,015
Cree Housing Agreement 6,535,414 n/a  n/a  6,535,414
Infrastructure-related projects 212,224 3,099,450 100,000 3,411,674
  69,187,605 3,099,450 3,694,506 75,981,561
Electricity Waskaganish 2,871,182 n/a  n/a  2,871,182
Social Development        
  Social Assistance 1,987,429 n/a  926,419 2,913,848
  NSIPD-IVF Programs 162,284 194,944 13,399 370,627
  2,149,713 194,944 939,818 3,284,475
Economic Development 1,143,219 870,441 54,926 2,068,586
Environment 707,191 118,475 nil  825,666
Resource Access Negotiations nil  nil  67,100 67,100
Indian Registration 92,557 n/a  3,968 96,525
Financial Aid 120,000 269,000 nil  389,000
Sub-total $127,399,940 $19,449,108 $5,753,613 $152,602,661
Cree-Naskapi Commission n/a  n/a  n/a  655,000
Total $153,257,661

Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation

The Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation (CMHC), in co-operation with DIAND, is directly involved in the Cree and Naskapi communities through its housing program funded under section 95 of the National Housing Act. In 1998, an improved version of the program was put into effect. The new program offers the communities greater flexibility and allows them to protect themselves against interest rate fluctuations.

The housing program for the Inuit is administered by the Société d'habitation du Québec under federal-provincial cost-sharing agreements.

In 1997, 75 new subsidized housing units were added to the housing stock of Cree communities and three units to that of the Naskapi community.

The monthly CMHC grants were used to cover the operating expenses of these housing units and reduce the occupancy costs. If they wish, communities can also apply directly to CMHC for loans to build their subsidized housing. Interest rates offered by CMHC are generally lower than market rates, thus reducing the communities' operating costs.

At the October 1997 Awards for Excellence Forum sponsored by CMHC, the Nemaska Cree Nation won an award for excellence in the Financing and Type of Occupancy category for having originated two experimental concepts in affordable small apartments emphasizing privacy and autonomy and its unique project financing plan.

In 1998, as part of the Youth Employment Strategy, seven young Cree and a young Naskapi received financial aid from CMHC to gain experience in housing matters in their communities.

CMHC Expenditures* ($), 1997
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
Pre-1986 Programs
  Federal subsidies $  2,805,460 $ 12,707,760 $447,609 $  15,960,829
  Number of subsidized units 639 1,027 70 1,736
Post-1985 Programs
  Federal subsidies 6,486,585 14,153,600 298,530 20,938,715
  Number of subsidized units 990 649 35 1,674
Total $ 9,292,045 $26,861,360 $   746,139 $36,899,544
* Figures in the 1997 report included 24 housing units in Cree communities and two in Naskapi communities. These units were built as part of the one-year special Remote Housing Program initiative, which required a total investment of $2,086,795. The data in this report do not take this initiative into account.

Human Resources Development Canada

In 1998, through the Aboriginal Labour Market Program and the Employment Insurance Fund, Human Resources Development Canada (HRDC) continued to work towards the objective of providing greater autonomy to Aboriginal communities, which now have major responsibilities for human resources development. Agreements allowing Cree and Inuit communities to take charge of employment and employment insurance programs and services have been in effect since 1997 and will expire in March 1999. Under the agreement between HRDC and the assembly of First Nations of Quebec and Labrador, which expires in March 1999, the Naskapi manage their human resource development and other measures.

A project funded through the Transitional Jobs Fund was also implemented in a Cree community in 1998.

HRDC's overall funding participation in Northern Quebec agreements, programs and other initiatives in the 1997-1998 fiscal year amounted to $13,797,812.

In 1999, in response to the recommendations of the Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples and using the expertise it has acquired over the past several years, HRDC will expand its human resource management partnerships with Aboriginal groups through a new five-year Aboriginal Human Resource Development Strategy initiative. The Strategy will make it possible to implement a broader range of human resource development programs to meet Aboriginal needs more effectively.

