Indigenous peoples and communities

"Indigenous peoples" is a collective name for the original peoples of North America and their descendants. Often, "Aboriginal peoples" is also used.

The Canadian Constitution recognizes 3 groups of Aboriginal peoples: Indians (more commonly referred to as First Nations), Inuit and Métis. These are 3 distinct peoples with unique histories, languages, cultural practices and spiritual beliefs.

More than 1.67 million people in Canada identify themselves as an Aboriginal person, according to the 2016 Census. Aboriginal peoples are:

Services and information

First Nations

There are more than 630 First Nation communities in Canada, which represent more than 50 Nations and 50 Indigenous languages.


Learn about Inuit, the Indigenous peoples of the Arctic. The word Inuit means "the people" in the Inuit language of Inuktitut.


Find out more about Métis communities in Canada.

Indigenous arts, culture and heritage

Learn about the Indigenous arts, culture and heritage that are woven into the fabric of our country.

Map room

Find a map or geospatial dataset about Indigenous communities or the North.

Renewing the relationship: Key documents

Consult the Truth and Reconciliation Commission's report, the Report of the Royal Commission of Aboriginal Peoples, and more.


Learn about support for strong, effective and sustainable governments in First Nation communities.

Success stories

Find out more about community-driven projects to improve the lives of Indigenous and Northern individuals, families and communities.

Kumik Elder Lodge

Find out how federal employees in the National Capital Region can learn directly from Indigenous Elders through teachings, guidance and advice.

Related links


Hope for wellness helpline

Available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week. Call 1-855-242-3310 or chat online at

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