HRDC Expenditures ($), 1997-1998
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
Aboriginal Labour Market program $ 3,612,821 $ 4,646,501 $   188,958 $ 8,448,280
Employment Insurance Fund 1,134,097 1,140,041 121,868 2,396,006
First Nations and Inuit Child Care Initiative 1,251,091 1,141,000 81,435 2,473,526
Youth Employment Initiatives 60,000 30,000 nil  90,000
Strategic Initiatives 150,000 nil  nil  150,000
Transitional Jobs Fund nil  240,000 nil  240,000
Total $ 6,208,009 $ 7,197,542 $   392,261 $13,797,812

Health Canada

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, Health Canada's Medical Services Branch, Quebec Region, provided $6,329,014 for various health care programs in the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi communities.

The Department primarily funded projects in the areas of mental health, drug and solvent abuse, and family violence. Under the Green Plan, Health Canada funded the drinking water monitoring system in the nine Cree communities.

Health Canada is also encouraging students in these communities to work in the health care sector through the Indian and Inuit Health Careers Program. The Department also paid for Non- Insured Health Benefits for beneficiaries living outside their affiliated communities.

Health Canada Expenditures ($), 1997-1998
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program $   650,800 $  692,716 $   47,000 $1,390,516
Solvent Abuse 127,880 124,231 8,009 260,120
Brighter Futures 1,079,900 924,354 59,636 2,063,890
Prenatal Nutrition nil  106,551 6,811 113,362
Building Healthy Communities Strategy 944,728 717,512 45,160 1,707,400
Green Plan 28,950 nil  nil  28,950
Indian and Inuit health Careers nil  30,985 nil  30,985
Non-Insured Health Benefits 349,550 377,962 6,279 733,791
Total $  3,181,808 $  2,974,311 $172,895 $6,329,014

Solicitor General Canada

In 1998, the Department of the Solicitor General renewed two tripartite agreements, one with the Quebec government and the Cree Regional Authority and the other with the Quebec government and the Kativik Regional Government. The Department also monitored the implementation of the tripartite agreement with the Naskapi.

The Department also signed in 1998 an agreement renewing the funding of policing services provided to Nunavik territory residents by the Kativik Regional Police Force. This new agreement, which runs from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 2003, will complete the establishment of policing services in Nunavik.

Discussions on implementing section 19 of the JBNQA were also held between the Quebec Cree, the Quebec government and the Department.

These discussions led to the signing of a tripartite agreement to renew the funding of local policing services, which will run from April 1, 1998 to March 31, 2003.

In 1997-1998, the Department of the Solicitor General allocated $5,596,476 in funding contributions to the tripartite agreements. Of this amount, $2,564,876 went to the Cree, $2,795,520 to the Kativik Regional Government and $236,080 to the Naskapi.

The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) pursued its strategy of developing programs specially tailored to Aboriginal culture and realities.

CSC continued to provide liaison officer services in each establishment for Cree, Inuit and Naskapi offenders and allocated $37,000 for liaison officer services to the Native Paralegal Services of Quebec organization, which is responsible for counseling Aboriginal offenders in federal penitentiaries and providing correctional planning to facilitate the re-entry of Aboriginal offenders into society.

The sum of $82,000 was allocated to various treatment programs in the areas of substance abuse, sexual violence, literacy training and Aboriginal spirituality. These amounts do not include the direct costs of incarceration. CSC also allocated $100,000 for the accommodation, supervision and treatment in halfway houses during parole of these same offenders.

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, the Department of the Solicitor General's total contribution amounted to $5,815,476.

Solicitor General Canada Expenditures ($),1997-1998
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
Aboriginal Policing Directorate $2,564,876 $2,795,520 $  236,080 $ 5,596,476
Correctional Service    219,000
Total       $5,815,476
* Financial data by beneficiary group was not available for the report.

Transport Canada

Through its various programs, Transport Canada invested a total of $4,115,661 in the 1997-1998 fiscal year.

Under the 1996 contribution agreement relative to the transfer of Kuujjuaq Airport management, which runs from September 1, 1996 to December 31, 1999, Transport Canada allocated $1,001,300 to the Kativik Regional Government in the 1997-1998 fiscal year. Repairs to the main runway of Kuujjuaq Airport required an investment of $105,961 and material research projects cost $82,000.

In 1997-1998, the following Aboriginal communities received funding to cover the three-year operations and maintenance contracts for their airports: the Naskapi and Montagnais of Schefferville, $230,000; the Cree of Eastmain, $167,700; the Cree of Waskaganish, $171,000; and the Cree of Wemindji, $167,700. Employees in Eastmain, Wemindji and Waskaganish were given airport operations training. The training, costing $15,000, will help develop expertise in the region.

Exterior renovations to the Schefferville Airport terminal building cost $53,500 and runway repairs, $360,000. Other projects at the airport included a geotechnical site investigation and material research projects costing $15,000 and the installation of an electric gate to improve security costing $30,000.

Transport Canada and the Naskapi and Montagnais negotiated the setting up of a joint non-profit organization to assume the management of the Schefferville Airport. An agreement will likely be signed in April 1999.

A $1,648,000 project to upgrade Chisasibi Airport facilities was made possible though the Airport Capital Assistance Program. Works included the refurbishment of the gravel runway, the construction of a taxiway and aircraft parking area, the installation of runway lighting including precision approach path indicators (PAPI) and the installation of electric equipment and other equipment such as security fences and gates.

Transport Canada Expenditures ($), 1997-1998
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
Airport management n/a  $1,001,300 n/a  $1,001,300
Operation and Maintenance 506,400 n/a  230,000 736,400
Repairs/renovations 1,648,000 187,961 458,500 2,294,461
Training 15,000 68,500 nil  83,500
Northern Quebec Marine Infrastructure Agreement n/a  n/a 
Total $2,169,400 $1,257,761 $  688,500 $4,115,661
* The amount of $1 million provided through DIAND is not included in the table.

Since Transport Canada signed a memorandum of understanding with the Kativik Regional Government to provide marine safety training for Inuit representatives, the Northern Quebec region now has an inspector whose role is to raise the safety awareness of Inuit communities. Transport Canada's expenditures on the training program came to $68,500.

The Department is also a co-signatory with DIAND and Fisheries and Oceans Canada of an agreement to provide annual $3,000,000 payments over a 10-year period to build marine infrastructure in Northern Quebec. During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, Transport Canada provided $1,000,000 through DIAND to the Makivik Corporation under this agreement.

Canadian, Heritage

Canadian Heritage, acting through the Citizens' Participation Directorate, supports a wide range of activities in Northern Quebec. Its main areas of intervention are in the operation of Aboriginal communication networks and friendship centres, the protection of Aboriginal languages and cultures, support for Aboriginal organizations and for the improvement of the situation of Aboriginal women. During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, Canadian Heritage provided support amounting to $1,774,719, through its programs, to Aboriginal communities in Northern Quebec.

Canadian Heritage Expenditures ($),1997-1998
Northern Native Broadcast Access Program
James Bay Cree Communications Society $  300,470
Taqramiut Nipingat Incorporated (TNI) 907,317
Aboriginal Representative Organizations Program
Makivik Corporation 133,690
Native Friendship Centre Program
Senneterre Native Friendship Centre Inc.* 14,158
Val-d'Or Native Friendship Centre Inc.* 171,237
Cree Indian Friendship Centre of Chibougamou Inc. 142,697
Aboriginal Women's Program
Cree Womens' Council 5,150
Grand Council of Naskapi nil 
Total $1,774,719
* The services provided by these Native friendship centres are not offered exclusively to the agreements' beneficiaries.

National Defence

Land Force Quebec Area (LFQA) is responsible for three activities associated with the Canadian Ranger, Junior Ranger and Cadet programs. In the territory covered by the agreements, the LFQA has 14 Canadian Ranger patrols and 14 Junior Ranger patrols within the 2nd Canadian Ranger Patrol Group (2nd CRPG). The LFQA, through the Eastern Region Cadets, is also responsible for the management and supervision of a cadet corps in Schefferville, made up of about 12 Naskapi between the ages of 12 and 18.

The Canadian Rangers are volunteers between the ages of 18 and 60 who provide support, if needed, for members of the Canadian Forces in remote Northern and coastal areas. The LFQA also provides a Junior Ranger activities program with an emphasis on both traditional Aboriginal culture and disciplines and modern-day practices. Over 375 boys and girls in the JBNQA and NEQA territory participate in this program.

In the past two years, about 100 Junior Rangers have taken part in a summer training camp in Nunavik. In July 1998, the camp was held at Tasiujaq. In various competitions, the young people tried out newly acquired skills in first aid, mapmaking, rope handling, knot-making and weapon safety. Owing to the remoteness of the communities, the camp gives Northern Quebec young people a rare opportunity to meet and share learning experiences. The Canadian Forces and the Kativik Regional Government worked together to improve this program and organize the summer camps.

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, the Department of National Defence allocated $840,000 for Canadian Ranger, Junior Ranger and Cadet programs in Northern Quebec.

In 1998, the Department of National Defence co-signed an agreement with Environment Canada, the Kativik Regional Government and the Quebec government to restore about 40 Mid- Canada Line sites along the 55th parallel.

Environment Canada and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency

Environment Canada and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency (CEAA) participate jointly with DIAND and DFO in ,the implementation of environmental and social protection, regimes, as stipulated in sections 22 and 23 of the JBNQA, and the hunting, fishing and trapping regime, as stipulated in section 24.

Environment Canada

In 1998, Environment Canada continued to assist in the implementation of the environmental and social protection regimes and the hunting, fishing and trapping regime. The Minister of the Environment made new appointments to the federal delegation to the James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment (JBACE), the Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee and the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee. An Environment Canada representative was JBACE Chair in 1998. Environment Canada's expenditures directly related to implementing the JBNQA during the 1997-1998 fiscal year amounted to some $40,000.

In 1998, the Canadian Wildlife Service of Environment Canada continued its efforts to preserve migratory bird populations that frequent the territory covered by the JBNQA. Work continued on the Harlequin Duck dispersal study, the findings of which will be very useful for the future management of this species, which is included in Canada's list of endangered species.

American Black Duck and Canada Goose surveys were carried out as part of joint Canada- United States activities set out in the North American Waterfowl Management Plan. A Canada Goose breeding study of the northern stock and bird-banding activities were also carried out as in previous years to ensure ongoing assessment of the species' status and factors influencing its breeding habits.

Once again, the Canadian Wildlife Service provided funding to help Aboriginals attend the winter meeting of the Atlantic Flyway Council's Technical Committee. At this meeting of the main discussion forum on migratory bird hunting and conservation issues, they presented the Aboriginal perspective and made a very positive contribution.

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, Canadian Wildlife Service expenditures in the territory covered by the agreements amounted to some $112,000, of which $50,000 was allocated to the Harlequin Duck project.

In October 1998, Environment Canada representatives met with Kativik Regional Government representatives to present the EcoAction 2000 Program, explain funding terms and conditions of the program and discuss the possible submission of certain projects. The EcoAction 2000 Program provides support for community initiated environmental projects aimed at protecting habitats, promoting energy conservation and reducing toxic substances use.

Under its Atmospheric Environment Program, Environment Canada operates 18 weather stations, of which three are aerology stations, in the territory covered by the agreements. Expenditures on this program amounted to $359,658 in 1997-1998.

Environment Canada is co-signatory with the Department of National Defence, the Kativik Regional Government and the Quebec government of an agreement to invest $1,800,000 in funding to characterize, restore, dismantle and renovate about 40 Mid-Canada Line sites along the 55th parallel in Quebec. In 1997-1998, Environment Canada's expenditures under this agreement amounted to some $60,000.

Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency

The Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency assisted the federal administrator and various committees established under the JBNQA in accordance with sections 22 and 23.

The CEAA's expenditures in the 1997-1998 fiscal year totaled $113,401. This sum included the federal contribution of $95,000 for the maintenance and joint funding with the Quebec government of the secretariats of the James Bay Advisory Committee on the Environment and the Kativik Environmental Advisory Committee. It also included a contribution towards the operating expenses. of the Evaluating Committee (COMEV).

The CEAA's total expenditures included the costs of federal review panel (COFEX-North and COFEX-South) activities.

In the 1997-1998 fiscal year, Environment Canada and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency spent $685,059 overall on their activities and programs in Northern Quebec.

Environment Canada and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency Expenditures ($),1997-1998
Environment Canada
  Committees expenditures $  40,000
  Canadian Wildlife Service 112,000
  Atmospheric Environment Program 359,658
  Mid-Canada Line Agreement 60,000
Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency 113,401
Total $685,059

Natural Resources Canada

The Department of Natural Resources (NRC) is active in the territory covered by the agreements through the Canadian Forest Service and Geomatics Canada.

Canadian Forest Service

In 1998, the Canadian Forest Service continued to implement the First Nation Forestry Program (FNFP). The objective of this program, jointly funded by DIAND and Natural Resources Canada, is to increase the development capabilities of Aboriginal communities. In addition to a forestry component, it offers the following three other components focusing on the economic development of Aboriginal forestry: development of Aboriginal businesses, cooperation between communities and partnerships with non-Aboriginal industries, and creation of, an Aboriginal forest development fund.

In 1997-1998, $192,600 was distributed to the Cree communities of Waswanipi, Mistissim, Oujé-Bougoumou and Eastmain and to the Naskapi community of Kawawachikamach to carry out projects and activities covered by the FNFP

The A-Pit-See-Win co-operative in Waswanipi received $86,000 to carry out checkerboard clear cutting, burnt wood recovery, precommercial thinning and site preparation work on close to 1,625 hectares of land. It also planted 500,000 trees and built and repaired 75 kilometres of roads. Funding from the program also provided financial support for the technical team.

In addition to the funding allocated under the FNFP, the Waswanipi community received $266,000 to establish a Cree Model forest, the 11th model forest in Canada.

The Eenatuk Forestry Corporation in Mistissini received $66,300 under the FNFP to implement a business plan for a sawmill operation and provide assistance for its technical team. Funding for the technical team made it possible to carry out checkerboard clear cutting and release cutting work on 705 hectares of land, carry out improvements on 12 kilometres of bush roads and plant 300,000 trees.

The community of Oujé-Bougoumou received $14,800 to train 12 forestry workers.

The community of Eastmain received $14,800 under the FNFP to carry out a prefeasibility study on firewood harvesting and the setting up of a mobile sawmill on its territory.

The Naskapi of Kawawachikamach received $10,700 under the FNFP to conduct a study of their territory's forestry development potential,

The Canadian Forest Service assessed all of the FNFP-related projects proposed by these communities as required under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, the Department of Natural Resources allocated a total of $458,600 through the Canadian Forest Service to carry out projects in Northern Quebec.

Canadian Forest Service Expenditures ($),1997-1998
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
First Nation Forestry Program $181,900 n/a  $10,700 $ 192,600
Canada's Model Forest Network 266,000 n/a  n/a  266,000
Total $447,900 n/a  $10,700 $458,600
Geomatics Canada

The Geomatics Canada branch of the Department of Natural Resources is active in the territory covered by the JBNQA and NEQA through its Eastern Regional Operations Centre, Legal Surveys Division.

The Centre's main activities in the region's Aboriginal communities involve the management of survey contracts, aerial photography, map verification and mapping. The Centre also produces descriptions of the extent and location of interests in Cree and Naskapi lands that must be registered.

The Quebec Client Liaison Unit (the Eastern Regional Operations Centre's local representative) regularly gives advice and professional opinions on land management and the land tenure system, the setting up of land information systems (LIS) and issues arising from various geomatics-related activities.

In 1998, the Eastern Regional Operations Centre drafted 21 parcel plans for the registration of interests in Cree lands. The Centre managed mapmaking and map verification contracts for the communities of Mistissini, Nemaska, Oujé- Bougoumou and Waswanipi. The Centre also had map manuscripts produced for the communities of Chisasibi, Eastmain, Waskaganish and Wemindji.

A brochure entitled Property Rights System on Cree and Naskapi Lands in Quebec continued to generate considerable interest. There were 150 copies distributed during the year.

Canada Economic Development

Canada Economic Development, formerly known as the Federal Office of Regional Development (Quebec), implements programs to promote the start-up and development of SMEs in Northern Quebec. Canada Economic Development follows a consistent, joint action approach with all partners to support development opportunities in the region and. focuses its efforts on three priority areas: offering direct support for projects involving Indian and Inuit entrepreneurship, giving entrepreneurs access to an investment fund and providing support for Aboriginal economic development organizations.

Under the IDEA-SME Program, Canada Economic Development granted $130,000 to Cree communities and $100,489 to Inuit communities. Several of the selected projects focused on development of tourism potential in the territory covered by the agreements.

Under the terms of the Community Futures Program, the Community Futures Development Corporation (CFDC) provided for Cree communities an investment fund of over $1,000,000 to support strategic projects proposed by entrepreneurs.

In the 1997-1998 fiscal year, the CFDC received $220,000 for its operations budget. The CFDC also provides business start-up and management consulting services.

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, Canada Economic Development allocated a total of $450,489 to its programs in the territory covered by the agreements.

Canada Economic Development Expenditures ($), 1997-1998
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
IDEA-SME Program $130,000 $100,489 nil  $ 230,489
Community Futures Program 220,000 nil  nil  220,000
Total $350,000 $100,489 nil  $450,489

Industry Canada

Industry Canada invested a total of $445,868 during fiscal year 1997-1998 to support a total of twenty-five business, economic development and Internet technology projects for the Cree, Inuit and Naskapi of the region. Through these projects, Industry Canada contributed $171,360 to Cree communities, $235,583 to Inuit communities and $38,925 to a Naskapi community.

Aboriginal Business Canada funding was provided to a total of twenty-two business projects, including the establishment and expansion of Aboriginal businesses, and the development of a variety of business, marketing, training and technology plans.

Industry Canada's Community Access Program approved funding for two remote northern Aboriginal communities, Waskaganish and Eastmain, to assist in bringing the region new economic development opportunities through access to the Internet and the information highway.

The First Nations SchoolNet Program supported the Jimmy Sandy Memorial School in Kawawachikamach to link their students to the information highway. The school received DirecPC satellite equipment, a Pentium computer, and funding for the Internet access.

Overall, departmental funding was invested in a diverse range of industrial sectors, with a significant investment in developing the region's Aboriginal economy.

Industry Canada Expenditures ($), 1997-1998
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
Aboriginal Business Canada $111,360 $235,583 $23,925 $ 370,868
Community Access Program 60,000 nil nil 60,000
First. Nations SchoolNet Program nil nil 15,000 15,000
Total $117,360 $235,583 $38,925 $445,868

Fisheries and Oceans Canada

In addition to administering several research and development programs in Northern Quebec through its Laurentian Region, the Department of Fisheries and Oceans (DFO) provides many services to ensure safe, efficient and environmentally sound marine transportation.

The Laurentian Region includes the St Lawrence River, Estuary and part of the Gulf of St Lawrence Gulf - or the 4S and 4T fishery divisions, north of the 48th parallel, of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization - and the coastal waters of the Magdalen Islands. In Northern Quebec, the Laurentian Region includes eastern James Bay, eastern Hudson Bay, and southern Hudson Strait and Ungava Bay.

Through the Laurentian Region Science Branch, the Department participates with DIAND, Environment Canada and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency in the implementation of social and environmental protection regimes, as stipulated in sections 22 and 23 of the JBNQA. Through the Laurentian Region Fisheries Management Branch, it participates in the hunting, fishing and trapping regime, as stipulated in section 24.

DFO is also a co-signatory with DIAND and Transport Canada of an agreement providing for annual $3,000,000 payments over a 10-year period to build marine infrastructure in Northern Quebec. Under this agreement, DFO allocated $1,000,000 through DIAND to the Makivik Corporation during the 1997-1998 fiscal year.

Industry Canada Expenditures ($), 1997-1998
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
Aboriginal Business Canada $111,360 $235,583 $ 23,925 $ 370,868
Community Access Program 60,000 nil  nil  60,000
First. Nations SchoolNet Program nil  nil  15,000 15,000
Total $117,360 $235,583 $ 38,925 $445,868
North Shore and Northern Quebec Sector - Fisheries Management Branch

In 1998, implementation of the Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy (AFS) and the five-year (1996-2000) Northern Quebec beluga management plan continued. As in the past, activities were carried out jointly by the 14 Nunavik municipal corporations, the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Association of Nunavik, the Makivik Corporation, the Kativik Regional Government and DFO.

In 1998, the Department spent $106,005 to assign a community officer, on a seasonal basis, to the municipal corporation of each of the 14 Nunavik communities. The officers' duties included statistical monitoring of the beluga and walrus hunt, beluga sample gathering and relaying of weekly harvest data. In 1997-1998, $1,700 was allocated under the contribution agreement between DFO and the Makivik Corporation to provide expertise, tools and necessary equipment to analyse the harvested samples.

For the third consecutive year, funding was allocated under an agreement with the Kativik Regional Government. The sum of $235,000 was provided to co-ordinate the work and observation patrols of six Aboriginal fishery guardians and the planning of patrols by a multidisciplinary officer in Inukjuak employed by DFO. Under a partnership with the Kativik School Board, training was provided for a few new fishery guardians.

In the course of aerial patrols carried out each year in Nunavik, Fisheries Management Branch representatives visited all of the territory communities to meet and talk with their Inuit partners. In 1998, the Department delivered two patrol vessels to expand monitoring activities on its territory.

There were no specific Department activities on JBNQA and NEQA territory in 1998. However, the Department maintained contact with the Cree and Naskapi through the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Co-ordinating Committee.

Science Branch

In 1998, the Science Branch at the Maurice Lamontagne Institute managed to carry on a portion of its activities in Northern Quebec despite budget cuts. Activities initiated the year before at the Fish and Marine Mammals Division were continued in 1998, particularly the analysis of Hudson Bay beluga samples gathered for a population genetics study.

The Fish and Marine Mammals Division also continued its study to develop mathematical models of Northern beluga migration patterns and the migration patterns of mixed stocks, based on genetic, dispersal and hunting data. A Northern beluga information assessment report was also produced. A few meetings were held in 1998, including a meeting of representatives of DFO's Central, Arctic and Laurentian Regions to plan and co-ordinate scientific and management activities in Northern Quebec. In March 1998, a Department researcher visited Inuit villages on the east side of Hudson Bay to meet representatives of the Hunting, Fishing and Trapping Association of Nunavik.

In August 1998, a scientific team traveled to the mouth of the Nastapoka River and tried, without success, to attach satellite transmitters to the beluga. Additional beluga samples were taken during the 1998 hunt.

The Oceans Directorate, formerly the Habitat Management and Marine Environment Sciences Division, did not supervise scientific projects in Northern Quebec in 1998. However, activities are expected to start up again in 1999.

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, the Regional Science Branch spent $22,050 on activities and programs for the Inuit and $2,450 on activities and programs for the Cree.

Coast Guard

The Coast Guard continues to administer several programs and provide many services, such as protecting the public's right of navigation, protecting the marine environment, ice breaking, maintaining aids to navigation, providing telecommunications, promoting boating safety, escorting vessels, carrying out search and rescue missions, conducting medical assessments and providing supplies in the Arctic.

The Coast Guard also provides environmental emergency response services in the event of oil spills and enforces legislation with respect to response plans and oil handling facilities (OHFs) in the territory of Northern Quebec and the Lower North Shore as far as Blanc Sablon.

During the 1997-1998 fiscal year, DFO's Laurentian Region allocated a total of $367,205 to its various projects and programs in the North, including $342,705 from the Northern Quebec and North Shore Sector - Fisheries Management Branch and $24,500 from the Science Branch.

Fisheries and Oceans Canada Expenditures, Laurentian Region ($),1997-1998
  Cree Inuit Naskapi Total
Northern Quebec Marine Infrastructure Agreement n/a  n/a 
Fisheries Management Branch
Community officers expenditures n/a  $106,005 n/a  $ 106,005
Agreement with Makivik Corporation n/a  1,700 n/a  1,700
Agreement with Kativik Regional Government n/a  235,000 n/a  235,000
    342,705   342,705
Science Branch
Program expenditures 2,450 22,050 n/a  24,500
Total $2,450 $364,755 n/a  $367,205
* The amount of $1 million provided through DIAND is not included in the table.

Justice Canada

The Department of Justice, through the Aboriginal Justice Directorate, develops in partnership with Aboriginal communities and the provinces, long-term community based programming that facilitates the transfer of responsibilities for the administration of justice to Aboriginal people and encourages reductions in crime and incarceration rates.

In addition, the Directorate and its Aboriginal Justice Learning Network promote the exchange of information and ideas between mainstream justice experts and Aboriginal people and provide training tools to persons involved with the operation of community-based programs.

In 1998, although several discussions took place with the Cree, Inuit and their respective representatives, no new programs were at that time established under the Aboriginal Justice Strategy. However, the Department of Justice through the Native Courtworker Program, made the following contributions during the 1997-1998 fiscal year: Cree $47,517; Inuit $37,257; and Naskapi $8,011, for a total of $92,785.

The Canadian Food Inspection Agency

In 1998, the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA) inspected the meat produced at a commercial caribou slaughter in Northern Quebec. A team of two inspectors and a veterinarian went to Lake Mollette east of Kuujjuarapik to supervise the slaughter of caribou at temporary facilities managed by Nunavik Arctic Foods. The Agency also certified the meat for sale in interprovincial and international markets.

The CFIA and the Naskapi Band of Quebec also signed a caribou inspection service agreement. However, inspections were canceled at the request of the Naskapi because the 1998 migration route of the caribou did not allow for profitable harvesting of this resource.

The CFIA also tests for rabies in the Northern Quebec wildlife population. In 1998, specimens of biting animals or animals likely to transmit the disease were sent to the Montreal-Laurentians- Lanaudière area office of the Agency's Animal Health division for analysis in Agency laboratories. The test results were followed up by Agency staff and Quebec public health officers working in the territory covered by the agreements.


  1. These figures are supplied by the departments. (return to source paragraph)

  2. Excluding $100,300,000 paid by DIAND to settle a claim filed by the Quebec Department of Education and including $300,000 from HRDC's financial participation under the job creation strategy for the Naskapi. (return to source paragraph)

  3. Including $1 million from Transport Canada and $1 million from Fisheries and Oceans Canada for the Northern Quebec Marine Infrastructure Program, $15,000 from Environment Canada for an environmental project and $655,000 to fund the Cree-Naskapi Commission (for the 1993-1994, 1994-1995, 1995-1996 and 1996- 1997 fiscal years, CNC received respectively, $655,000, $480,000, $655,000 and $480,000 for a total of $2,270,000. These expenditures are not included in the total amounts stated in this table; financial data prior to 1993 are available at DIAND). (return to source paragraph)

  4. Calendar year. (return to source paragraph)

  5. Increases as the result of the agreements concluded in 1994 with the Cree and the Naskapi and the one concluded in 1995 with the Kativik Regional Government. (return to source paragraph)

  6. Financial data from the Department for the territory covered by the agreements for 1993-1994 was not available for the report. (return to source paragraph)

  7. Including expenditures of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Agency. (return to source paragraph)

  8. Decrease as a result of the termination of activities related to the environmental review of the Great Whale project shelved following a decision by the Quebec government. (return to source paragraph)

  9. Decrease as a result of a national moratorium placed on Aboriginal Business Canada for the fiscal year 1995-1996. (return to source paragraph)

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